Blood Types In Pregnancy
If two parents have different blood types, the mother will not necessarily have the same blood type or Rh factor as the child.
If the mother has Rh-negative blood, and the child has Rh-positive, this can pose a risk during pregnancy and delivery.
A small number of red blood cells from the fetus circulation can cross the placenta and enter the mothers bloodstream. Anti-RhD antibody can then develop in the mothers plasma, in a process known as sensitization.
A problem can arise if this antibody then detects a foreign antigen in the fetus blood cells. The antibodies may start to attack the fetus red blood cells as a defense mechanism.
In some cases, severe jaundice can result, and possibly brain damage.
An injection of anti-RhD immune globulin G can help prevent the mother from producing this antibody and reduce the impact of a sensitizing event on the fetus.
If a woman has Rh-negative blood, a doctor may administer anti-D immunoglobulin at 28 weeks and 34 weeks as a preventive measure, according to the World Health Organization .
Blood testing during pregnancy can predict possible risks by checking whether the fetus blood type is compatible with the mothers.
To discover more evidence-based information and resources for donating blood, visit our dedicated hub.
A blood test can determine an individuals blood type.
To test blood, a healthcare provider will take a small sample, usually from the persons arm.
How To Be A Hero For Babies
O negative and O positive donors who are CMV negative are known as Heroes for Babies at the Red Cross because it is the safest blood for newborns & premature babies. Since only a small number of donors are able to meet this very specific medical need, we ask eligible CMV negative donors to donate blood as often as possible throughout the year. Be a Hero for Babies!
Mike Healey is just one grateful Dad who benefited from these heroes and then became a hero himself! His son Braden was born premature after a traumatic pregnancy and immediately needed blood. Mike vowed to pay it back by donating blood and has donated 56 times since then.
Then after becoming a donor, Mike discovered that he is CMV negative. His blood can go to babies who are in the neonatal intensive care unit just like his son was years ago. I feel this is now my calling, he said.
Premature babies all over the country need this very special type of blood.
Please donate blood if your blood is tested and found to be CMV negative, we will reach out! You could be the one who makes a difference in the life of a babies like Braden. Learn more about how you can be a Hero for Babies.
What Are The Disadvantages Of O Positive Blood Group
Evidence shows that Type O individuals may be more likely to develop peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori bacterium than other blood types, and that type O women may have more risk of fertility problems, with greater risk of having lower egg count and poorer egg quality than women who are type A, B or AB.
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A Closer Look At Blood Group O
To assess blood group with regards to risk of acquiring infection, the company restricted the data to individuals with a high probability of exposure, such as health care professionals, essential workers and individuals with close contact with known cases. The trend in results reflected the original dataset, with the reporting of a positive COVID-19 test being 3.2% for blood group O, 3.9% for A, 4.0% for B and 4.1% for AB.Blood type O showed a protective effect against both acquiring , and being hospitalized for the infection . The protective effect of acquiring the infection strengthened in models restricted to the exposed population .In percentages, in the entire population, individuals with blood group O were 9-18% less likely to test positive when compared to other groups. “Exposed” individuals with blood group O were 13-26% less likely to test positive.The research study is still ongoing, and enrolment can be completed online. In a press release the company says: “Ultimately, we hope to publish our research findings in order to provide more insight into COVID-19 for the scientific community.”
What Is The Universal Donor Blood Type
Donors who are AB-negative are the universal platelet and plasma donors because these blood components can be transfused to any patient.
Donors who are O-negative are the universal blood type O-negative red blood cells are compatible with all other blood types. This means that in critical emergencies when there is no time to confirm a patients blood type O-negative blood can make a lifesaving difference.
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Is The Risk Of Hiv Different For Different Groups
HIV can affect anyone regardless of sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or where they live. However, certain groups of people in the United States are more likely to get HIV than others because of particular factors, including the communities in which they live, what subpopulations they belong to, and their risk behaviors.
Communities. When you live in a community where many people have HIV, the chance of being exposed to the virus by having sex or sharing needles or other injection equipment with someone who has HIV is higher. You can use CDCs HIV, STD, hepatitis, and tuberculosis Atlas Plus to see the percentage of people with HIV in different U.S. counties and states, as well as other data. Within any community, the prevalence of HIV can vary among different subpopulations.
Subpopulations. In the United States, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men are the population most affected by HIV. According to CDC, of the 30,635 new HIV diagnoses in the U.S. in 2020, 68% were among gay and bisexual men.a By race/ethnicity, Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos are disproportionately affected by HIV compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Also, transgender women who have sex with men are among the groups at highest risk for HIV infection. People who inject drugs remain at significant risk for getting HIV as well.
