What Are The Long
Weight gain soon after starting treatment in people who were previously underweight reduces the risk of death. This is an example of the return to health effect.
However, in the long term, weight gain in people with normal body weight prior to treatment may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes .
People living with HIV are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the general population. This increased risk is especially pronounced in women and younger people.
The ADVANCE study found that weight gain was associated with a small projected increase in the risk of developing type 2-diabetes over ten years, but the overall risk remained low . The same study did not find an increased risk of cardiovascular disease as a result of weight gain.
Obesity and diabetes are risk factors for the development of neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV.
Stage : Acute Hiv Infection
Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, about two-thirds of people will have a flu-like illness. This is the bodys natural response to HIV infection.
Flu-like symptoms can include:
- Swollen lymph nodes
These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. But some people do not have any symptoms at all during this early stage of HIV.
Dont assume you have HIV just because you have any of these symptomsthey can be similar to those caused by other illnesses. But if you think you may have been exposed to HIV, get an HIV test.
Heres what to do:
Barriers To Monitoring And Treating Weight Gain And Related Complications
Both WLHIV and health care providers in HIV clinics pointed to challenges in recognising and monitoring weight gain and associated co-morbidities. While most facilities had scales, recording of patient weight was inconsistent. The lack of equipment and resources, especially in lower-level facilities, was widely identified, for example, frequent stock-out of glucose test kits meant health workers were not able to check for baseline diabetes before initiation, as mandated by the treatment guidelines, nor monitor the blood sugar level of patients.
at times we may go without kits for testing random blood sugar, so were not able to get to the bottom of their weight gain.
Health care providers described having to refer patients who presented with weight gain to higher level hospitals and private providers, which brought financial cost to patients. Women reported having to buy drugs from out-of-pocket to manage side effects experienced from DTG use, When I had the diabetes the doctor prescribed medicine for me worth shs.200,000, shs.150,000, shs.300,000. I could not afford it. I waited for about 2 weeks until my relatives bought it for me. Whenever the dose is getting finished, I get worried .
Further, low staff ratio and related high workload were noted to affect effective vigilance for weight gain issues. Some providers said they were unable to spend as much time as the would have liked with HIV patients that led to them missing important side effects.
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The Myth: Hiv And Weigh Loss
Years ago, when HIV showed up, doctors and scientists didn’t understand much about it. Back then, they considered “wasting”– severe weight loss– a symptom of HIV infection. We have since learned more and know wasting is something that really only happens when someone has the most advanced stage of HIV infection, AIDS. Luckily, today’s treatments work very well and prevent HIV from turning into AIDS for those who start treatment early which also prevents risk of wasting / weight loss to those extremes. Hooray!
So, when does this HIV weight loss begin? It doesn’t, really. Major weight loss is more likely to occur in those with untreated or severe disease. While your weight might change a little bit, there are many reasons why this might happen.
Here are a couple reasons why you might still experience some weight loss:
Why Do Hiv Patients Lose Weight
July 3, 2011, shiela,
Why Do HIV Patients Lose Weight?
HIV or human immunodeficiency virus is a dangerous infection because it can lead to AIDS. HIV patients often suffer from flu, fever, headache, or fatigue. By suffering these symptoms, patients might experience lower resistance and weak immune system.
If a person suffers from HIV, the infection progresses depending on the complication and the kind of infection. One thing is obvious with HIV patients. They lose weight. It is reported that people with HIV might lose 10 percent of the total weight and gaining the normal weight is difficult to do. HIV patients lose weight because their immune system is frail. They also have no appetite to eat. If a person doesnt have the appetite to eat, then not enough nutrition will be taken in by the body. Food is important to achieve good health. The nutrients from the food supply energy, protein, and vitamins needed by our blood. A person suffering from HIV doesnt usually eat complete meal so this will make them weak and might suffer from other disease. They dont have enough nutrients to combat the diseases and other infections. HIV patients may also suffer from diarrhea which is also one main reason of weight loss.
HIV patients must be considered as ordinary people who also want to live and stay happy. They must not be adjudged as dirt of the society. They need food and basic needs just what other ordinary people need.
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Is It Ever Ok To Lose Weight When Living With Hiv
Wider introduction and use of ART has been linked to increased weight gain and cases of overweight and obesity in people living with HIV.
Those with overweight and obesity may have a higher body mass index and a higher ratio of BMI to visceral fat, a type of body fat stored in the abdominal cavity. It wraps around vital organs such as the pancreas and liver.
Compared to the general population, having this ratio combined with HIV may raise the risk for health issues such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers.
For instance, data from 2016 found that for every 5 pounds someone with HIV gains, the risk for diabetes goes up by 14 percent, compared to 8 percent in the general population.
For those with overweight or obesity and HIV, losing weight may improve overall health and lessen the risk of some health issues.
Metabolic And Hormone Changes
HIV can raise resting energy expenditure or the number of calories burned at rest.
