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Can Hiv Affect The Brain

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Can Hsv Affect The Brain

Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain . Common symptoms include headache, fever, drowsiness, hyperactivity and/or general weakness.

How does HSV-1 enter the brain?

CNS infection with HSV-1 via the olfactory pathway: HSV-1 can infect the ends of olfactory neurons nerve-racking the nasal epithelium and gain access to the CNS by retrograde axonal transport through the neurons until it reaches the bulb olfactory in the brain.

Can HSV-1 cause neurological problems?

HSV-1 infection of the CNS can cause HSE, a serious inflammatory disease of the brain which causes 70% mortality in untreated patients and up to 30% mortality associated with a high incidence of neurological sequelae in patients treated with antivirals.

Who Is At Risk

The risk of cognitive problems increases as you get older. Because of genetic factors, you are at greater risk if a close family member has had cognitive impairment or dementia. Women are at greater risk.

Having any of these health conditions puts you at increased risk: raised cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis , stroke or transient ischaemic attack . Having previously had depression increases the risk of cognitive impairment later in life.

The lifestyle factors mentioned in the previous section are also important.

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What Are Hiv And Aids

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS . HIV attacks the immune system by destroying specific white blood cells called CD4 positive T cells that are vital to fighting off infection. The resulting shortage of these cells leaves people infected with HIV vulnerable to other infections and diseases, and additional complications.

AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. A person infected with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when he or she has a dangerously low number of CD4+ T cells as well as one or more opportunistic infections, such as some types of pneumonia or tuberculosis, that do not typically affect people with healthy immune systems.

Although HIV infection and AIDS primarily affect the immune system, they also disturb the nervous system and can lead to a wide range of severe neurological disorders, particularly if HIV goes untreated and progresses to AIDS. Many of the most severe neurological conditions can be prevented with antiretroviral therapy. However, even individuals who receive this treatment can develop less severe neurological and cognitive difficulties.

What Are The Long Term Effects Of Hsv

Cognitive Problems Associated With HIV  SQ Online

Severe disease In immunocompromised people, such as those with advanced HIV infection, HSV-1 may present with more severe symptoms and more frequent recurrences. Rarely, HSV-1 infection can also lead to more serious complications such as encephalitis or keratitis .

Should I date someone with hsv1?

If you have recently found out that you have herpes, or if you have recently found out that you are considering dating someone who has HSV-1 or HSV-2, it is essential that you stay positive. With the right combination of medication, conversation, and understanding, it is still very possible to form and maintain normal romantic relationships.

Is HSV-1 contagious without an outbreak?

HSV-1 is highly contagious. You can spread the virus even if you dont have cold sore symptoms, although youre usually more contagious when you have them.

What happens if HSV-1 is left untreated?

Besides these cold sores, HSV-1 is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis . And although this brain infection is very rare, it kills more than 50% of those infected if left untreated, according to the National Institutes of Health.

What happens when you get HSV-1 in your brain?

Where does the herpes simplex virus spread in the brain?

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Initial Causes Hiv Positive And Memory Loss

There are several different causes of memory loss. Some cause this condition in the young, while others may be more gradual. If you notice that your memory is weakening, its important to consult a medical professional. Whether the cause is mental illness, age, or a combination of factors, its important to seek treatment as soon as possible. People with extensive memory loss may have social difficulties and anxiety, which can lead to depression. They may be afraid they are letting their loved ones down, which can lead to anxiety and depression. Hiv Positive and Memory Loss

Fortunately, there are many causes of memory loss, and many of them are treatable. However, if you are experiencing serious memory problems, you may need medical treatment. If you have been undergoing any type of medication, you should consult with your doctor. Some people have other underlying conditions that may be causing their loss of memory. Alcohol abuse, sleep deprivation, or other mental health conditions can cause memory problems. You should seek out a medical professional if you suspect youre suffering from any of these conditions.

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Next Steps For Aids Dementia

If you have AIDS dementia complex, you should have regular and frequent visits with your health care provider. These visits allow repeat testing to monitor your condition, review of symptoms, and adjustments to treatment if needed. The visits also permit the health care provider to assess whether your care is appropriate.

Persons with advanced dementia may require inpatient care in a nursing home or similar facility.

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Where Can I Get More Information

For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesBethesda, MD 20892

NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.

