Heavy Protein Loss Via Urine
When heavy protein loss takes place in the urine, patients deal with abnormal kidney functions. Heavy protein loss in human urine i.e. more than 0.3 grams in one day with its accompanying fluid retention implies nephritic syndrome. This syndrome leads to further reduction in the albumin concentration in the human blood. We know that albumin plays a prime role to maintain the level or volume of blood present in blood vessels. Hence, protein excretion causes reduction in the actual amount of fluid present in blood vessels. Kidneys then identify the depletion of exact volume of blood and hence, put efforts to retain the salt. Thus, fluid moves within the interstitial spaces and causes water retention. Protein loss in the urine takes place in specific kidney problems and thereby, leads to the edema development. In this situation, doctors go for biopsy of the patients kidneys to diagnose the type of kidney problem and thereby, give the right treatment.
Risk Factors In Women
Women are particularly susceptible to urinary tract infections because their urethra is shorter, meaning the infection can spread throughout the urinary tract more easily. Additionally, the anal and urinary openings of a woman are in closer proximity, increasing the risk of bacteria spreading between the two.
In addition to the above, women are also susceptible to the following risk factors for UTIs:
- Sexual intercourse can contribute to the spread of genital or anal bacteria, especially with a new sexual partner when the rate of sexual activity is typically higher. However, UTIs are not a sexually transmitted disease
- Spermicides and birth control methods which use spermicides can affect the natural balance of healthy bacteria within the vagina
- Antibiotics can also alter the natural bacterial balance within the vagina
- Diaphragms can place pressure on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s urethra, resulting in the possibility of the bladder not emptying properly
- Pregnancy. As the uterus grows in pregnancy, it can put added weight on the bladder, leading to the possibility of the bladder not emptying properly
- Menopause can cause hormonal changes which affect the vaginaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural bacterial balance
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More Common Side Effects Of Biktarvy
Biktarvy can cause certain side effects, some of which are more common than others. These side effects may be temporary, lasting a few days or weeks. But if the side effects last longer than that, bother you, or become severe, be sure to talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
These are just a few of the more common side effects reported by people who took Biktarvy in clinical trials:
These side effects may be temporary, lasting a few days or weeks. But if the side effects last longer than that, bother you, or become severe, be sure to talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
Note: After the Food and Drug Administration approves a drug, it tracks and reviews side effects of the medication. If you develop a side effect while taking Biktarvy and want to tell the FDA about it, visit MedWatch.
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Kidney Infection And Stomach Pain
If you have kidney infection, typically the infection will cause burning sensation or pain when you pee. Sometime pain may also be felt in other areas of the body.
For instances, stomach pain can also be one of the symptoms of the infection. Typically, it is felt in the lower abdomen. You may also have pain in your back, your side , or around genitals .
Your abdominal pain is likely to be associated with kidney infection if you also experience other symptoms of the disease. These include:
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The Bottom Line On Weight Gain Following Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Initiation
Dramatic increases in weight following the initiation of integrase inhibitors, especially dolutegravir or bictegravir, is a thorny problem that may prevent the use of these otherwise excellent HIV therapies. Black women seem to be at greatest risk of excess weight gain, but white women and men of all races are not immune.
The etiology of the weight gains seen in ADVANCE and other studies is not clear. The small metabolic study that found no changes in caloric intake or metabolic rate supports the contention weve heard from many of our patients experiencing weight gain on antiretrovirals: They affirm that they have not changed their diet or activity level, yet they are putting on pounds.
That particular study looked at treatment-naïve patients. A similar investigation among those with viral suppression switching to dolutegravir or bictegravir would further help us understand how diet and metabolism changes do or do not factor into excess weight gain.
Given the differences weve seen among disparate subgroups, it is highly likely that there are genetic influences on the amount of weight people gain on certain HIV therapies.
It is also notable that levels of efavirenz were not measured to correlate with the host genotypes.
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Nutritional Considerations For The Child Who Is Receiving Art
Successful viral suppression and immune restitution with ART can reverse losses in weight and linear growth. Children who gain weight rapidly with ART and adequate nutrition should be reassessed frequently and ARV dosages revised as needed . The recurrence of growth failure and severe malnutrition that is not due to food insufficiency in children receiving ART may indicate treatment failure, non-adherence to ARVs, or an OI.
Currently available data are insufficient to determine whether ART ameliorates micronutrient deficiencies and further research is required in this field.
Caregivers should be counselled as to potential food interactions with prescribed ART and how to alleviate any drug-related gastrointestinal side-effects. Nutrition counselling and support should aim to enable caregivers to provide a balanced diet that meets energy, protein and micronutrient needs. This should include referral to food programmes and micronutrient supplementation to rectify deficiencies.
