If I Am Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Also Have Hiv
Most women with HIV can protect their baby from becoming infected during pregnancy. Proper pre-natal treatment can reduce the risk that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus to her child to less than 1 percent. The only way these special treatments can be provided is if the health care professionals know the mother is living with HIV. Treatment is most effective when started early in pregnancy. HIV-positive moms should not breastfeed their babies because HIV is sometimes passed this way.
Hiv Risk From A Single Blood Transfusion
Because of careful donor selection criteria, HIV risk from a single blood transfusion has very much reduced due to strict screening measures.
HIV seroprevalence in blood donors is less than 2 percent of the adult American population because of strict screening measures.
Despite this, HIV transmission may still occur due to three reasons:
Blood may be collected during the window period of infection, when the donor is infectious but has not yet developed positive result on the HIV laboratory tests.
Infection with variant strains of HIV that may not be detected by regular screening tests.
However, according to CDC,
the risk of HIV transmission by transfusion was low, even before screening, and has been virtually eliminated by the routine screening of donated blood and plasma.
But, in case HIV positive blood is given to an HIV negative individual, the risk of HIV infection with a single transfusion exceeds that of any other risk. More than ninety percent of recipients transfused with HIV positive blood are found to be infected with the virus.
Is There A Vaccine Or Cure For Hiv/aids
No. There is no cure or vaccine for HIV, however there are highly effective treatments.
A person with HIV today who is on ongoing antiretroviral medication and in medical care can live a normal, healthy lifespan. HIV treatment also can prevent passing HIV from mother to child.
ARVs work to lower the amount of virus in the body, often to levels that are undetectable by standard lab tests. In addition to improving health, getting and keeping a low viral load also prevents the spread of the virus to others.
To get the full health and preventive benefits of ARVs, it is important that an individual with HIV stays connected to medical care and takes their medications as prescribed, even if they do not feel sick.
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Treatments That Help Reduce The Risk Of Hiv Transmission
If your partner is HIV positive, talk to your doctor about whether you should start taking a medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. These pills, which help prevent HIV from establishing itself in the body, can reduce a persons risk of permanent infection by up to 92 percent if taken consistently, according to the CDC.
If youre HIV negative and believe you might have been exposed to the virus, you can take an emergency medication called post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, which can lower your odds of being permanently infected with HIV. In order to work as effectively as possible, the medication has to be started within 72 hours of exposure and must be taken consistently once or twice a day for 28 days.
Finally, if your partner is HIV positive, he or she can drastically reduce the odds of passing along the virus by taking antiretroviral therapy, or ART. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body to a level thats undetectable by modern testing. An international study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in July 2016 found that none of the more than 1,000 HIV-positive people whose levels were undetectable passed the virus to their HIV-negative partners during unprotected anal or vaginal sex during an average of two years.
Against All Odds: What Are Your Chances Of Getting Hiv In These Scenarios
Playing the HIV numbers game is lessand morerisky than you think.
EDITORS NOTE: Although the underlying ideas and messages in this article remain relevant, much HIV prevention research has been published since 2014, notably about there being effectively no risk of transmitting the virus if you are HIV positive and undetectable , as well as the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis . Go to #Prevention, #Undetectable, #TasP and #PrEP for the latest related updates.
Theres not a lot of certainty in these numbers. But they can be a good tool for understanding risk.
During sex, our risk perception is replaced by love, lust, trust and intimacy.
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Genital Herpes: Females Risk Is Six Times Greater
We know that most cases of genital herpes are caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 . A person who has genital herpes may have sores in multiple parts of the body. Most often, the sores are found below the waist, around the genitals or the rectum. Unfortunately, a genital herpes infection is incurable and lifelong.
We also know that genital herpes is mainly sexually transmitted via body fluids, skin, or even the genital surfaces of an infected partner.
Information from the World Health Organization shows that 14.4% of Americans had HSV-2 in 2012.
One study by Wald and his colleagues found that on average, women contract HSV-2 from 8.9 of 10,000 sexual encounters for men, the figure is 1.5. The study analyzed data from multiple randomized controlled trials.
It is important to emphasize that women are more susceptible to the infectionâup to six times more susceptible than men, according to a study by Chiron.
I Had Unprotected Anal Sex What Are The Chances Of Having Hiv
By | June 28, 2011, 9:41 p.m.
I had unprotected anal sex with another man for the first time in over a year. We were versatile and used a lot of lube. I asked him about his HIV status and he said he was negative but, Im still not sure. He precummed and cummed outside of my body well after anal sex but, still precum may have gotten inside of me at some point, Im not sure. What are the chances of having HIV? Im still getting tested but, this happened just a week ago.
Like unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected anal sex is high risk for many sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis. While many of these can be diagnosed immediately by getting tested, it generally takes at least three months for HIV antibodies to show up on a test.
The fact that your partner ejaculated outside of your body decreases the chance of HIV transmission, but its impossible for us to tell you what the chances are that you contracted HIV. The only way you can know that is by getting tested.
Its important to remember that about one out of three people will lie about their infection status in order to have sex, so always protect yourself and use a condom whether or not partners say they are negative.
Good luck with your test.
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How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv
There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:
- using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
- in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
- avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
- taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
- asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
- taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
- if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:
Risk Factors In Women
The risk of HIV from unprotected vaginal sex is higher among women for a number of reasons. From a physiological standpoint, the tissues of the vagina are far more susceptible to HIV than those of the penis.
HIV is able to pass through these tissues when the immune system recognizes the invading virus and send defensive cells to “grab and drag” them through the lining to be destroyed.
Instead, HIV turns the table and attacks the very cells meant to help neutralize them. By doing so, the body helps facilitate its own infection. And, because the surface area of the vaginal epithelium is far greater than that of the male urethra, the opportunity for infection is increased, often exponentially.
Other physiological vulnerabilities include:
While the daily use of an HIV drug called pre-exposure prophylaxis can dramatically decrease the risk of HIV in an uninfected partner, there is evidence that works less well in women. Research published in 2016 suggests the level of the active drug molecule in vaginal tissue isn’t near as high as in rectal tissue.
None of this, of course, takes into account any of the social vulnerabilities that can place women at increased risk. These include sexual violence in relationships which not only steals a woman’s chance for self-protection but can result in damage to delicate vaginal tissue.
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Hiv Transmitted 1 In 900 Times Couple Has Unprotected Sex
- Risk dependent on concentration of virus in blood
- Supports use of anti-retroviral medication
Not infected: While the boy was not infected by the HIV virus, pictured, he is reportedly suffering post-traumatic stress disorder from the crime
A person infected with HIV will transmit the virus to their partner once in every 900 times they have unprotected sex, say scientists.
And the risk significantly increases if the person infected has a higher concentration of the virus in their bloodstream.
Results, from the largest study of its kind, showed for every tenfold increase in concentration, there was around a threefold increase in the likelihood of HIV transmission.
The findings support the use of anti-retroviral medications that work by lowering the concentration of HIV in the bloodstream.
Lead researcher James Hughes, from the University of Washington in Seattle said: ‘Our results underscore the importance of antiretroviral therapy, and, possibly, treatment of co-infections, to reduce plasma HIV-1 viral load in HIV-1 infected partners.’
A study published last year found drugs could reduce HIV transmission of by 96 percent.
The virus weakens the ability to fight infections and disease, such as cancer. AIDS marks the final stage when the body can no longer battle life-threatening illnesses.
The latest study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, sought to calculate the risk of HIV-1 transmission per act of sexual intercourse.
Choosing The Right Type Of Condom To Prevent Stis
Always read the package label and look for the following two things:
Its a good idea for anyone who is sexually active to get tested for STIs. This is particularly important in the following scenarios:
- When entering into a new relationship
- When not using a barrier method, such as condoms, while having sex
- If either partner is having sex with multiple partners
- If either partner is experiencing symptoms and signs that suggest they may have an STI
- In cases of sexual assault
Anyone who is pregnant or may become pregnant needs to be tested for STIs, as they can affect the fetus. The health care provider may provide screening for STIs at the initial prenatal visit.
At the end of the day, its important to remember that the only way to be completely protected from STIs is to abstain from sex. Any kind of sexual encounter with another person carries a chance of getting an STD.
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Hiv Risk With Sharing Of Needle One Single Time
Sharing a needle one single time with an HIV infected drug user can carry an HIV risk of 63 in 10,000 or 0.63 percent, which can also be stated as 1 in 149. Certain estimates, however, put the risk as high as 2.4%.
Whenever a syringe is used to inject a drug into the vein, a small amount of blood is initially pulled into the syringe to confirm that the needle is in the vein.
Now, when the same needle is used by another individual, the blood from the previous HIV positive person that has stayed in the needle can get injected into the blood stream of the HIV negative person.
HIV does not generally survive well outside the body, but it can survive for long periods of time in an airtight syringe.
Besides the intravenous injection route, the risk exists even if the injection is given by the intramuscular route or the subcutaneous route.
Do Condoms Prevent Stds 100 Percent
When used correctly and consistently, condoms are highly effective at preventing STIs that are transmitted through bodily fluids, including chlamydia and gonorrhea. They also effectively prevent the spread of HIV. They provide less protection against infections spread through skin-to-skin contact, such as herpes, HPV, and syphilis.
So, can you catch an STD with a condom? Yes. Abstinence is the only method that is 100 percent effective at preventing all STIs. But among people who use condoms for protection, the chances are greatly reduced.
Here are some tips for getting the most protection from using condoms:
- Read the package label of the condom before using it.
- Choose condoms with a label that says they prevent disease.
- Use a new condom each time you have sex.
- Store condoms in a cool, dry place, as heat may weaken them and reduce their effectiveness.
- When using lubricant with condoms, always choose a water-based one oil-based lubricants like baby oil, petroleum jelly, and cold cream can weaken the condom.
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Hiv Treatment As Prevention
People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.
ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.
The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.
Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of less than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:
- using a condom or other barrier method during sex
- reducing the number of sexual partners
- getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
- avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
- if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
- following all workplace safety protocols
People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.
Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.
How Can You Get Hiv
HIV is found in the following bodily fluids of someone living with the virus:
- vaginal fluids
For you to get HIV, these bodily fluids need to get into your blood through a mucous membrane , via shared injecting equipment, or through broken skin .
There is not enough HIV virus in other bodily fluids, like saliva, sweat or urine, to transmit it from one person to another.
Someone living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load, meaning effective treatment has lowered the amount of virus in their blood to levels where it cannot be detected by a normal blood test, cannot pass on HIV.
A person living with HIV with a detectable viral load can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.
HIV is most infectious in the first few weeks after infection. At this time many people are unaware of their status.
The main ways you can get HIV are:
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When Should I Start Pep And How Long Do I Need To Take It
PEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV. The sooner you start it, the better every hour counts.
You need to take the PEP medicines every day for 28 days. You will have to see your health care provider at certain times during and after taking the PEP, so you can have an HIV screening test and other testing.
What Is ‘safer Sex’
We know a lot about how HIV is transmitted from person to person. Having safer sex means you take this into account and avoid risky practices.
There are two reasons to practice safer sex: to protect yourself and to protect others.
If you have HIV, you need to protect your health. When it comes to sex, this means practicing safer sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases like herpes and hepatitis. HIV makes it harder for your body to fight off diseases. What might be a small health problem for someone without HIV could be big health problem for you. Your VA provider can prescribe condoms for you if you need them.
Protecting your partner
Taking care of others means making sure that you do not pass HIV or any other sexually transmitted infections to them.
“Being safe” usually means protecting yourself and others by using condoms for the highest-risk sex activities, specifically for anal and vaginal sex. When done correctly, condom use is very effective at preventing HIV transmission. In recent years, “being safe” has come to include two other important strategies for reducing HIV infections: 1. HIV treatment for people with HIV and, 2. PrEP for HIV negative people . Both are very effective at reducing the risk of HIV infection. One or more of them is likely to be appropriate for your situation–be sure to ask your health care provider for more information.
What about antiretroviral therapy for HIV prevention?
What about pre-exposure prophylaxis ?
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