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Encephalitis (âBrain Inflammationâ?) Signs and Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

Eating a healthy diet is an excellent memory loss remedy. It should consist of fruits and vegetables, as well as whole grains and low-fat proteins. Avoid alcohol and drugs, which can also cause confusion and memory loss. Its important to follow your doctors recommendations, and review your medications regularly. If you suspect a medical condition, you may want to consult a medical professional for a diagnosis and treatment. This way, a physician can prescribe the right medication. Can Hiv Cause Memory Loss

Eating a healthy diet is an effective memory loss remedy. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve your memory. A balanced diet can also help you to retain information longer. Try to consume at least five servings of these foods a day. The berries contain anthocyanins and flavonoids, which can be very helpful in fighting memory loss. A study of 16,000 women found that those who ate more berries were less likely to suffer from cognitive decline. Turmeric root contains a substance called curcumin, which is found in high concentrations. This compound is a powerful antioxidant that has anti-inflammatory effects.

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What Research Is Being Done

Within the Federal government, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , a component of the National Institutes of Health , supports research on the neurological consequences of HIV and AIDS. NINDS works closely with its sister agencies, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Mental Health , to fund research related to HIV and AIDS. The Office of AIDS Research coordinates AIDS research across NIH.

NINDS conducts research into how the weakened immune systems of individuals with AIDS lead to neurological illnesses. NINDS investigators are studying the JC virus, which can reproduce in the brains of people with impaired immune systems and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy . In one small NINDS study, the anti-cancer drug pembrolizumab showed promise in slowing or stopping the progression of PML. Additional research is needed to confirm results, which could lead to new investigations that help revolutionize treatment for similar chronic infections in immune compromised individuals.

Many individuals whose infection is successfully suppressed with cART experience a reactivation of the virus upon stopping treatment. Researchers are studying how a reservoir of inactive HIV is maintained in the brain. This research is a first step toward developing a means to render the virus permanently dormant or even to rid the brain of all traces of the virus.

Hiv Effects On The Skeletal System

People who have the virus tend to lose bone faster than people who donât. Your bones may get brittle and can break more easily. Your hips, especially, may hurt and feel weak.

Things that might cause this include the virus itself, the inflammation it causes, the medicines you take to treat HIV or related illnesses , and an unhealthy lifestyle. It might also be from a vitamin D deficiency, which is common in people who have HIV.

To help keep your bones in good shape:

  • Make sure you get plenty of calcium and vitamin D.
  • Exercise in ways that put weight on your bones, like walking or lifting weights.
  • Don’t smoke, and limit how much alcohol you drink.
  • Ask your doctor to check your vitamin D level.

Talk to your doctor about supplements or other medications to help your bones.

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Aids Dementia Exams And Tests

In a person who’s known to have HIV infection, cognitive, behavioral, or motor symptoms suggests that the person might have ADC. It’s important to consider, however, other possible causes of these symptoms, such as metabolic disorders, infections, degenerative brain diseases, stroke, tumor, and many others. Your healthcare provider will carry out an evaluation to determine the cause of your symptoms. This will likely include a medical interview, physical and mental status exams, CT or MRI scans, neuropsychological testing, and, possibly, a spinal tap.

Imaging Studies

CT scan and MRI may detect changes in the brain that support the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex. Brain changes in ADC worsen over time, so these studies may be repeated periodically. Importantly, these scans help rule out other potentially treatable conditions such as infection, stroke, and brain tumor.

A CT scan or an MRI gives a detailed, 3-dimensional picture of the brain. These scans can show brain atrophy that is consistent with ADC as well as changes in the appearance of different parts of the brain.

Lab Tests

No lab test confirms the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex. If you have lab tests, they serve to rule out conditions that might cause similar symptoms. You may have blood drawn for multiple tests.

Electroencephalography

Neuropsychological Testing

Testing assesses cognitive abilities such as:

  • Abilities to carry out various tasks and follow instructions

Can Neurological Complications Develop In Individuals Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy

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Even when HIV is well controlled with ART, many infected individuals still develop HIV-associated neurological and cognitive difficulties. This is because many drugs used to combat HIV cannot cross the protective layer called the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, and even those that can may not completely control the virus in the brain. Antiretroviral drugs can also become toxic after long-term use and cause neurological side effects.

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Biomarkers And Findings From Neuroimaging

Assessing older PLWH with cognitive impairment when they show signs of AD, HAND or both remains a significant challenge. Validated pathophysiological biomarkers represent a clinical imperative, if we seek to more accurately monitor the diagnosis, progression and treatment of the disease. Moreover, the identification of a quantitative laboratory-based biological marker, which preludes ANI and identifies a preclinical stage, would open up treatment avenues for the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and likely has the greatest impact on outcome. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between HIV, HAND and AD will help unlock research avenues and treatment possibilities. For example, antiamyloid and other therapies used for MCI and AD may also prove effectiveness in older PLWH however, HIV infection is invariably exclusionary for clinical trials testing new therapeutics.

