Limitations Of This Scoping Review
This analysis focused on studies that specifically examined markers of primary and secondary HIV care continuum indicators, and not sexual or other related risk factors if they were not studied in association with HIV/AIDS endpoints. We considered social network analysis conceptually distinct from social capital research. While there are social network approaches to measuring social capital, we did not include social network-specific words such as egocentric nor social capital network-specific terms such as position generator, in our search terms. Nevertheless, we do not think excluding those terms would have significantly biased our findings since almost all studies contained social capital in the keywords, and thus would have been included in the initial search for title and abstract review.
List Of Countries By Hiv/aids Adult Prevalence Rate
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The human immunodeficiency virus , which causes AIDS, varies in prevalence from nation to nation. Listed here are the prevalence rates among adults in various countries, based on data from various sources, largely the CIA World Factbook.
As of 2018, 38 million people are estimated infected with HIV globally.
The HIV pandemic is most severe in Southern Africa. Over 10% of all people infected with HIV/AIDS reside within the region. Adult HIV prevalence exceeds 15% in Eswatini, Botswana, and Lesotho, while an additional six countries report adult HIV prevalence of at least 10%. Outside Africa, the highest prevalence rate is found in the Bahamas .
In absolute numbers, South Africa , followed by Mozambique , India and Nigeria had the highest HIV/AIDS number of cases by the end of 2019. While South Africa’s large population of HIV-positive people is attributable to its high disease prevalence , Nigeria’s is lower at 1.3%, with India’s prevalence rate at 0.2%. However, countries such as Nigeria with high HIV rates above 1% are classified as having Generalized HIV Epidemics by UNAIDS, while India’s prevalence is well below this threshold, with a prevalence lower than the US’s and about the same as Spain.
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The Status Of The Hiv/aids Epidemic In Sub
Senior Fellow, Futures Group International
Despite the fact that sub-Saharan Africa contains only about 11 percent of the Earths population, the region is the worlds epicenter of HIV/AIDS. The numbers are daunting. Adult HIV prevalence is 1.2 percent worldwide , but it is 9.0 percent in sub-Saharan Africa. UNAIDS estimates that at the end of 2001, there were 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 28.5 million of them from sub-Saharan African. Five million adults and children became newly infected with HIV in 2001, 3.5 million of them from sub-Saharan Africa. Three million people died from AIDS-related causes in 2001, and 2.2 million of these deaths were among sub-Saharan Africans.2
AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy at birth has plummeted in many African countries, wiping out the gains made since independence. The combination of high birth rates and high AIDS mortality among adults, including many parents, has meant that more than 90 percent of children who have been orphaned as a consequence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are in this region.2
According to UNAIDS, all the worst affected countries are contiguous to one another in the lower part of the continent. These include South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe have prevalence rates above 30 percent.4
|Total Adults and Children|
The 15 Us Cities With The Highest Rates Of New Hiv Diagnoses
A lot has changed since we last reported on the top 25 U.S. cities with the highest rates of HIV infection in 2013.
At the beginning of 2015, it was reported that 952,604 people in United States were living with HIV. According to the 2015 HIV Surveillance report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, those living with the highest rates of HIV were African-Americans, who made up 44.3 percent of all cases, followed by Latinx Americans who represent 16.4 percent of those living with HIV, Asian-Americans at 5.5 percent, then Whites at 5.3 percent.
The highest age rate was for people between 25 and 29 . People between 20 and 24 were at 31.2 percent, and those over 65 made up 18 percent .
Men accounted for 81 percent of all HIV cases in 2015 722,244 males compared to 230,360 women. For men, 70 percent of transmissions were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 11 percent to injection drug use, 10 percent to heterosexual contact, and 7 percent to male-to-male sex and injection drug use. For women, 74 percent of cases were attributed to heterosexual sexual contact, 23 percent to injection drug use, and 2 percent to perinatal transmission.
Thanks to data collected by the CDC from city and state health records, we have learned the majority of the cities that have the highest HIV rates are in southerns states. In fact, the South attributed 13 out of the top 15 cities on our list. The state of Florida has the highest HIV rates across the country.