Visit our U.S. Statistics page for more information on how HIV affects different populations.
Blood Types And Population
- Not all ethnic groups have the same percentage of blood type combinations. The mix of blood types varies by ethnic group.
- At two percent, Hispanics have the lowest percentage of AB positive. Asians, at seven percent, have the highest percent of AB positive blood types.
- Hispanics have the highest percentage of O positive blood at 53 percent. Caucasians have the lowest percentage of O positive blood.
- Overall, the most common blood type is O positive.
- Matching both ethnic background and ABO blood type can at times provide a closer blood match. This can reduce the chance of a reaction in some cases and help in the treatment of certain ethnic specific conditions, such as sickle cell disease.
How is My Blood Type Determined?
- A person’s blood type is determined by a combination of two genes, one from each parent.
- Blood typing is not enough to determine paternity.
- A child whose parents both are type A, the child will potentially be a type A or a type O. If both parents are a type B, than he will be either a type B or an O.
- When one parent is a type A and the other a type B, the child may have any of the four blood types.
- When one parent is a type AB and the second parent is either AB, A, or B, the child will be a type AB, A or B.
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How To Learn What Blood Type You Have
The best way to learn what blood type you have is by giving a blood sample. You can ask your healthcare professional to check for your blood type during regular blood testing, or you may find out this information when donating blood. There are even at-home test kits you can purchase.
Its not uncommon to not know your blood type. But this key piece of information can be important to know in case of an emergency, like the need for a blood transfusion.
What We Know About Injecting Silicone
Silicone injections can be done safely by a health care provider, but sometimes people inject silicone with friends or acquaintances at parties. Theres a chance that someone can get or transmit HIV if an HIV-negative person uses needles, syringes, and other injection equipment after someone with HIV has used them. This is because the needle, syringe, or other injection equipment may have blood in them, and blood can carry HIV. Likewise, youre at risk for getting or transmitting hepatitis B and C if you share needles, syringes, or other injection equipment because these infections are also transmitted through blood.
More information:More information:
More information: Hepatitis B and C are viruses that infect the liver. Many people with hepatitis B or C dont know they have it because they dont feel sick. Even if you dont feel sick, you can transmit the virus to others. The only way to know for sure if you have hepatitis B or C is to get tested. Your health care provider will recommend a hepatitis B or C test if you have risk factors for these infections, such as injection drug use. If you dont have a health care provider, click here to find contact information for your local health department.
If a person with HIV takes their HIV medicine as prescribed and gets and keeps an undetectable viral load , their chance of transmitting HIV through sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment is reduced.
Explore other resources from CDC:
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Abo And The Most Common Blood Types
The ABO blood group system classifies blood types according to the different types of antigens in the red blood cells and antibodies in the plasma.
They use the ABO system alongside the RhD antigen status to determine which blood type or types will match for a safe red blood cell transfusion.
There are four ABO groups:
Group A: The surface of the red blood cells contains A antigen, and the plasma has anti-B antibody. Anti-B antibody would attack blood cells that contain B antigen.
Group B: The surface of the red blood cells contains B antigen, and the plasma has anti-A antibody. Anti-A antibody would attack blood cells that contain A antigen.
Group AB: The red blood cells have both A and B antigens, but the plasma does not contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Individuals with type AB can receive any ABO blood type.
Group O: The plasma contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, but the surface of the red blood cells does not contain any A or B antigens. Since these antigens are not present, a person with any ABO blood type can receive this type of blood.
What Are Blood Types
But thats not where it ends. Your blood also contains antigens, which are proteins and sugars that sit on red blood cells and give blood its type. Though there are at least 33 blood typing systems, only two are widely used. These are the ABO and the Rh-positive/Rh-negative blood group systems.
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What Blood Types Are More Resistant To Hiv
According to medical evidence, there are people who are at a greater risk of HIV infection than others. This can be attributed to genetic mutation that brings about the HIV resistance factor.
The first genetic mutation associated with HIV susceptibility was identified in the mid-1990s. Known as the CCR5-Delta32mutation, it seems to confer strong resistance to infection by HIV. This gene mutation is found most commonly in certain European populations. That is possible because it was also associated with resistance to other diseases such as smallpox or the Bubonic Plague.
