Tuesday, October 4, 2022

Can Dried Blood Transmit Hiv

Conditions By Which Hiv Can Survive

HIV Dried Blood Spot Testing – St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney Australia

If HIV were to survive outside of the body for more than a few minutes, it could only do so under these specific environmental conditions:

  • Colder temperatures: Temperatures below 39 degrees Fahrenheit are considered ideal for HIV to thrive. By contrast, HIV does not do well at room temperature and continues to decline as it reaches and exceeds body temperature .
  • Ideal pH: The ideal pH level for HIV is between 7.0 and 8.0, with an optimal pH of 7.1. Anything above or below these levels is considered unsuitable for survival.
  • Dried blood: HIV can survive in dried blood at room temperature for up to six days, although the concentrations of virus in dried blood will invariably be low to negligible.
  • No UV exposure: HIV survives longer when is not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. UV light quickly degrades viral DNA as well as the lipids that make up the virus’ shell, rendering it incapable of attaching to and infecting other cells.

Even given these parameters, there has yet to be a documented case of infection by means of a discarded syringe in a public place.

In 2008, the largest retrospective study investigating child needlestick injuries concluded that not one case of HIV occurred following contact with a discarded needle.

Moreover, in 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could only confirm one infection by means of a needlestick injury since 1999, and that case involved a lab researcher who was working with a live HIV culture.

How Long Can Hiv Live Outside Of The Body

Human immunodeficiency virus has created such an intense fear of infection in some that it extends well beyond the fear of sexual transmission. In fact, some people remain convinced that you can get HIV by coming into contact with an object or surface on which there may be HIV-infected blood or semen.

After all, it would seem reasonable to suggest that the more blood or semen there is, the longer the virus can survive outside of the body. And, in turn, if the virus is able to survive, it surely has the potential to infect, right?

How Do You Get Hiv From Semen Or Vaginal Fluid

Body fluids including semen and vaginal secretions can contain HIV. If a person has HIV and a detectable viral load, HIV can passed on to someone if their semen or vaginal secretions get into the body of a sexual partner during vaginal or anal sex.

If a man has HIV and a detectable viral load, one of his body fluids where the virus is found is his semen.

If he has a detectable viral load and his semen gets into the body of his sexual partner during sex, then HIV can get into the other persons bloodstream.

Pre-cum also contains HIV this is why there is a risk of infection even if a man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates.

If a woman has HIV and she has a detectable viral load, one of her body fluids where the virus is found is in her vaginal secretions.

If these come into contact with a penis during sex, then HIV could be transmitted. The virus in her secretions can enter through the delicate skin of the penis or foreskin.

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Can Dry Blood Transmit Hiv

Posted By Claudia on Aug 16, 2019 |

As the stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS decreased in past years due to a rise in education about the disease, there still remains some questions and uncertainties regarding its transmission. Poor hygienic practices in certain places like medical establishments have long been proven to increase the risk of HIV. Thats why the health protocol to keep their instruments clean must be strictly implemented in order to protect the health and well-being of people.

Exploring Hiv Transmission Rates

Does The Hiv Virus Live In Dried Blood

World Health Organization , about 36.7 million people worldwide lived with HIV as of 2016. Still, thanks to antiretroviral therapy , people with HIV are leading longer, better quality lives. Many of these strides have been made in the United States.

To help reduce the risk of transmission, its important to understand how the virus is spread. HIV is only transmitted through bodily fluids, such as:

  • blood
  • semen
  • breast milk

Learn which type of exposure is most likely to transmit the virus and how antiretroviral drugs are making a difference.

, direct blood transfusion is the route of exposure that poses the highest risk of transmission. While uncommon, receiving a blood transfusion from a donor with HIV may increase the risk.

The CDC also discusses HIV transmission risk in terms of how many times the virus is likely to be transmitted per 10,000 exposures. For example, for every 10,000 blood transfusions from a donor with HIV, the virus is likely to be transmitted 9,250 times.

Since 1985, however, blood banks have adopted stricter screening measures to identify blood with HIV. Now all blood donations are carefully tested for HIV. If they test positive, theyre discarded. As a result, the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion is very low.

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How Long Does Hiv Live Outside The Body

Overview

There are many myths and misconceptions about how long HIV lives and is infectious in the air or on a surface outside the body.

Unless the virus is kept under specific conditions, the true answer is not very long.

Although it causes a serious disease that cant be cleared by the body, HIV is very fragile in the outside environment. It quickly gets damaged and becomes inactive, or dies. Once inactive, HIV cant become active again, so its the same as if its dead.

