Oral Transmission In Natural Hosts
SIV natural hosts are African non-human primates who develop non-pathogenic SIV infection in the wild without progression to AIDS. These natural hosts include sooty mangabeys, African green monkey, mandrill, and many others. Key features of SIV infection of natural hosts include: high viremia , normal peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts , lack of microbial translocation despite significant loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells , and lack of immune activation during chronic infection . These studies have led to a working hypothesis that the lack of disease progression in natural hosts is due to a lack of chronic immune activation .
We propose three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain the restriction of breast milk SIV transmission in natural hosts: lower levels of SIV in natural host breast milk than those observed in pathogenic infections, a relatively non-permissive breast milk and/or gastrointestinal microenvironment, with lower immune activation and the presence of innate and adaptive inhibitory factors, and insufficient target cells for establishment of infection in the natural host infant. To date, no definitive studies have yet been performed that test one hypothesis while controlling for all other potential confounding factors , but a preponderance of data suggests target cell restriction in the infant GI tract is a defining feature of natural hosts that limits MTCT.
Oral mucosa immune activation and HIV susceptibility
How Can You Prevent Getting Or Transmitting Hiv Through Sex
There are several ways to prevent getting or transmitting HIV through anal or vaginal sex.
If you are HIV-negative, you can use HIV prevention medicine known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis to protect yourself. You can also use other HIV prevention methods, below.
If you have HIV, the most important thing you can do to prevent transmission and stay healthy is to take your HIV medicine , every day, exactly as prescribed. People living with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. Read more about Treatment as Prevention. There also are other options to choose from, below.
Does It Matter If I Get Pre
HIV can be acquired through both cum and precum, though if you have healthy teeth and gums its not a problem getting it in your mouth. HIV needs an entry point to be transmitted, so you may want to avoid getting these fluids in your mouth if you have bad gingivitis, an STI in the throat or other sores in the mouth. Its recommended to wait at least half an hour after brushing or flossing your teeth as well, to keep that risk low.
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K So Is There Ever A Big Risk
Here are some factors that could raise your risk of getting or transmitting HIV:
- Viral load. If youre living with HIV, you know that viral load refers to how much HIV is in a specific amount of your blood. HIV meds and treatments can help you lower your viral load. A high viral load increases your chance of transmitting HIV to your partner.
- Giving or receiving? The risk of transmission is highest when the person with HIV is on the receiving end. Thats because the giver could have a small cut or sore in their mouth that would increase their risk of contracting the virus.
- Ejaculation. Lots of cum during oral sex could increase your risk of spreading the virus, but it would need to be combined with other risk factors.
- Scratches, cuts, or sores. Any opening to your or your partners bloodstream can be a path for HIV transmission. For example, if youre HIV-positive and have mouth sores, theres potential for blood-to-fluid contact.
- Period sex. Blood = higher risk of transmitting HIV.
- Urethritis. An irritated urethra increases your risk of contracting or transmitting HIV. Its best to hold off on sexy times until the inflammation and infection pass.
Cool, so the risk of HIV transmission from oral sex is next to nothing. But taking precautions reduces your risk even more.
How Is It Transmitted
HIV cannot be transmitted through the air, like a regular cold. It also cannot be inherited or passed down, if you had a relative who had HIV, it does not necessarily follow that you will have HIV also.
The only way that HIV will be transmitted is by a person who is living with HIV. You will need to exchange bodily fluids, and the person suffering from HIV has to have a detectable viral load, meaning there have to be enough cells of HIV in their body to be able to transfer it to another person successfully.
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Can I Get Hiv From Injecting Drugs
Yes. If you share injection drug equipment with someone who has HIV, your risk is high.
Risk also depends on whether the person who has HIV is using antiretroviral therapy consistently and correctly, and whether the person who is HIV-negative is using preexposure prophylaxis consistently and correctly.
Sharing drug equipment can also be a risk for spreading HIV. Infected blood can get into drug solutions by
- Using blood-contaminated syringes to prepare drugs.
- Reusing water.
- Reusing bottle caps, spoons, or other containers to dissolve drugs in water and to heat drug solutions.
- Reusing small pieces of cotton or cigarette filters to filter out particles that could block the needle.
Street sellers of syringes may repackage used syringes and sell them as sterile syringes. For this reason, people who continue to inject drugs should get syringes from reliable sources of sterile syringes, such as pharmacies or needle-exchange programs.
It is important to know that sharing a needle or syringe for any use, including skin popping and injecting steroids, hormones, or silicone, can put you at risk for HIV and other blood-borne infections.
For more information, see If I use drugs, how can I prevent getting HIV?