Kidney Function And Kidney Disease
The primary task of the kidneys is to maintain the fluid balance in the body. They accomplish this task through increasing or decreasing the amount of fluid excreted in the urine. Electrolytes like sodium and potassium are an important component of fluid management. When you eat or drink liquids, the fluid eventually makes its way to the kidneys. A complex mechanism of fluid and electrolyte transfers, mediated by hormones and other chemicals, results in the movement of fluid into the kidneys and bladder, from which the urine is excreted. Kidney disease damages these mechanisms.
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Wine And Weight Gain The Truth Unveiled
1. Wine contains empty calories!
Wine is an alcoholic beverage. And One gram of alcohol contains 7 calories. The more you drink the more calories you consume! Plus, it does not have any other nutrient content. Thus, it is often referred to as empty calorie.
Two glasses of red wine totals about 250 calories. This means two glasses of red wine already met the calorie needs for the day. Hence any extra calories will be stored as fat.
2. A sluggish metabolism
Wine can weigh down the metabolism. And slow metabolism leads to weight gain. Research says that alcohol particularly decreases fat burn in the belly. This explains the concern over wine and waistline.
Also, alcohol tends to have negative effects on diabetic patients. It first causes a drop in sugar level followed by a sudden spike. These fluctuations in blood sugar level can be harmful to diabetic patients.
3. Wine A poison!
Alcohol is identified as a toxic substance by the body. Hence, it cannot be stored in the body. The body will prioritize wine digestion over the other foods.
This slams the breakdown of protein, carb and fats. Thus, these nutrients end up stored than used as fuel.
4. The Yearn for food
Wine, like any other alcoholic beverage, can increase the yearning for food. It is proven to cloud judgements and make impulsive unhealthy choices. Pairing a glass of wine with cheese and pizza is the main culprit for weight gain.
5. Spoilt sleep
Explanations For Weight Gain
The study authors suggest that the trend towards greater weight gain with newer regimens may be a consequence of better gastrointestinal tolerability and less nausea associated with integrase inhibitors and TAF. Although there is some evidence that dolutegravir might interact with a hormonal signalling system that influences calorie intake and energy use, more research is needed to determine if this explains the association between the drug and weight gain.
However, the strongest association detected in the study was between low CD4 count and weight gain, suggesting that weight gain represents a ‘return to health’ phenomenon in this group of people. Advanced HIV disease causes weight loss and increases metabolic demands, so stopping viral replication will lead to lower energy requirements and subsequent weight gain if food intake stays the same or increases.
Analysis of trials in which people with suppressed viral load switch medications might disentangle the extent of ‘return to health’ weight gain and weight gain associated with new drugs, the authors suggest.
The study authors note that greater weight gain in black women needs to be considered in the context of a higher prevalence of obesity in black women living with HIV.
In an accompanying editorial commentary, Dr Sara Bares notes that future studies should look at calorie intake and make more efforts to recruit women, especially black women, if we are to learn more about the drivers of weight gain.
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Will I Need To Use This Drug Long Term
Yes, Genvoya is meant to be used as a long-term treatment. If you and your doctor determine that Genvoya is safe and effective for you, youll likely take it long term.
You shouldnt stop taking Genvoya without first talking with your doctor, especially if you have HIV and hepatitis B virus . This is because stopping Genvoya can worsen your HBV. Genvoya has a
Weight Gain In Participants Initiating Art
In pooled analyses, the 96-week median weight gain was 2.0 kg , with the greatest rate of weight gain occurring during the initial 48 weeks . Through 96 weeks, 48.6%, 36.6%, and 17.3% of participants had at least 3%, 5%, and 10% weight increase from baseline, respectively. Weight gain was not observed in all participants 30.2% lost weight. The proportion of participants in overweight and obese BMI categories increased over time .
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How Long Does It Take To Work
Genvoya starts working right away to treat your HIV. But it may take time for Genvoya to reach a consistent level in your body.
Your doctor will likely monitor your HIV levels every couple of weeks to make sure the drug is working for you. But with any HIV drug, including Genvoya, it can generally take 24 to 48 weeks to reach an undetectable HIV viral load. This means having a virus level thats so low it cant be measured by HIV tests. Having an undetectable viral load decreases your risk for infections. It also lowers the risk of HIV spreading to another person.
If youre interested in learning about the half-life of Genvoya, ask your doctor or pharmacist. A drugs half-life is the amount of time it takes your body to remove half a dose of the medication from your system.
Research On Weight Gain With Genvoya
Recent studies have suggested that newer HIV treatments, including ones that contain integrase strand inhibitors such as bictegravir, dolutegravir or elvitegravir, may be linked with weight gain in patients living with HIV. Elvitegravir is one of the medicines found in Genvoya.
A 2019 meta-analysis published in Clinical Infectious Diseases reported on weight gain with INSTIs. Investigators looked for an association between demographic factors, antiretroviral therapy , disease-specific variables, and weight gain in previously untreated people living with HIV. The group included roughly 5,600 patients who received treatment between 2003 and 2015. The study population was 88% male and 62% white.