Low calorie intake is one of the main reasons for HIV weight loss, but REE can hasten weight loss.
Hormone levels can also influence metabolism, and HIV may alter levels of hormones needed to maintain weight and grow and repair muscles. These include:
- thyroid hormones
- growth hormones and factors
Those with hypogonadism may also be prone to weight loss. This occurs when the sex glands make little to no sex hormones, such as testosterone.
Low testosterone levels may result in the slowing of protein synthesis, or the creation of proteins in the body, causing a decrease in LBM.
High levels of cytokines or cell proteins may also induce inflammationas a way to incite the immune response. The body responds by making more fats and sugars but less protein, leading to reduced LBM.
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Importance Of Food Safety And Hygiene
The reduced immunity that HIV and AIDS can cause may make a person more susceptible to foodborne illnesses.
Germs in food and water may cause infections that last longer and are more serious in a person with impaired immunity.
Therefore, in addition to eating nutritiously, anyone with impaired immunity may wish to take extra precautions when cooking and eating.
The VA offers the following recommendations:
- Wash the hands with soap and water before and after preparing food and eating.
- Keep countertops and utensils clean.
- Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables with clean water.
- Avoid eating packaged foods if the expiration date has passed.
- Instead of thawing food at room temperature, thaw it in the microwave or refrigerator.
- Cook fish, poultry, and meat until well done, which is 165â212Â°F . Use a meat thermometer to check the temperature.
- Do not eat sushi or unpasteurized dairy products.
- Do not eat eggs that are not thoroughly cooked, such as those that are fried over easy or soft-boiled.
- Avoid eating leftovers that are more than 3 days old.
A person living with HIV or AIDS and impaired immunity may also consider using only boiled water for cooking and drinking.
Food hygiene tips
To manage difficulty swallowing, individuals can take the following steps:
Muscle Building And Endurance
Ayurvedic doctors also recommend ashwagandha to treat weight loss that is associated with low levels of testosterone in men. However, ashwagandha has not been put to the test in clinical trials as a muscle-building aid, Singh notes. A 1994 Journal of Ethnopharmacology study on mice found the rodents subjected to a swimming regimen and given ashwagandha gained more muscle weight than rodents that did not receive the herb. Mice given ginseng also gained more muscle weight than rodents not given herbs, but ginseng was not as effective as ashwagandha for weight gain, notes lead study author A. Grandhi. Mice given both herbs had significant gains in endurance, as well.
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How Is Biktary Used
Biktarvy, from Gilead, is an oral, 3-drug combination tablet used to treat immunodeficiency virus type 1 . It contains the integrase strand transfer inhibitor bictegravir 50 mg, along with 200 mg of emtricitabine and 25 mg of tenofovir alafenamide , both HIV-1 nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors .
Biktarvy was FDA-approved in Feb. 2018 as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and children weighing at least 25 kg :
- who have no antiretroviral treatment history or,
- to replace the current antiretroviral regimen in those who are virologically-suppressed on a stable antiretroviral regimen with no history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated with resistance to the individual components of Biktarvy.
Biktarvy is taken once a day, every day, with or without food.
Three integrase inhibitors are currently approved for use in the US for people living with HIV:
Elvitegravir as a single agent was discontinued from the U.S. market in 2016.
Maintaining A Healthy Weight
Whether you are losing or gaining weight, remember that your medication is essential. To stay healthy, its super important that you take it. If you feel you are having trouble maintaining a healthy weight due to your medication, talk to your doctor. There are different types of medicine, so potentially, you could switch to something that works a little better with your body. It might be that simple.
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Working With A Nutritionist Helps
Whether you need to gain or lose weight, itâs helpful to work with a nutritionist to plan a diet that provides the number of calories and nutrients you need every day. In addition, try to exercise as much as possible, as this will help build and strengthen your muscles.
If you need to gain weight, you may be more comfortable eating six small meals throughout the day rather than three larger meals. Adding supplements, like Ensure, is one way to add concentrated calories and protein to your meal plan.
If you need to lose weight, a healthy dietone that is low in fat and high in whole grains, fruits and vegetables, plus lean protein and seafoodis a great approach that will also reduce your risk of heart disease and diabetes.
And if you are already at a healthy weight, researchers have found that a low-cholesterol diet could help you avoid the caused by some antiretroviral drugs.
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Special Eating Needs For People Living With Hiv/aids
A person who is infected with HIV/AIDS and is not showing signs of illness does not need a specific HIV-diet. However, those infected with HIV should make every effort to adopt healthy and balanced nutrition patterns in order to meet their increased protein and energy requirements and maintain their nutritional status.
Once people with HIV/AIDS become ill they will have special needs, which are described below.
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Can Hiv Cause Weight Loss
24 Apr 2022
- Written by Dr. Patricia Shelton on April 25, 2022
Patients who have HIV may experience a variety of symptoms of the virus. One fairly common symptom is weight loss. Whats the connection between HIV/AIDS and weight loss? What factors might lead to weight loss in a person with HIV? Is there anything that an HIV-positive person can do to help prevent weight loss?
