Life Expectancy With Hiv: How Long Can Someone Live With Hiv
The research on HIV, its symptoms and causes has been done since years, and the same is in continuation. As of now there is no cure for HIV or AIDS, but there are medications and treatment which can make the remaining life of the patient easier, and extend the duration of the patients life. As, HIV can be distinguished or categorized in three different stages, the life expectancy for different stage is different and also depends upon the infected percentage of your immune system.
As per the statistics reported from 1996-1997, an HIV positive person has a life expectancy of almost 19 years, say if the person has been found infected at the age of 20, he shall live further till he is 39-40 years old. However, there has been an immense inclination found in life expectancy since then, and as reported in the year 2011, the increased life span of 19 years was found to extend up to 53 years, where supposedly if a person is found HIV positive at the age of 20, he can live as long as 73-74 years old.
A HIV positive woman has lesser life expectancy than men, but with the advanced treatment methods, the life expectancy in the current scenario has been increased, where initially it was reported to be around 38 years old and now has been found to extend up to 49 years old. The increase in the life expectancy of a person with HIV has increased thanks to the advanced medicines and treating methods.
In The Weeds: Gaps Between Hiv+ And Hiv
While the overall gap in comorbidity-free years between people living with HIV and HIV-negative people was wide, that width varied between comorbiditiesas did the extent to which the gap size changed over time, and the effect of starting HIV treatment with a high CD4 count.
Specifically, three of the six complications exhibited a gap that closed only slightly from the 2000-2003 period to the 2014-2016 period:
- chronic liver disease: 24-year gap in 2014-2016
- chronic kidney disease: 17-year gap
- chronic lung disease: 14-year gap
The other three complications exhibited a gap that had narrowed over time, but was still substantial:
- cancer: 9-year gap in 2014-2016, improving from a 20-year gap in 2000-2003
- average age at onset in 2014-2016 was 80 among HIV-negative people vs. 71 among people living with HIV
- cardiovascular disease: 8-year gap in 2014-2016, improving from an 18-year gap in 2000-2003
- average age at onset in 2014-2016 was 82 among HIV-negative people vs. 74 among people living with HIV
- diabetes: 8-year gap in 2014-2016, improving from a 15-year gap in 2000-2003
- average age at onset in 2014-2016 was 73 among HIV-negative people vs. 65 among people living with HIV
Marcus noted that for just two of the comorbiditiescancer and cardiovascular diseasetreatment initiation at a CD4 count of 500 or higher delayed the average age of incidence and further closed the gap with HIV-negative people.
Facts About Hiv: Life Expectancy And Long
The outlook for people living with HIV has significantly improved over the past two decades. Many people who are HIV-positive can now live much longer, healthier lives when regularly taking antiretroviral treatment.
Kaiser Permanente researchers found that the life expectancy for people living with HIV and receiving treatment increased significantly from 1996 on. Since that year, new antiretroviral drugs have been developed and added to the existing antiretroviral therapy. This has resulted in a highly effective HIV treatment regimen.
In 1996, the total life expectancy for a 20-year-old person with HIV was 39 years. In 2011, the total life expectancy bumped up to about 70 years.
The survival rate for HIV-positive people has also dramatically improved since the first days of the HIV epidemic. For example,
, a person with undetectable levels of HIV in their blood isnt able to transmit the virus to a partner during sex.
Between 2010 and 2014, the annual number of new HIV infections in the United States fell by
Improving Life Expectancy For Hiv Positive People
Research showed that antiretroviral treatment dramatically increases life expectancy and should be started as early as possible, leading to a major change of approach by policy makers, clinicians and insurers across the world.
In 2002, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration – a Bristol-led initiative involving 19 cohort studies from across Europe and North America – investigated rates of AIDS and death in more than 12,000 HIV positive patients treated in high income countries.
How Many Years In Good Health
The researchers deepened the analysis to consider peoples health as they got older. They checked the Kaiser Permanente database for diagnoses, test results and prescriptions indicating chronic liver disease , chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or cancer.
They found that people with HIV live substantially fewer healthy years than people without HIV. In the period 2014 to 2016, the HIV-positive 21 year old was predicted to be living without any of the mentioned health problems to the age of 36, whereas their HIV-negative peer would do so to the age of 52.
Strikingly, this 16-year gap is the same as was found at the beginning of the study, in 2000 t0 2003.
The onset of liver disease occurred 24 years earlier for people with HIV, kidney disease 17 years earlier and lung disease 16 years earlier. Slightly more encouragingly, the gap did narrow for diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease .
Taking HIV treatment promptly, before significant damage to the immune system, did not seem to make much difference. Even if the 21 year old with HIV started treatment with a CD4 count above 500, the onset of co-morbidities was predicted for the age of 34 16 years before a person without HIV. An improvement was seen for cancer and cardiovascular disease, but not the other co-morbidities.
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Hiv: Treatment As Prevention
Early HIV testing, treatment and taking your medication as prescribed each day can help protect your partner, too. Achieving an undetectable viral load can drastically lower the risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner. This supports the undetectable equals untransmittable initiative and most people can reach an undetectable viral load within 6 months after starting ART.
Data from The Lancet in 2019 details the results of The PARTNER 1 and 2 studies and other research on the transmission of HIV in serodifferent couples, where one partner is HIV-positive and the other HIV-negative. Overall, this observational study found that the risk of transmission of HIV through condomless sex is effectively zero while the HIV+ partner is on ART and the virus remains undetectable. This association was found for both gay men and heterosexual couples.
Research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2019 from notes that viral load testing for HIV-positive patients receiving ART should occur every 3 to 4 months after the plasma HIV-1 RNA level becomes undetectable, per HHS guidelines. If the patient’s viral load and clinical status remains stable for 2 years, viral load testing can then be extended to every 6 months. Adherence to ART therapy is important to maintain the undetectable status. Viral rebound can occur within 2 or 3 weeks of stopping ART therefore, continued daily treatment is necessary.
Early Treatment To Live Longer
Antiretroviral therapy involves a combination of three or more drugs that prevents HIVfrom replicating in a bid to prevent damage to the bodys immune system. The treatment also prevents spread of the disease, by as much as 96%, as it lowers the levels of virus inside the body significantly.
The World Health Organization recommends treatment be given to people with HIV as soon as possible following diagnosis. Previous guidelines recommended treatment using thresholds based on a persons CD4 count immune cells attacked by the virus which became higher over time until current guidelines were set stating the need for immediate treatment.
The Bristol teamanalyzed data from more than 88,500 people with HIV gathered from 18 European and North American studies. They found that fewer people who began treatment between 2008 and 2010 died during their first three years of treatment than those who started treatment between 1996 and 2007.
Between 1996 and 2013, the life expectancy for 20-year-olds who started treatment increased by 10 years for women and nine years for men.
The study further projected that 20-year-old men starting therapy between 2008 and 2010 who survived the first year of treatment would live to 73, with women living on average to 76.
Life expectancy in the UK and Canada was 81 in 2014 and almost 79 in the United States, according to the World Bank.
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Calculating Life Expectancy With Hiv Or Aids
Recent research shows that a young person with HIV or AIDS could potentially live almost as long as anyone else in the general population. But this is only the case if they have routine access to health care and respond well to modern antiretroviral treatments . So a 20-year-old who starts on ARTs today, for example, might eventually live to be 67.
Keep in mind though, since there is no known cure, HIV life expectancy varies greatly from one individual to the next based on many things. This includes early detection plus, gender and lifestyle choices such as alcohol, tobacco, or drug use.
Over the past two decades, HIV life expectancy has drastically risen. What was once considered a terminal illness is now a medically manageable condition at any age. Those who abuse intravenous drugs or possess a preexisting immune disorder, however, do not fare as well.
In light of huge disparities in access to health care and ARTs, the CDC regularly publishes reports on obstacles to HIV and AIDS treatment. By 2016, it was estimated that 1.1 million people in the U.S., aged 13 or older, had HIV .
Understanding Hiv And Aids
Generally speaking, the time it takes to go from HIV infection to AIDS is around five to 10 years if no medical intervention is made. Differences in time can be due to any number of factors, including:
- The genetic strain of HIV a person living with the virus has been infected with
- The general health of the individual
- The place where the person lives
- A persons genetics or family history
- Smoking and other personal lifestyle choices
This is, of course, if the person receives no treatment. The picture changes entirely if they do.
Since 1996, the introduction of antiretroviral drugs has dramatically altered the natural progression of HIV infection. While HIV still cannot be cured, people newly diagnosed with HIV who get treated and stay in care can be expected to have near-normal to normal life expectancies. As with other chronic diseases, early detection is key to identifying and treating the virus as soon as possible.
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Causes Of Hiv Infection
HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person. This includes semen, vaginal and anal fluids, blood and breast milk.