Amyloid PET neuroimaging represents an efficacious tool for distinguishing the putative neuropathologies of HAND, whether this is HIV-related, amyloid-related, or both. Few studies have utilized this tool to date, with those that have reporting no amyloid depositions in individuals with HAND, however, the oldest individual scanned was 67 years old. Longitudinal studies, with older aged, and aged-matched, HIV-positive patients are required to better define interactions between HIV and AD.

Outlook For Aids Dementia

In people who already have advanced HIV and ADC, combination ART will likely result in some improvement in symptoms. If there is no response to ART, the outlook may be poor. For some, the dementia worsens over a period of months until the person is no longer able to care for himself. He or she becomes bedridden, unable to communicate, and dependent on others for care.

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Facts On Dementia Due To Hiv Infection

Decline in mental processes is a common complication of HIV infection .

  • Although the specific symptoms vary from person to person, they may be part of a single disorder known as AIDSdementia complex, or ADC. Other names for ADC are HIV-associated dementia and HIV/AIDSencephalopathy.
  • Common symptoms include decline in thinking, or cognitive, functions such as memory, reasoning, judgment, concentration, and problem solving.
  • Other common symptoms are changes in personality and behavior, speech problems, and motor problems, such as clumsiness and poor balance.
  • When these symptoms are severe enough to interfere with everyday activity, a diagnosis of dementia may be warranted.

AIDS dementia complex typically occurs as CD4+ count falls to less than 200 cells/microliter. It may be the first sign of AIDS. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy , the frequency of ADC has declined from 30-60% of people infected with HIV to less than 20%. HAART may not only prevent or delay the onset of AIDS dementia complex in people with HIV infection, it can also improve mental function in people who already have ADC.

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Taking Care Of Yourself

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Experiencing the symptoms of an HIV-associated neurocognitive condition can be confusing and even frightening. One of the most important things you can do is ask for help. Do not be afraid to start a conversation with your health care provider, family, or close friends about any symptoms you may be experiencing that involve your thinking, behavior, or coordination. Seeking medical help early to find out what is causing the problem and starting treatment, if needed, is very important. People with severe HAND may need to go to a full-time assisted living facility for their own safety and well-being.

Taking effective HIV drugs to keep the virus under control is also necessary. However, people with central nervous system problems may need extra help remembering to take their medications. This is where support from family and friends may come in. You can also ask your health care provider and local AIDS service organization for help. Finally, taking your HIV drugs regularly may be the best way to treat and prevent HIV-associated brain problems.

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What You Can Do Yourself

TAKE YOUR MEDS CORRECTLY

You should take the right number of pills at the right time of day as prescribed. You can use a pillbox organizer, set an alarm on your phone or elsewhere, or ask someone to remind you to take your meds. This is particularly important for your HIV meds. Adhering to your HIV treatment will lower your HIV viral load and reduce the risk of brain problems.

BRAIN GAMES

Some people try to maintain their brain skills by doing crossword puzzles or brain teasers. But according to Harvard Health, There is some evidence that challenges like playing a musical instrument or learning another language have more benefits than repetitive exercises like crossword puzzles. Although brain-training programs are a multi-million-dollar industry, there is no conclusive evidence that any of them improves memory or reasoning ability. We dont know whether playing brain games is helpful. Getting together with family and friends to play cards may be as good.

PLAN FOR THE FUTURE

You can indicate your future wishes about your health and finances through a living will and a healthcare proxy. You should provide these documents to your lawyer, family members, and the person you designate to make your decisions. Keep your copy somewhere you can easily get to in case you need it in an emergency.

BACKGROUND

CAUSE

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

Neurological Complications Of Hiv Infection

Patrick CK LI

Neurological complications affect a significant proportion of HIV-infected individuals and are important causes of death and morbidity. With progressive deterioration in immune function, the brain and nervous system become susceptible to a range of opportunistic infections and tumours. The most commonly encountered OIs are cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus disease, toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and primary central nervous system lymphoma . In addition, HIV can directly affect the nervous system and cause HIV-associated dementia , distal sensory peripheral neuropathy , myopathy and vacuolar myelopathy. Following the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy with resultant immune restoration, the incidence of the various OIs and tumours as well as HAD has significantly decreased. However, the patients may develop Immune Reconstitution Disease with paradoxical deterioration of neurological symptoms and signs during the first few weeks after initiation of HAART. Side effects from antiretroviral agents and drugs for treatment of OIs may likewise affect the nervous system. In addition, long-term HAART may lead to metabolic disturbances which can increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease.

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