What We Know About Less Common Ways That You Can Get Hiv From Syringe Use
The risk for getting or transmitting HIV is very high if an HIV-negative person , other injection equipment with someone who has HIV. Its also possible to get HIV from tattooing or body piercing if the equipment has someone elses blood in it or if the ink is shared. The risk of getting HIV from tattooing or body piercing is higher when the person doing the procedure doesnt have a license. That person may be more likely to use unsafe practices like sharing syringes or ink. There are no known cases in the United States of anyone getting HIV this way.
More Information On average, an HIV-negative person has a 1 in 420 chance of getting HIV from a needlestick if the needle or syringe contains HIV-infected blood.
More InformationThere may be extremely tiny amounts of blood in syringes or works that you may not be able to see, but could still carry HIV. Be aware that HIV can survive in a used syringe for up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors.
How Can I Protect Myself
The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.
If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:
- using a condom every time you have sex
- getting tested for HIV and making sure all partners do too
- reducing the number of sexual partners you have
- getting tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.
What We Know About Vaginal Sex
When a woman has vaginal sex with a partner who has HIV, HIV can enter her body through the mucous membranes that line the vagina and cervix. Most women who get HIV get it from vaginal sex. Even if a womans male partner withdraws or pulls out before ejaculating, she can still get infected because pre-seminal fluid can carry HIV.
On average, an HIV-negative woman has about a 1 in 1,250 chance of getting HIV every time she has vaginal sex with a man who has HIV.
On average, a woman with HIV has about a 1 in 2,500 chance of transmitting HIV every time she has vaginal sex with an HIV-negative man.
If the partner with HIV takes HIV medicine as prescribed, and gets and keeps an undetectable viral load , their partner will not get HIV through sex. See how receptive vaginal sex compares to other sexual activities here.
Men can also get HIV from having vaginal sex with a woman who has HIV. This is because vaginal fluid and blood can carry HIV. Men get HIV through the opening at the tip of the penis the foreskin if theyre not circumcised or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis. There is strong evidence that circumcision greatly reduces the mans risk of getting HIV during vaginal sex. There is no evidence that circumcision benefits the woman, though more studies are underway.
On average, an HIV-negative man has about a 1 in 2,500 chance of getting HIV every time he has vaginal sex with a woman who has HIV.
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How To Avoid Getting Hiv
Abstinence, or not having sex, is the only type of protection that works every time. But if you are having sex, you can lower your risk if you:
- Use a condom every time you have sex
- Get tested for HIV and STDs
- Limit the number of people you have sex with
- Donât inject yourself with drugs
Talk to your doctor right away if you think youâve been exposed to the virus. They can help you figure out next steps.
What Happens At Your Gp Appointment
The GP may do blood tests to see if you’ve been infected. They can also prescribe medicines to treat the infection if necessary.
If you’re pregnant and you test positive for toxoplasmosis, the GP can refer you for more tests to see if your baby has been infected. This is very rare.
The baby charity Tommy’s has more advice on toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.
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What We Know About Oral Sex
The chance an HIV-negative person will get HIV from oral sex with an HIV-positive partner is extremely low. However, its hard to know the exact risk because a lot of people who have oral sex also have or vaginal sex. The risk is even lower if the HIV-negative partner is taking medicine as prescribed to prevent HIV . If the partner with HIV is taking HIV medicine as prescribed and keeps an undetectable viral load , they will not transmit HIV through sex, including oral sex.
But you can get other sexually transmitted diseases from oral sex. And, if you get feces in your mouth during anilingus, you can get hepatitis A and B, parasites like Giardia, and other bacteria like Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli.
How Is Hiv Transmitted
The human immunodeficiency virus can pass from one person to another in the following ways:
- via transfusion of infected blood or blood products
- from an infected mother to her infant before or during birth
- via organ transplant from an infected donor
HIV is not found in vomit, feces, nasal secretions, tears or urine unless these fluids are visibly contaminated with blood.
HIV is not spread by casual contact. There is no risk of becoming infected with HIV by working on the same assembly line, using the same equipment, sharing locker rooms or toilet facilities or being in the same office as someone with HIV infection or AIDS.