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Hiv/aids In The United States
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV , found its way to the United States between the 1970s and 1980s, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981.Treatment of HIV/AIDS is primarily via the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs, and education programs to help people avoid infection.
Initially, infected foreign nationals were turned back at the United States border to help prevent additional infections. The number of United States deaths from AIDS has declined sharply since the early years of the disease’s presentation domestically. In the United States in 2016, 1.1 million people aged over 13 lived with an HIV infection, of whom 14% were unaware of their infection.Gay and bisexual men, African Americans, and Latino Americans remain disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States.
Key Points: Hiv Incidence
- HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 .
- , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 1324 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 , followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 .
- , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons , followed by Hispanic/Latino persons and persons of multiple races .
- , the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males was 5 times the rate for females .
- , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact
For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.
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How Edinburgh Became The Aids Capital Of Europe
In the mid-1980s Edinburgh became known as the Aids capital of Europe. A new deadly disease, cheap heroin and the hardline attitudes of the authorities were the ingredients for a public health disaster.
The disease had first surfaced in the US where it became stigmatised as the gay “plague” because it was mainly affecting homosexual men.
But in Edinburgh it was a different group whose health was causing concern – a new generation of intravenous drug users.
Heroin had hit Scotland’s capital hard and fast in the early 1980s, with the number of addicts rocketing from a few dozen to thousands.
New cheap supplies of the drug from Afghanistan and Iran led to a massive increase in injecting drug use, especially on Edinburgh’s housing schemes such as Muirhouse and Pilton.
While Glasgow had more users, it was Edinburgh where the Aids epidemic hit hardest.
And Dr Roy Robertson, a GP on the sprawling Muirhouse estate, was among the first doctors to work out why.
He made the connection between addicts’ habit of sharing needles and the city’s spiralling Aids crisis.
When the test for the HIV virus was developed in late 1985 he went back and tested blood samples that had been taken from drug users a couple of years earlier when there was an outbreak of hepatitis B.
Retrospectively testing blood samples without permission is something that might now be considered unethical but at the time it led to a breakthrough.
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Articlesocial Capital And Hiv/aids In The United States: Knowledge Gaps And Future Directions
Social capital and HIV/AIDS studies in the USA were evaluated.
54% of studies focused on HIV or AIDS diagnosis.
58% of studies found a protective association.
Operational definition of social capital and measures varied across studies.
Studies on the topic are increasing in the USA.
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Hiv In The United States
Based on the most recent information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , about 1.14 million Americans had HIV at the end of 2016. About 1 in 7 of those with the virus are unaware that they have it.
In 2018, 37,832 people received an HIV diagnosis, according to the CDC. Among those, 42% were black or African American, 27% were Hispanic or Latino, and 25% were white. Also among the new diagnoses, 69% were among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men 24% were among heterosexuals, and 7% were among people who inject drugs.
In the United States, there are five categories of laws pertaining to HIV and other STDs. As of 2018, 26 states have HIV-specific laws that criminalize behaviors that can potentially expose another person to HIV.
Descriptive Characteristics Of The Studies Identified
Table 1 summarizes the selected studies and the social capital measures used. One of the 13 studies was a qualitative analysis and the remaining 12 were quantitative. Five employed ecological designs at various geographic units such as states, ZIP codes, and Census tracts . Three studies were of the entire contiguous US , three were based on samples from the Northeast region , two from the Southern region , two from the Midwest and West , and two included samples from populations dispersed across selected states within the US .
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How A Small Town Became The Capital Of Hiv In America
Rampant drug use in Austin, Indianacoupled with unemployment and poor living conditionsbrought on a public-health crisis that some are calling a syndemic.
Jessica and Darren McIntosh were too busy to see me when I arrived at their house one Sunday morning. When I returned later, I learned what theyd been busy with: arguing with a family member, also an addict, about a single pill of prescription painkiller shed lost, and injecting meth to get by in its absence. Jessica, 30, and Darren, 24, were children when they started using drugs. Darren smoked his first joint when he was 12 and quickly moved on to snorting pills. By the time I was 13, I was a full-blown pill addict, and I have been ever since, he said. By age 14, hed quit school. When I asked where his caregivers were when he started using drugs, he laughed. Theyre the ones that was giving them to me, he alleged. Theyre pill addicts, too.