Drugs evaluated included:
- tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine and or the newer formulation tenofovir alafenamide
- INSTIs such as dolutegravir, elvitegravir and bictegravir
- atazanavir and ritonavir
When looking at all treatments, researchers found each study group showed some weight gain. The overall median weight gain of 2 kg occurred primarily in the first year of treatment in 12.8% of treatment-naïve patients. Over a 2 year period, 17.3% of participants gained weight but 30.2% had weight loss.
Statistically significant risk factors linked to weight gain included:
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Why Do People Gain Weight
The reasons for weight gain after starting treatment are unclear. Several explanations have been proposed.
One explanation is that weight gain is a result of immune recovery. Long-term viral infection depletes fat stores. When people recover from famine or severe infection, body fat stores are replenished. Weight gain may represent a restoration of weight to what it might have been, had the person not been living with HIV for a number of years . However, weight gain may overshoot in people more prone to obesity for dietary or genetic reasons. Studies show that people with more advanced HIV disease gain more weight, as do people who were underweight before starting treatment.
Another theory is that integrase inhibitors might cause weight gain through effects on the hormonal system which governs appetite regulation, leading to increased food intake . But a laboratory study by one of the drugs manufacturers found that the amount of any integrase inhibitor needed to interfere with the normal activity of this system would be far greater than the drug concentrations achieved from normal doses of integrase inhibitors .
Furthermore, one study found that people did not eat more after starting treatment nor did they experience a reduction in metabolic rate . Another study found that substantial weight gain after four years of treatment was largely attributable to higher pre-treatment weight and lower physical activity, not increased food intake .
Weight Loss Tips For Wine Drinkers
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Muscle Building And Endurance
Ayurvedic doctors also recommend ashwagandha to treat weight loss that is associated with low levels of testosterone in men. However, ashwagandha has not been put to the test in clinical trials as a muscle-building aid, Singh notes. A 1994 “Journal of Ethnopharmacology” study on mice found the rodents subjected to a swimming regimen and given ashwagandha gained more muscle weight than rodents that did not receive the herb. Mice given ginseng also gained more muscle weight than rodents not given herbs, but ginseng was not as effective as ashwagandha for weight gain, notes lead study author A. Grandhi. Mice given both herbs had significant gains in endurance, as well.
Does Wine Help Weight Loss
There is a lot of buzz that crown wine as a magical potion for weight loss.
I would like to stop you right there.
Because most of these studies published are done on animals.
Also, Many studies have quoted that wine might help in weight loss. The International Journal of Obesity states that resveratrol in wine can help in weight loss.
Resveratrol is a polyphenol present in red wine. This is thought to be the element that causes weight loss.
But there is a flip side too!!!
These researches consider just one element in the composition of wine.
Wine contains calories too. Plus, it increases the yearning for food and impairs healthy decision-making capacity.
All these factors result in more harm than good. When the wine is consumed frequently and in high amounts it can cause weight gain!
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Genvoya And Other Medications
Below is a list of medications that can interact with Genvoya. This list does not contain all drugs that may interact with Genvoya.
Before taking Genvoya, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Tell them about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also, tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.
If you have any questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Genvoya and other antiretroviral medications
Genvoya is an antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV. Antiretroviral drugs work by lowering the levels of HIV in your body.
Genvoya is a complete HIV treatment regimen. This means that the drug isnt taken with other HIV treatments. For this reason, possible interactions between Genvoya and other antiretroviral drugs havent been studied.
If you have any questions about using other HIV medications while taking Genvoya, talk with your doctor.
Genvoya and certain drugs whose breakdown is affected by it
Taking certain other drugs with Genvoya may make the other drugs less effective at treating the conditions theyre used for. Genvoya can increase the activity of enzymes that break these drugs down in your body. This could lower the levels of these drugs in your blood.
Examples of these drugs include:
- ethinyl estradiol
Examples of these drugs include:
Genvoya and certain drugs that affect its breakdown
Strategies For Managing Weight Gain In Hiv Patients
There was a time when HIV infection was related to wasting syndrome, but today patients face a different challenge, one that is common among all U.S. adults as they live longer livesfending off weight gain.
Managing weight gain and the health risks it poses are important considerations for people with HIV because antiretroviral therapy can affect a patients weight, according to John R. Koethe, MD, an associate professor of infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, in Nashville, Tenn. Of HIV patients who started ART between 2003 and 2015, 17% gained at least 10% in body weight, with most of that occurring in the first four years. Nearly half of patients receiving ART experienced at least a 3% weight gain .
Were finding that a lot of people are gaining weight around the viscera, or the abdominal organs, and that can lead to problems like diabetes and hyperlipidemia down the road, said Dr. Koethe, who also is a co-author of the analysis.
Another explanation could be that newer classes of ART drugs, including integrase strand transfer inhibitors , are less likely to suppress appetite or cause gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, than older regimens. For example, the comparison drug used in many of the studies showing weight gain with INSTIs was the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, Dr. Koethe said.
Strategies for Weight Management
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