Its a fragile virus and does not survive outside the body for long.
HIV cannot be transmitted through sweat, urine or saliva.
The most common way of getting HIV in the UK is through having anal or vaginal sex without a condom.
Other ways of getting HIV include:
- sharing needles, syringes or other injecting equipment
- transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding
The chance of getting HIV through oral sex is very low and will be dependent on many things, such as whether you receive or give oral sex and the oral hygiene of the person giving the oral sex.
Comorbidities And Healthy Aging
Because modern-day HIV medications are highly effective and well-tolerated, interventions that improve the life expectancies of people living with HIV will need to address other health conditions that may affect people living with HIV at a disproportionate rate or more severely.
Improving the health of people growing older with HIV is a critical priority, said Harris, Rabkin and El-Sadr, in an editorial published in AIDS. Older adults living with HIV may experience more severe side effects of antiretroviral medications, higher risk of kidney disease, declines in bone mineral density, peripheral neuropathy and cardiovascular disease. An estimated 6.9 million people living with HIV will be over age 50 by the year 2020.
The greying of the epidemic raises important questions regarding understanding the effect of aging on people living with HIV, the effect of HIV infection on the aging process, and optimal approaches to HIV prevention among older adults, said Harris and colleagues.
Harris, T. G., Rabkin, M. and El-Sadrr, W. M. Achieving the fourth 90: healthy aging for people living with HIV. AIDS, 2018.
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Latency Causes A Break In Symptoms
After initial exposure and possible primary infection, HIV may transition into a stage called clinically latent infection. Its also referred to as asymptomatic HIV infection due to a noticeable lack of symptoms. This lack of symptoms includes possible chronic symptoms.
According to HIV.gov, latency in HIV infection can last for 10 or 15 years. This doesnt mean that HIV is gone, nor does it mean that the virus cant be transmitted to others. Clinically latent infection may progress to the third and final stage of HIV, also referred to as AIDS.
The risk for progression is higher if a person with HIV isnt receiving treatment, such as antiretroviral therapy. Its important to take prescribed medications during all stages of HIV even if there arent any noticeable symptoms. There are several medications used for HIV treatment.
What Are The Stages & Symptoms Of Hiv
First Stage of HIV: If you are suffering from HIV since 2 to 6 weeks, then it is known as primary HIV infection or acute retroviral syndrome. Symptoms of first stage HIV subside in 1 to 2 weeks and consist of:
- Red rash.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
Second Stage of HIV: In this stage, the immune system deteriorates. Doctors name this stage as clinical latent period or asymptomatic. Although this is the acute stage in HIV, still people tend to ignore the symptoms found in the second stage, as they hardly notice any change in their body. People, who are in second stage of HIV, may live up to 10 years or more.
Third Stage of HIV: Third and last stage of HIV is AIDS. This stage comes when CD4 in the patient drops below 200. Even in the third stage, people hardly notice the presence of HIV or AIDS in their body, and hence do not consider it important to consult an expert doctor, thus putting their lives in danger. Symptoms of third stage HIV are:
- Severe and long lasting diarrhea.
- Yeast infection in your mouth and throat.
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck.
People, who are at last stage of HIV AIDS, may live up to three years. In other case, if the patient fails to notice the symptoms, and does not consult the doctor at the right time, then the life expectancy may be lesser than 3 years.
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Rash Related To Medication
While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash.
This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesnt, a change in medications may be needed.
Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious.
Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include:
- trouble breathing or swallowing
Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.
When 30 percent of the skin is affected, its called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed.
While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, its important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes.
Early Symptoms Of Hiv
The first few weeks after someone contracts HIV is called the acute infection stage.
During this time, the virus reproduces rapidly. The persons immune system responds by producing HIV antibodies, which are proteins that take measures to respond against infection.
During this stage, some people have no symptoms at first. However, many people experience symptoms in the first month or so after contracting the virus, but they often dont realize HIV causes those symptoms.
This is because symptoms of the acute stage can be very similar to those of the flu or other seasonal viruses, such as:
- they may be mild to severe
- they may come and go
- they may last anywhere from a few days to several weeks
Early symptoms of HIV can include:
- upset stomach
Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person who has them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider.
Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high. The viral load is the amount of HIV found in the bloodstream.
A high viral load means that HIV can be easily transmitted to someone else during this time.
Initial HIV symptoms usually resolve within a few months as the person enters the chronic, or clinical latency, stage of HIV. This stage can last many years or even decades with treatment.
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