A Sexually Transmitted Infection
Katie Salerno/Flickr Creative Commons
Contracting other sexually transmitted diseases can significantly increase the risk of getting HIV. For instance, some STDs like syphilis and herpes cause skin lesions that make it easier for HIV to enter the body.
STDs may also cause inflammation, which is something that is triggered by the bodyâs immune system. HIV preferentially infects defensive white blood cells, so when there are more of them around, itâs easier to contract HIV.
Having an STD like gonorrhea or syphilis means that youâve engaged in unprotected sex, a key risk factor for HIV. So if you have been diagnosed with an STD, talk to your healthcare provider about how you can reduce your HIV risk.
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Manage Stress And Sleep
Ongoing stress can raise your cortisol levels. Thatâs a hormone linked to increased hunger, belly fat, and obesity. A lack of sleep — less than 7 to 9 hours a night — can do a similar thing. Tell your health care team if you have trouble sleeping or managing your stress. You can make some behavioral changes to improve both. Theyâll set you up with a specialist who can teach you how.
âLife is crazy, and itâs not always going to be stress-free with perfect sleep,â Matthews says. âBut itâs important to prioritize those things if weight loss is your goal.â
Obesity Among People Living With Hiv
AIDS.gov| November 19, 2009
In the U.S., as we move into the holiday season there is often increased reporting on obesity. HIV.gov asked Dr. Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone, a Research Physician with the Naval Medical Center San Diego, to provide us information on her new study of obesity in HIV-infected persons. Research has shown, HIV-infected persons are now are increasingly overweight or obese. Below is what she told us.
Obesity among HIV-infected persons: Impact of Weight on CD4 Cell Count
Since the availability of highly potent HIV medications in the mid-1990s, HIV-infected persons are less often suffering from wasting, but rather they now are increasingly overweight or obese. Prior studies have shown that obesity leads to negative health consequences in the general population including heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. We performed our study to evaluate if obesity could have additional health consequences among HIV-positive persons, specifically if obesity could affect their immune systems, as measured by their CD4 cell counts.
We evaluated over 1,000 HIV-infected persons as part of the US Military Natural History Study conducted at 7 HIV Clinics across the U.S. Participants of our study had known dates of HIV infection and had data on both weight measurements and immune cells over time. Statistical methods to evaluate the relationship of weights over time with changes in the CD4 counts included linear mixed effects models.
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Rise In Lipid Levels With Taf
There are a number of studies showing that TDF-containing regimens oftentimes improve lipid levels by decreasing total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while TAF-containing regimens increase these levels. Higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol can promote plaque buildup in arteries, which can lead to coronary artery disease, stroke and other health problems.
In the DISCOVER study, which compared Descovy to Truvada for PrEP, triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels increased at 48 weeks for people taking Descovy compared to no change or a decrease in people taking Truvada. Decreases were seen in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol .
Other studies have compared the lipid levels of people living with HIV taking TAF-containing or TDF-containing treatment regimens or switching from a TDF-containing regimen to a TAF-containing regimen.
Anobservational study conducted in Spain compared the lipid profiles of people on Genvoya or Stribild for HIV treatment over 48 weeks.
Lipid levels increased from baseline among people taking Genvoya while remaining stable among people taking Stribild after 48 weeks of treatment. A higher percentage of people taking Stribild also had total cholesterol levels and LDL levels out of range after 48 weeks of treatment. Six people in the study discontinued Genvoya due to changes in lipid levels, and lipid levels returned to normal levels after returning to treatment that included TDF.
Wine And Weight Gain The Truth Unveiled
1. Wine contains empty calories!
Wine is an alcoholic beverage. And One gram of alcohol contains 7 calories. The more you drink the more calories you consume! Plus, it does not have any other nutrient content. Thus, it is often referred to as empty calorie.
Two glasses of red wine totals about 250 calories. This means two glasses of red wine already met the calorie needs for the day. Hence any extra calories will be stored as fat.
2. A sluggish metabolism
Wine can weigh down the metabolism. And slow metabolism leads to weight gain. Research says that alcohol particularly decreases fat burn in the belly. This explains the concern over wine and waistline.
Also, alcohol tends to have negative effects on diabetic patients. It first causes a drop in sugar level followed by a sudden spike. These fluctuations in blood sugar level can be harmful to diabetic patients.
3. Wine A poison!
Alcohol is identified as a toxic substance by the body. Hence, it cannot be stored in the body. The body will prioritize wine digestion over the other foods.
This slams the breakdown of protein, carb and fats. Thus, these nutrients end up stored than used as fuel.
4. The Yearn for food
Wine, like any other alcoholic beverage, can increase the yearning for food. It is proven to cloud judgements and make impulsive unhealthy choices. Pairing a glass of wine with cheese and pizza is the main culprit for weight gain.
5. Spoilt sleep
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