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Today, the estimated median household income in Austin is $33,000, about $15,000 less than that for Indiana. The average home is valued at $78,000, the U.S. median in 2010 being $210,000. About 8.3 percent of Austin residents are unemployed, compared with a U.S. average of 5 percent. An estimated 34 percent of working people in Austin hold manufacturing jobs and just 7 percent have a college degree. In 2013, about 25 percent of Austin residents were living in poverty.
Where Did Aids Come From
Scientists have traced the origin of HIV back to chimpanzees and simian immunodeficiency virus , an HIV-like virus that attacks the immune system of monkeys and apes.
In 1999, researchers identified a strain of chimpanzee SIV called SIVcpz, which was nearly identical to HIV. Chimps, the scientist later discovered, hunt and eat two smaller species of monkeysred-capped mangabeys and greater spot-nosed monkeysthat carry and infect the chimps with two strains of SIV. These two strains likely combined to form SIVcpz, which can spread between chimpanzees and humans.
SIVcpz likely jumped to humans when hunters in Africa ate infected chimps, or the chimps infected blood got into the cuts or wounds of hunters. Researchers believe the first transmission of SIV to HIV in humans that then led to the global pandemic occurred in 1920 in Kinshasa, the capital and largest city in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The virus spread may have spread from Kinshasa along infrastructure routes via migrants and the sex trade.
In the 1960s, HIV spread from Africa to Haiti and the Caribbean when Haitian professionals in the colonial Democratic Republic of Congo returned home. The virus then moved from the Caribbean to New York City around 1970 and then to San Francisco later in the decade.
International travel from the United States helped the virus spread across the rest of the globe.
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Data Extraction And Presentation
We extracted basic elements from each study such as the year, geographic location, stage of the HIV prevention and care continuum as conceptualized by , and social capital indicators. Measurement of social capital was grouped into three non-mutually exclusive categories: single item indicators, composite scales, and multiple item indicators. We presented descriptive analysis of those elements in a table and figures. We then reviewed each manuscript text in combination with some of the elements from the table to conduct in-depth analysis of the studies. Results from in-depth analysis included whether the studys primary purpose was to analyze social capital and HIV/AIDS or whether either was considered a secondary variable . Results from in-depth analysis also included whether studies specified continuous and or non-linear associations between social capital and the HIV/AIDS outcome, the covariates adjusted for in the studies, and whether studies included stratified analysis by demographic subgroups or marginalized and key populations , people who inject drugs , or transgender women). For qualitative and mixed methods studies, we focused on any examples of texts that described how respondents or the authors thought social capital influenced HIV/AIDS directly or indirectly. Results from in-depth analysis are discussed directly in the text and do not appear in the tables or figures.
We Are Reaching Teens Who Are Not Yet Sexually Active To Try To Get Them To Adopt Good Habitssays Patrick Sullivan Rollins Professor Of Epidemiology
Getting high-risk men to go in for testing has long been a high hurdle. Some just dont realize HIV is still such a threat. Others may be in denial. And many do not want to be linked to homosexuality or bisexuality, IV drug use, or an HIV diagnosis.
There is tremendous stigma in many black communities around being gay or bisexual or having HIV, says Patrick Sullivan, the Charles Howard Candler Professor of Epidemiology at Rollins and director of the schools Programs, Research, and Innovation in Sexual Minority Health . Some of this is wrapped up in religion and in concepts of masculinity. We did a study about perceptions of stigma around being gay, and white men reported feeling less stigma associated with their sexuality than black men.
One of Armstrongs patients had moved out of his mothers house to keep her from finding out about his HIV status. Hes been staying in transient housing, dealing with bedbugs and fleas. He said if he were to tell his mom of his diagnosis, hes afraid it would kill her, she says.
To overcome obstacles to getting tested, Emory and its partners have been working to make HIV testing routine and free in a variety of sites. Grady Memorial Hospital began opt-out HIV testing in its emergency roomyou check a box if you dont want to be tested. This testing often results in one to two new diagnoses a day and has since been expanded to 13 sites, including primary care and neighborhood clinics.
Streamlining the process
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