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How Does Hiv Spread
HIV spreads when infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids enter the body. Because symptoms can be mild at first, people with HIV might not know they’re infected. They can spread HIV to others without knowing it.
HIV can spread:
- during sex
- through sharing needles for injecting drugs or tattooing
HIV also can pass from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
HIV does not spread through:
- pee, poop, spit, throw-up, or sweat
- coughing or sneezing
- sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses
How Long Does Hiv Survive Outside The Body
In general, the virus doesnât live long once itâs outside of a human body. Studies show that HIV grown in the lab, when placed on a surface, loses most of its ability to infect — 90% to 99% — within several hours. And the level of virus tested was much higher than whatâs found in bodily fluids. So contact with dried blood, semen, or other fluids poses little risk.
One study found HIV can live in used needles for over a month if the temperature and conditions are just right. That means sharing needles or syringes, like during drug use, raises your risk of infection.
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What To Expect At Your Doctor’s Office
Your doctor will ask if you have traveled out of the country recently and whether you have recently lost weight. If your doctor thinks you have an intestinal parasite, you will probably have one or more of the following tests:
- Fecal testing can identify both helminths and protozoa. Stool samples must be collected before you take any anti-diarrhea drugs or antibiotics, or before x-rays with barium are taken. Several stool samples may be needed to find the parasite.
- Your doctor may use x-rays with barium to diagnose more serious problems caused by parasites, although this test is usually not required.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission In Householdsettings
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus has beenreported in homes in which health care has been provided andbetween children residing in the same household . CDC hasreceived reports of two cases of HIV infection that apparentlyoccurred following mucocutaneous exposures to blood or other bodysubstances in persons who received care from or provided care toHIV-infected family members residing in the same household. Thisreport summarizes the findings of the epidemiologic and laboratoryinvestigations, which underscore the need to educate persons whocare for or are in contact with HIV-infected persons in householdsettings where such exposures may occur. *Patient 1
A 5-year-old child whose parents were both HIV-infected testednegative for HIV antibody in 1990 and July 1993 but tested positivein December 1993. In February 1994, all other close householdcontacts of the child tested HIV-antibody negative.
From January through December 1993, when the child was likelyto have become infected, the child’s parents were the only knownHIV-infected persons with whom the child had any contact. Duringthis period, the child lived with both parents until the father’sdeath as the result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome inMay 1993. The child continued to live with the mother, who hadAIDS, until 8 days before the child’s last negative antibody testin July 1993. The child then lived in foster care.
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How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv
You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:
- Semen and pre-seminal fluid
- Rectal fluids
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane , through open cuts or sores, or by direct injection .
People with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long and healthy lives and will not transmit HIV to their HIV-negative partnersthrough sex.
Protecting Yourself And Others
In general, parents should care for the HIV- infected child in the same way they care for any child. However, you will need to do a few special things to protect yourself and others from the HIV virus.
- Use disposable gloves when coming in contact with the child’s blood or with body fluids that may contain blood.
- Wash your hands before and after touching body fluids or providing care for the child .
- Wear disposable gloves and use paper towels when cleaning up any large spills of blood or stool. Then clean the area with bleach.
- Do not let anyone share razors or toothbrushes with the infected child.
- Cover any open or oozing wounds or sores to prevent contact with bloody body fluids.
- There is no need to separate the HIV-infected child’s clothes from those of other family members unless they are heavily soiled with blood or other body fluids. Wash the child’s clothes in hot, soapy water if they are heavily soiled with blood or other body fluids.
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You Might Have Diarrhea
Leading a sleepy life can cause you to make lifestyle choices that may result in constipation. But it can go the other way, too, and cause diarrhea.
“When you’re sleep deprived, your brain releases more ghrelin, which makes you hungry,” Matt Ross, co-owner and COO of The Slumber Yard, tells Bustle. “Additionally, when you’re sleep deprived, the area of your brain that controls decision making is impaired, meaning you’re more inclined to eat junk food rather than healthy, nutritious food.”
While it’s always fine to eat junk food in moderation, if it becomes a major habit, your gut may start to struggle. “If you consume a lot of highly-processed foods that contain artificial ingredients,” Ross says, “your stool can be come quite loose, even to the point of diarrhea.”
You May Have Cramps & Bloating
Sleeping in can result in constipation, diarrhea, upset stomach, and even cramping and bloating, Dr. Nesheiwat says, due to the way it can affect your digestive system.
“Signals and hormonal control from the brain affects and regulates activity of sleep patterns and our intestines, and when we have a bowel movement, via feedback loops which helps regulate sleep and our circadian rhythm,” she says.
While it can be difficult to do, it can help to stick to a consistent sleep schedule, so you don’t disrupt this delicate balance. And if you find that you’re sleeping the day away, you may even want to check in with your doctor to uncover some possible causes for your sleepiness so you can get back on track.
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How Cat Poop Can Affect Your Health
What if someone told you that being a cat lady is not simply a stereotype of someone in love with all of their precious cats? Well, as it turns out, there are many ways that having a cat could actually affect how you behave and can contribute to changes in your brain. Its possible that your cats poop or litter box could be doing exactly that. According to a new study, a parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii , which is sometimes found in cat poop and has previously been cited as a potential cause for sickness and negative behavioral changes, might actually make some people more daring and successful. Does this mean all you have to do is get a cat to feel like youre on top of the world?
Still, past studies and health issues have shown that cat poop can cause a range of different reactions in people. We rounded up some ways that your kittys litter box, or your cats poop itself, could be affecting your health, and got the scoop from experts.
You could become more courageous thanks to cat poop.
Who needs Felix Felicis when you have a cat?
Cat poop could lead to rage.
A study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry in 2016 showed a link between T. gondii and a rage disorder known as intermittent explosive disorder.
While the 2016 study didnt prove total causation, it did find that those with intermittent explosive disorder were twice as likely to have been infected by the parasite found in cat feces, compared with those not experiencing the mental condition.
Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv
Yes. Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. If taken as prescribed, HIV medicine can reduce a persons HIV viral load very low level, which keeps the immune system working and prevents illness. This is called viral suppression, defined as having less than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood.
HIV medicine can also make the viral load so low that a standard lab test cant detect it. This is called having an undetectable level viral load. Almost everyone who takes HIV medicine as prescribed can achieve an undetectable viral load, usually within 6 months after starting treatment.
As noted above, people with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long and healthy lives and will not transmit HIVto their HIV-negative partnersthrough sex.
HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only if the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine as prescribed and visit their health care provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.
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What You Can Do
Not having sex is a 100% effective way to make sure you dont get or transmit HIV through sex. If youre sexually active, you can lower your risk for HIV by choosing sexual activities that carry a lower risk for HIV than vaginal sex. You can also do other things to reduce your risk, including taking medicine to prevent or treat HIV and using condoms the right way, every time. Condoms and medicine to prevent or treat HIV are highly effective at preventing HIV if used correctly. But the medicines are much less effective if you dont take them as prescribed, and condoms can sometimes break or come off during vaginal sex. Using a water-based lubricant can help prevent condoms from breaking or slipping.
Talking openly and frequently with your partner about sex can help you make decisions that may decrease your risk of getting or transmitting HIV. Learn more about how to get the conversation started.
- When was the last time you had an HIV test and what was the result of that test?
The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Before having sex for the first time, you and your partner may want to get tested for HIV and learn the results. Be aware that theres a window period, which is the time between when a person gets HIV and when most HIV tests will show that a person has it. If you have sex before you learn your test results, using a condom the right way every time you have sex can lower your risk for getting or transmitting HIV.
Protecting Your Child From Other Infections
The HIV-infected child has more trouble fighting off infections than other children. So you need to keep the child away from people who are ill with the flu, colds, measles, chickenpox and other common diseases.
- Your child should be allowed to play with other children. However, do not allow play with others that places the HIV-infected child at risk for infection . Tell your doctor if your child has been exposed to any diseases.
- Just as for all children, the HIV-infected child should not share toys that he has put in his mouth or that other children have put into their mouths. The child’s toys should be scrubbable, safe and clean.
- The HIV- infected child may use the same bathroom and toilet facilities as other family members.
- Pets that bite or scratch should be kept away from an HIV- infected child. Reptiles and cats carry infections that are dangerous to HIV- infected children. These pets should be avoided. Check with your doctor before bringing pets into your home.
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