Hiv Basics: Can I Get Hiv From Oral Sexposted By Admin On Nov 15 2018
HIV basics: Can I get HIV From Oral Sex?
Oral Sex and HIV
The question is, is it possible to become infected with HIV while having unprotected oral sex. Oral sex with a condom usually causes unpleasant feelings among many. However, is it worth the risk?
Each person is responsible for their own health, makes choices based on their awareness of modes of transmission of STIs and HIV, the possible dangers of certain behaviors. If your partner tells you that he is HIV – positive, this does not mean that he does not have HIV. If it looks “decent human being” or “healthy enough”, it also makes no guarantees about their HIV status and the lack of STIs. Probably many people would like to hear what kind of sex is safe. We assume that you already know about transmission of the virus, and offer you this knowledge to think again about possible dangers and means of protection when engaging in oral sex.
Ways of Spreading the Infection
The transmission of HIV from woman to woman is quite low. But that does not mean the absence. There are reports about the possibility of HIV infection during unprotected sexual intercourse of women with women. It is recommended to avoid oral sex with a woman in the menstrual period or immediately after menstruation because blood is often transferred to pathogens of viral infections. The main infection among women who have sex with women, in addition to the risk of HIV is vaginal candidiasis .
Prevention of the Disease
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If I Already Have Hiv Can I Get Another Kind Of Hiv
Yes. This is called HIV superinfection. The new strain of HIV can replace the original strain or remain along with the original strain. The effects of superinfection differ from person to person. For some people, superinfection may cause them to get sicker faster because they become infected with a new strain of the virus that is resistant to the medicines they are currently taking to treat their original HIV infection. Research suggests that the kind of superinfection where a person becomes infected with a new strain of HIV that is hard to treat is rare, less than 4%.
What Is The Likelihood Of Contracting Hiv From Oral Sex
Oral sex is the stimulation of a partner’s penis , vagina , or anus using the mouth, lips, or tongue. “The likelihood of acquiring HIV from oral sex is far lower than vaginal or anal sex,” says Neilan. The risk is so low that scientists have not established a conclusive statistic, but a 1999 study estimates a 0.04% risk among male sexual partners.
Saliva contains secretory leukocyte protease inhibitors that inactivate the virus. Because of this HIV inhibitor, the virus reproduces less than it would in the blood cells.
Although the risk is low, unprotected oral sex still carries the risk of transmitting HIV, as well as sexually transmitted infections . “Protection against HIV does not mean protection against all sexually transmitted infections,” says Neilan.
A person without HIV may contract the virus by giving or receiving any type of oral sex to or from a partner with HIV. Some risk factors increase the likelihood of contracting HIV through oral sex, which include:
- Sores in the mouth, vagina, or penis
- Tooth decay or gum disease
- Recent dental work
The risk of HIV from oral sex may be minimal, but it’s still important to know how to avoid contracting and transmitting the virus.
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How Is Hiv Passed From One Person To Another
HIV is spread mainly by having sex or sharing injection drug equipment such as needles with someone who has HIV.
Only certain fluidsblood, semen , pre-seminal fluid , rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milkfrom an HIV-infected person can transmit HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream for transmission to possibly occur. Mucous membranes can be found inside the rectum, the vagina, the opening of the penis, and the mouth.
In the Australia, HIV is spread mainly by
- Having sex with someone who has HIV. In general:
- Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. Receptive anal sex is riskier than insertive anal sex .
- Vaginal sex is the second highest-risk sexual behavior.
- Having multiple sex partners or having other sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of infection through sex.
Less commonly, HIV may be spread by
Is There A Connection Between Hiv And Other Sexually Transmitted Infections
Yes. Having a sexually transmitted disease can increase the risk of getting or spreading HIV.
If you are HIV-negative but have an STD, you are at least 2 to 5 times as likely to get HIV if you have unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. There are two ways that having an STD can increase the likelihood of getting HIV. If the STD causes irritation of the skin , breaks or sores may make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sexual contact. Even STDs that cause no breaks or open sores can increase your risk by causing inflammation that increases the number of cells that can serve as targets for HIV.
If you are HIV-positive and also infected with another STD, you are 3 to 5 times as likely as other HIV-infected people to spread HIV through sexual contact. This appears to happen because there is an increased concentration of HIV in the semen and genital fluids of HIV-positive people who also are infected with another STD.
CDC recommends sexually active gay and bisexual men test for:
- Hepatitis B and C.
- Chlamydia and gonorrhea of the rectum if youve had receptive anal sex, or been a bottom in the past year.
- Chlamydia and gonorrhea of the penis if you have had insertive anal or oral sex in the past year.
- Gonorrhea of the throat if youve performed oral sex in the past year.
Sometimes your health care provider may suggest a herpes test.
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What Is Oral Sex
Oral sex involves using your mouth or tongue to stimulate your partners genitals or anus.
Many people enjoy oral sex as part of their sex life but it is a very personal thing and not everybody likes it or chooses to do it. Different people like to give or receive oral sex in different ways. There are a whole variety of ways to lick, suck and stimulate someone. You may decide not to have oral sex at all, or you may enjoy experimenting with your partner to find out what gives you both pleasure.
It is important to talk to your partner so you can understand what you both enjoy and what you would prefer to avoid.
How Can You Avoid Transmitting Hiv To A Partner
For a person living with HIV, the best way to prevent transmitting it to others is by taking antiretroviral therapy . The medicine reduces the amount of HIV particles in the blood to the point that a test can’t detect it anymore, which is known as having an undetectable viral load. ART prevents HIV from multiplying and makes it a more manageable condition.
“Someone with HIV who takes their medications and is virologically suppressed won’t transmit HIV to sexual partners,” says Neilan. It is possible to get the virus under control within six months. With proper treatment, people living with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
There are plenty of FDA-approved antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV, says Neilan. Some of the most common side effects are nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue, but it varies for each individual. Here are the types of HIV medicines that reduce viral load:
Individuals with HIV are prescribed multi-class drug combinations that require them to take more than one drug. Other types of HIV medicines do not inhibit certain enzymes and instead, interfere with the virus’ ability to infect immune system cells.
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Can I Get Hiv From Receiving Medical Care
Although HIV transmission is possible in health care settings, it is extremely rare.
Careful practice of infection control, including universal precautions protects patients as well as health care providers from possible HIV transmission in medical and dental offices and hospitals.
The risk of getting HIV from receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.
It is important to know that you cannot get HIV from donating blood. Blood collection procedures are highly regulated and safe.
How Do You Give A Man Oral Sex
A mans penis does not need to be erect for you to start oral sex but you may want to use your hand to arouse him first. If you hold his penis during oral sex, you can control how deep it goes into your mouth. You can move your hand allowing the penis to go as far into your mouth as you are comfortable with.
A mans penis is highly sensitive, so be gentle at first and slowly work up to a faster pace. You can try different tongue, mouth and head movements to see what works best but never use your teeth unless asked.
When you give a man oral sex you can stop at any time and its up to you to decide if you want to let him ejaculate in your mouth. Of course, if hes wearing a condom this isnt an issue, and it means you will both be protected against sexually transmitted infections .
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Tips For Safer Oral Sex
If a partner who is living with HIV has an undetectable viral load, their risk of transmitting HIV during oral sex is zero, whether they use the tips below or they do not.
If a partner living with HIV is not taking HIV drugs and/or has a detectable viral load, the chance of HIV transmission during oral sex is still low. The tips below can lower that chance even further. If you are not sure of your or your partners HIV status, and are not taking PrEP or if the partner living with HIV is not on treatment or is known to have a detectable viral load oral sex can be safer if you and/or your partner:
- get treatment for any other STIs you may have
- do not have gum disease
- wait to have oral sex until any mouth sores or genital cuts, scrapes, or sores have healed
- wait until after having oral sex to floss, brush your teeth, or do anything that could create cuts or cause bleeding in your mouth
- If you want to freshen up before oral sex, consider using a breath mint instead
Hiv Treatment & Undetectable
Todays HIV treatments, called antiretroviral therapy or ART, are extremely effective. Some treatments are a single tablet. Long-acting injectable medications are likely to be approved and available soon. Medicine has come a long way since the first HIV treatment options became available in the 1990s.
There is still no functional cure for HIV, but ART can help people live long, healthy lives. Todays medications are provided in combinations that reduce a persons viral load to levels so low its undetectable. People who become undetectable cannot transmit the virus to others.
Viral load is a term that describes how much virus a person living with HIV has in their body.
Without HIV medications, the virus replicates which causes the amount of virus in the body to increase.
HIV medications prevent HIV from making copies of itself. Then, the amount of HIV in the body goes down.
To see how well HIV treatments are working, doctors and other providers measure the amount of virus in the blood and report a measurement called your viral load. Its simply a measurement of how many copies of the virus are in a single unit of blood.
A very low amount of virus may even be undetectable by viral load tests . A common undetectable level is < 20 copies per milliliter of blood. Low viral loads are those that are less than 200 copies per milliliter. Very high viral loads can be over 500,000 copies per milliliter.
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