What this simply means is that there are some people who might have been exposed to the HIV virus and never got infected. It is not a chance to take when it comes to protecting yourself from the virus but it is a fact that should be known.
In early 2009, a paper was published announcing that another genetic mutation may also confer some level of resistance to HIV. This mutation affects the level of expression of a protein known as Pk. Pk is found on the surface of several types of blood cells. In particular, its found on a wide range of cells that are susceptible to HIV infection. This small study found that cells with high levels of Pk were significantly harder to infect with HIV than cells with no Pk. The same scientists have also published a study showing that individuals with a condition that increases their levels of Pk seem to be resistant to one type of HIV.
Detailed Information About O
As already mentioned, this blood group means absence of all of the three major antigens on the red blood cells. It is important to note that there is no “O” antigen on the blood cells. The absence of antigens A and B is referred to as O blood group.
This blood group is relatively rare and its prevalence varies among different races. Around 7-8% of the Caucasian population will have it. However, only 1% of the Asian population will have it. Overall, around 5% of the world’s population will have this kind of blood. So if you belong to this group, the following aspects will need your special attention.
A woman with O-negative blood may have Rh incompatibility issues if she is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus. Complications are likely to occur in second pregnancy with an Rh positive fetus if adequate preventive measures are not taken.
However, adequate prophylactic treatment is available and it almost always prevents the complications if taken at proper schedule. The treatment involves injecting the mother with antibodies against the Rh antigen during pregnancy and at the time of delivery of baby.
O-negative blood group is the “universal donor” blood group. This means that a person with any blood group can receive O-negative blood. This is very important in emergency situations when a person requires immediate blood transfusion and there is no time to test his/her blood group. Such person can be transfused an O-negative blood.
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The Pk Protein And Hiv Resistance
In early 2009, a paper was published announcing that another genetic mutation may also confer some level of resistance to HIV. This mutation affects the level of expression of a protein known as Pk. Pk is found on the surface of several types of blood cells. In particular, it’s found on a wide range of cells that are susceptible to HIV infection.
This small study found that cells with high levels of Pk were significantly harder to infect with HIV than cells with no Pk. The same scientists have also published a study showing that individuals with a condition that increases their levels of Pk seem to be resistant to one type of HIV.
Interestingly, this genetic resistance has played an important role in functional cure research. The case of the Berlin patient involved a man who was given bone marrow cells from someone with the CCR5 mutation. Combined with antiretroviral treatment, this therapy seems to have eradicated the virus from his system. The virus even seemed to have been eradicated from his viral reservoir.
Universal Donor And Universal Recipient
O negative blood contains no A, B, or RhD antigens. Almost anyone with any blood type can receive these red blood cells. A person with group O negative blood is a universal donor.
- A person with O-negative blood can donate to almost anyone.
- A person with Rh-negative blood can donate to a person with Rh-negative or Rh-positive blood.
- A person with Rh-positive blood can only donate to someone with Rh-positive blood.
As a result, there is a high demand for O negative blood, even though fewer than 10% of the U.S. population has this type.
The rules for plasma are the opposite of those for Rh. A universal plasma donor will have type AB blood.
life-threatening reactions and complications.
If someone with group B antigen receives red blood cells from someone with group A antigen, their body will launch an immune response and reject the transfusion. The anti-A antibody in the recipients plasma will attack and destroy the A antigen donor red blood cells.
When the recipients plasma attacks and destroys the donor cells, the blood may clump, or agglutinate. This can lead to blood clots, which can obstruct blood vessels. If they break, hemoglobin can leak out, and this can be toxic.
Other possible adverse effects include allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. In some cases, the body can cope, but others can be life-threatening.
Some reactions occur at once, while others can take up to 28 days to appear.
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What We Know About Less Common Ways That You Can Get Hiv From Syringe Use
The risk for getting or transmitting HIV is very high if an HIV-negative person , other injection equipment with someone who has HIV. Its also possible to get HIV from tattooing or body piercing if the equipment has someone elses blood in it or if the ink is shared. The risk of getting HIV from tattooing or body piercing is higher when the person doing the procedure doesnt have a license. That person may be more likely to use unsafe practices like sharing syringes or ink. There are no known cases in the United States of anyone getting HIV this way.
More Information On average, an HIV-negative person has a 1 in 420 chance of getting HIV from a needlestick if the needle or syringe contains HIV-infected blood.
More InformationThere may be extremely tiny amounts of blood in syringes or works that you may not be able to see, but could still carry HIV. Be aware that HIV can survive in a used syringe for up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors.