Other Causes Of Menstrual Problems
You may have menstrual problems that are not related to HIV. In fact, many women face common menstrual problems regardless of their HIV status.
Common causes of menstrual problems include:
Taking certain drugs, including over-the-counter, street, and prescription drugs
Sudden weight loss
Non-cancerous growths such as and
Genital cancers, including ovarian, uterine, and
What Is The Treatment For Hiv
Individuals who are HIV positive will likely need to see a specialist. As with many other conditions, early detection offers more options for treatment. Today, there are medical treatments that can slow down the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system. However, there are other treatments that can prevent or cure the conditions associated with HIV. Anti-retroviral drug therapy may be given to a pregnant woman, which has proven to greatly reduce the chance of an infant developing HIV. A cesarean section may be recommended to reduce infant transmission from the birth canal. In the U.S., where other feeding options are available, an infected mother should be discouraged from breastfeeding her infant. Consult your child’s doctor for more information regarding various drug therapies.
How Can A Woman Reduce Her Chances Of Contracting Hiv
HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids like blood and semen. Using injection drugs, having unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners increases the chances of acquiring HIV. The only way to be absolutely certain you do not become infected with HIV is to not have sex and not use injection drugs. You also can avoid infection by only having one sex partner as long as your partner does not have HIV and has sex only with you. According to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention , using a male or female condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex can greatly lower your risk of infection. Using condoms for oral sex will reduce your risk for other STDs as well. It also is important not to douche, since douching removes some of the normal vaginal bacteria that can protect you from infection.
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Hiv Treatment & Undetectable
Todays HIV treatments, called antiretroviral therapy or ART, are extremely effective. Some treatments are a single tablet. Long-acting injectable medications are likely to be approved and available soon. Medicine has come a long way since the first HIV treatment options became available in the 1990s.
There is still no functional cure for HIV, but ART can help people live long, healthy lives. Todays medications are provided in combinations that reduce a persons viral load to levels so low its undetectable. People who become undetectable cannot transmit the virus to others.
Viral load is a term that describes how much virus a person living with HIV has in their body.
Without HIV medications, the virus replicates which causes the amount of virus in the body to increase.
HIV medications prevent HIV from making copies of itself. Then, the amount of HIV in the body goes down.
To see how well HIV treatments are working, doctors and other providers measure the amount of virus in the blood and report a measurement called your viral load. Its simply a measurement of how many copies of the virus are in a single unit of blood.
A very low amount of virus may even be undetectable by viral load tests . A common undetectable level is < 20 copies per milliliter of blood. Low viral loads are those that are less than 200 copies per milliliter. Very high viral loads can be over 500,000 copies per milliliter.
Hiv Treatment As Prevention
People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.
ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.
The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.
Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of less than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:
- using a condom or other barrier method during sex
- reducing the number of sexual partners
- getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
- avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
- if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
- following all workplace safety protocols
People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.
Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.
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Woman May Have Contracted Hiv From Manicure: Should You Be Worried
Could a single trip to the nail salon change your life forever?
For most women, the worst thing thats happened at a nail salon is that theyve chosen a polish color they end up regretting or maybe theyve had their nails clipped a little too close. But for one 22-year-old woman in Brazil a manicure turned potentially deadly: Getting her nails done may have given her HIV.
The young woman, whose case is detailed in the journal AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, was recently diagnosed with advanced HIV yet failed to meet any of the standard conditions for transmission shed never had sex, a blood transfusion or surgery, or gotten a piercing or tattoo.
Doctors were befuddled as to how she had contracted the virus.
After confirming her claims, her doctors dug deeper, searching for any incident that could have infected her. The only possibility: The patient recalled sharing manicure instruments 10 years prior with her cousin, a manicurist who was later diagnosed with HIV. Detailed analyses revealed that the two women were, in fact, infected with highly similar strains of the virus, leading the researchers to conclude that manicure instruments are potential routes of HIV transmission.
Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations
MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.
DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.
Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.
Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.
VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.
A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus. Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.
Always consult with your child’s doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.
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Putting A Number On It: The Risk From An Exposure To Hiv
This information was provided by CATIE . For more information, contact CATIE at 1-800-263-1638.
Author: James Wilton
Service providers working in HIV prevention are often asked by their patients and clients about the risk of HIV transmission from an exposure to HIV through sex. What do the latest studies tell us about this risk? And how should we interpret and communicate the results?
Hiv And Healthy Aging
Thanks to treatment, many women with HIV are living longer lives. This also means that as women with HIV age, they will face health problems common in all older women. These problems include heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis, and some cancers.
Other health concerns as women with HIV age include:
- Menopause. HIV affects women with menopause in unique ways.
- You may enter menopause at a younger age than normal .6 The age of menopause in women with lower CD4 counts was four years younger than women whose CD4 count was more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. The age of menopause was also lower in women with CD4 counts between 200 cells and 500 cells per cubic millimeter of blood.7 The number of these white blood cells in a woman’s blood tells doctors how serious her HIV infection is. Researchers think the drop in the female hormone estrogen after menopause may affect CD4 counts.
- Studies show that you may have more severe hot flashes during menopause than women who do not have HIV.8
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To Prevent Hiv Infection Couples Try Testing Together
“There were cases where it was suspected, but not all the pieces were there to say it so clearly as this one,” says Patrick Sullivan, an epidemiologist at Emory University who wasn’t involved in the study.
The circumstances in this case were unique, a spokeswoman for the CDC tells Shots. The couple frequently had sexual contact without a barrier and exchanged blood through rough sex with toys.
The case is a good reminder that HIV can spread during all types of sexual interactions, Sullivan says.
“Anytime there’s intimate contact even through the use of sex toys prevention measures should be taken, especially when there’s a chance of blood contact,” he says.
Other Types Of Transmission
In the past, HIV was spread by transfusion with blood products, such as whole blood or the “factor” used by hemophiliacs. Many people acquired HIV this way. The blood supply is now much more strictly tested and controlled in most countries. The odds of acquiring HIV from receiving blood or blood factor in countries like the US, the UK, and Canada are extremely low. For example, statistics from the US show that a person is more likely to be killed by a lightning strike than they are to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion. However, not every country screens all blood donations for HIV.
It is also possible to get HIV from skin grafts or transplanted organs taken from people living with HIV. Again, the risk is considered very low, as these “body products” must be strictly tested in the same way as blood products. Semen donations collected by sperm banks for artificial insemination are also considered “bodily products” and rigorously tested in high-resource countries. Private semen samples that are not processed by sperm banks or similar organizations may not have been tested. It is important for anyone receiving a private donor’s sperm for artificial insemination to have the donor tested for HIV.
If you are getting breast milk from a milk bank, it is important to ask if the bank tests the milk for HIV. Also, if your baby is getting breast milk from a wet nurse, it is important to make sure that she tests negative for HIV before giving her milk to your baby.
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Tips For Having Sex During Your Period
Though it may pose some logistical concerns, there’s no scientific evidence that having sex during your period is harmful to your health. Some women even find that having intercourse while menstruating brings several benefits and is more pleasurable than it is at other times.
It’s important to remember, though, that just because your body is eliminating your uterine lining because an egg was released but not fertilized doesn’t mean you can’t get pregnant while you have your period. Likewise, concerns about sexually transmitted infections are the same regardless of the time of the month.
Other Health Problems That Affect Periods
- A missed period might mean that you are pregnant or that you are starting to go through the menopause.
- Abnormal bleeding or very heavy periods could be signs of a health problem and should always be reported to your doctor.
- Heavy periods can be caused by several factors, including fibroids . If left untreated, the blood loss from heavy periods could lead to anaemia .
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Questioning The Three Out Of A Thousand Estimate
In a popularly referenced 1989 study, researchers suggested that the risk of acquiring HIV from a single needlestick injury involving HIV-contaminated blood was around 0.32 percent, or roughly three cases out of every 1,000 injuries.
That figure has remained largely stuck in the consciousness of public health authorities, despite growing evidence that the “three out of a thousand” estimate pertained more to untreated source patients with late-stage, symptomatic diseasethe more likely scenario in 1989than to estimates based purely on needlestick injury alone.
A meta-analysis conducted in 2006 largely confirmed those doubts. In reviewing 21 different studies, the researchers found that the pooled estimates suggested that the risk of acquiring HIV was more along the lines of 0.13 percent if the needlestick injury were the only risk factor. Only when the source patient has an AIDS diagnosisnamely, a CD4 count below 200 cells/mL and/or an AIDS-defining illnessdid the estimate rise to 0.37 percent.
What was, perhaps, more important to note was that, of the 21 studies reviewed, 13 concluded an actual risk of 0%. Such disparities in research only served to add to the contentiousness already surrounding the issue of HIV risk in occupational healthcare settings.
How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv
There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:
- using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
- in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
- avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
- taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
- asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
- taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
- if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:
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How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv
You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:
- Semen and pre-seminal fluid
- Rectal fluids
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.
Can Hiv Be Transmitted Via Contact With Menstrual Blood
Menstrual blood touching intact skin poses no HIV transmission risk. If it comes into contact with broken skin or is swallowed, then HIV transmission is possible but still unlikely. Due to the effectiveness of HIV treatment, the menstrual blood of someone living with HIV who is adherent to their antiretroviral medication could well have no detectable virus . The small number of case reports documenting HIV transmission via exposure to blood involved a significant amount of blood from the HIV-positive person, as well as open wounds in the other persons skin.
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What To Do About Menstrual Problems
If you’re having problems with your period, you need to find out why. It may have nothing to do with , but finding the cause is important. Let your doctor know if you have heavy bleeding, bleeding between periods, or if you miss two periods in a row.
To find the cause, your doctor may:
Perform a pelvic examination
Do a Pap smear to check for cervical cancer
Order a blood test for hormone changes
Review your drug history
Use ultrasound to look for abnormal growths
- Take a tissue sample to look for or inflammation
Stay ahead of period problems by keeping track of your periods, keeping all your doctor appointments, and getting regular pelvic exams and Pap smears. Take care of yourself by eating healthy foods, getting regular exercise, and getting enough sleep.
Can Hiv Be Transmitted Through Oral Sex
Yes, but the risk is relatively low.
HIV is transmitted through seminal and vaginal fluids, including menstrual fluids. The virus can enter the body through the bloodstream or by passing through delicate mucous membranes, such as inside the vagina, rectum or urethra.
If a person gives fellatio and has bleeding gums, a cut, or an ulcer inside their mouth, HIV could enter their bloodstream through infected fluid. This could also happen if infected fluid from a woman gets into the mouth of her partner during oral sex.
Using a condom during sex, including oral and anal sex, is the best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections , including HIV. Avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or baby oil, because they can weaken the condom and increase the risk of it splitting.
You can use a dental dam to cover the anus or female genitals during oral sex. A dental dam is a latex or polyurethane square, measuring about 15cm by 15cm. It acts as a barrier to help stop STIs passing from one person to another.
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