Hiv In Dry Blood Answers From Doctors Healthta

Background: Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus by the millions of HIV-infected individuals is a rare event, even when infected blood and exudate is present. Saliva of viremic individuals usually contains only noninfectious components of HIV indicating virus breakdown. Objective: To determine whether unknown HIV inhibitory mechanisms may explain the almost complete absence. So contact with dried blood, semen, or other fluids poses little risk. Tiny amounts of HIV have been found in saliva , poop , sweat, and tears. But research shows it poses little risk Any effect HIV has on menstruation is likely to relate to long-term, chronic infection. Can HIV be transmitted via contact with menstrual blood? Menstrual blood touching intact skin poses no HIV transmission risk. If it comes into contact with broken skin or is swallowed, then HIV transmission is possible but still unlikely

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How Long Does Hiv Live Outside The Body In The Environment

HIV cant survive for long in the environment. When fluid leaves the body and is exposed to air, it begins to dry up. As drying occurs, the virus becomes damaged and can become inactive. Once inactive, HIV is dead and no longer infectious.

Some research show that, even at levels much higher than usually found in the bodily fluids and blood of people with HIV, 90 to 99 percent of the virus is of being exposed to air.

However, even though exposure to the environment can inactivate the virus, at least several days , even as the fluid dries.

So, can you get HIV from a surface, such as a toilet seat? In short, no. The amount of active virus that would be able to transmit an infection in this scenario is negligible. A case of transmission from a surface has never been reported.

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hiv transmission: what three fluids can transmit hiv ?

However, HIV virus cannot stay for long outside the human body and as soon the blood carrying HIV virus dries, the virus also dies. Thus, until and unless your non-intact skin comes in contact with fresh blood from HIV infected person, you shouldn’t get worried Are you asking if you can get infected with a needle that has infected dry blood on it? if so to answer ur question, No. The virus dies within hours of exposure to air and when the blood dries out. I would be more worried about hep C and B than HIV. HIV dies as quickly when exposed to air. Hep B can live for 10 days in dried blood and becomes infectious again as soon as the dried blood is rehydrated

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Living With The Disease

Although there is no cure for HIV or AIDS, its no longer the death sentence it once was. There is now antiretroviral therapy that is the treatment for those living with HIV. It can help to control the growth of the virus and improve quality of life.

While there has certainly been an increase in education and awareness regarding HIV, there are still some questions surrounding its transmission by a good portion of the public. Having such knowledge will eliminate ignorance and help to keep people healthy.

Occupational Exposure To Bloodborne Pathogens

Occupational exposure means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infected materials that may result from the performance of an employees duties.

Exposure incident means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that results from the performance of an employees duties. Examples of non-intact skin at risk include skin with dermatitis, hangnails, cuts, abrasions, chafing, or acne.

Occupational groups that have been widely recognized as having potential exposure to HBV/HCV/HIV include, but are not limited to, healthcare employees, law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency response, and public service employees.

The compliance directive of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, CPL 2-2.69, may be consulted for guidance. For more information or assistance, contact a Department of Labor and Industries consultant in your area. Check the blue government section of the phone book for the office nearest you.

Test Your Learning

Answer: d

Bloodborne Pathogens

Blood and OPIM

Bodily fluids that have been recognized and linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to which Standard Precautions apply, are:

  • Blood
  • Amniotic fluid
  • Saliva in dental procedures
  • Specimens with concentrated HIV, HBV and HCV viruses

Exposure Control Plan

Bloodborne Pathogens Training

Online Resource

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Mother To Child Transmission

Having HIV does not mean a woman cant have a healthy baby. The key is to work with a doctor to take all the necessary precautions.

Aside from blood and sexual secretions, HIV can also be transmitted during pregnancy or through breast milk while breastfeeding. Mother to child transmissions can also occur at any point during pregnancy, as well as during delivery.

All pregnant women should be screened for HIV. Antiretroviral therapy is strongly recommended for pregnant women with HIV to achieve viral suppression. This will subsequently reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby during pregnancy and labor. Sometimes a caesarean delivery is recommended to reduce transmission during delivery if the infection is not suppressed.

Its also important to protect the baby after birth. Breastfeeding might not be recommended in some cases, though consistent viral suppression may reduce the transmission of HIV through breast milk. A doctor may also recommend that the baby take antiretroviral therapy for up to six weeks after birth.

Overall, great strides have been made in decreasing HIV transmission between mothers and infants due to improved screening and use of anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy.

In the United States, the

Effective Barriers Against Hiv

Dried blood spot HIV testing

There are many effective barriers that prevent infection.

Skin: Skin is an excellent barrier against HIV, unless there is an open cut or open wound. Infectious fluid on skin is NOT a route for infection.

Mucous membranes in the mouth, throat and stomach: These membranes are good barriers against HIV infection, so long as there are not cuts, ulcers or sores.

Saliva: Saliva contains proteins and a low salt content that actively reduce its infectiousness. Even when HIV is detected there is too little to cause infection. HIV is not transmitted by kissing including deep kissing. Spit cannot transmit HIV.

Air: HIV is not transmitted by air.

Latex and rubber: Condoms prevent infection from HIV and many other sexually transmitted infections.

Many sexual situations have no risk of transmitting HIV.

These include masturbation , kissing and deep kissing, receiving oral sex and vaginal or anal sex using a condom correctly.

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Specimen Collection And Testing

HIV screening procedures are described elsewhere . Oral fluid was collected using a flocked swab rubbed twice in the buccal sulcus between the top and bottom teeth and gums and inserted into a 2-mL cryovial. Swabs were transported within 60 minutes of collection to the UW Retrovirology Laboratory and immediately placed on dry ice until they could be stored at -80° C. Based on our preliminary work , HIV-1 NAAT had lower yield when performed on saliva compared to oral mucosal surface fluid collected as described here.

Dried blood spots were collected through fingerstick whole blood specimens into a 50L microcollection pipette and dispensed onto a DBS card . DBS were allowed to dry undisturbed for 24-72 hours at ambient temperature and were placed into a foil packet with desiccant pouch and humidity indicator card .

Frozen specimens from all HIV-infected participants, including antibody-positive and antibody-negative persons, were selected for batch testing after enrollment was complete. An equal number of specimens from HIV-negative participants were tested to blind laboratory staff to HIV status.

One DBS was excised using a laser cutter and soaked in 2.5 mL lysis buffer with agitation for two hours. The lysate then was quantified using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the result was corrected for a dilution factor of 50 to give an estimated HIV-1 RNA copies/mL of blood .

How Hiv Can Spread

The most common ways people contract HIV in the United States are through sharing equipment when injecting drugs and having anal or vaginal sex without barrier contraceptives. Anal sex poses a higher risk than vaginal sex, as there is a greater chance of tissue damage.

Although it is less common, HIV may pass to an infant during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.

In extremely rare cases, HIV may spread if blood comes into contact with an open wound. There is a chance of this occurring if partners engage in open-mouth kissing, and both have bleeding gums or open sores within the mouth.

However, saliva that does not contain blood cannot transmit HIV. People cannot get HIV from closed-mouth or cheek kissing.

People can reduce or eliminate the chance of contracting HIV by using barrier contraceptives or taking preventive HIV therapy, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis .

PrEP is a pill that a person can take once a day to minimize the chance of contracting HIV. It may be helpful for those who:

  • have a partner with HIV
  • have a partner with an unknown HIV status
  • have multiple partners

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How Does Hiv Spread

HIV spreads when blood or certain bodily fluids that have high amounts of active virus are exposed to ones bloodstream.

For a person to contract HIV, there must be enough active virus in the fluid that encounters the bloodstream. This can occur through:

  • a mucous membrane, or moist skin, such as in the mouth, rectum, penis, or vagina
  • a significant opening in the skin
  • injection

Transmission of the virus most often happens during anal or vaginal sex, but it can also occur by sharing needles.

Factors that affect the survival of HIV outside the body include:

  • Temperature. HIV stays alive and active when kept in the cold but is killed by heat.
  • Sunlight. Ultraviolet light in sunshine damages the virus, so its no longer able to reproduce.
  • Amount of virus in the fluid. Generally, the higher the level of HIV virus in the fluid, the longer it will take for all of it to become inactive.
  • Level of acidity. HIV survives best at a pH around 7 and becomes inactive when the environment is even just a little more or less acidic.
  • Environmental humidity. Drying will lower the viral concentration of active virus as well.

When any of these factors arent perfect for HIV in its environment, survival time of the virus goes down.

How Long Does Hiv Survive Outside The Body

Is it possible to transmit HIV through saliva?

In general, the virus doesnât live long once itâs outside of a human body. Studies show that HIV grown in the lab, when placed on a surface, loses most of its ability to infect — 90% to 99% — within several hours. And the level of virus tested was much higher than whatâs found in bodily fluids. So contact with dried blood, semen, or other fluids poses little risk.

Tiny amounts of HIV have been found in saliva, poop, sweat, and tears. But research shows it poses little risk.

The virus canât survive in water, so you donât have to worry about swimming pools or hot tubs.

One study found HIV can live in used needles for over a month if the temperature and conditions are just right. That means sharing needles or syringes, like during drug use, raises your risk of infection.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Hiv/aids

HIV can be detected in several fluids and tissue of a person living with HIV. It is important to understand however, that finding a small amount of HIV in a body fluid or tissue does not mean that HIV is transmitted by that body fluid or tissue. Only specific fluids from an HIV-infected person can transmit HIV. These specific fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the blood-stream for transmission to possibly occur.

In the United States, HIV is most commonly transmitted through specific sexual behaviors or sharing needles with an infected person. It is less common for HIV to be transmitted through oral sex or for an HIV-infected woman to pass the virus to her baby before or during childbirth or after birth through breastfeeding or by prechewing food for her infant. In the United States, it is also possible to acquire HIV through exposure to infected blood, transfusions of infected blood, blood products, or organ transplantation, though this risk is extremely remote due to rigorous testing of the U.S. blood supply and donated organs.

For more information, see: How safe is the blood supply in the United States?

For more information on latex condoms, see “Male Latex Condoms and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.”

In women, the lining of the vagina can sometimes tear and possibly allow HIV to enter the body. HIV can also be directly absorbed through the mucous membranes that line the vagina and cervix.

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