How Can To Help Stop The Spread Of Hiv
To lower the risk of getting HIV and other STIs:
- Those who are HIV-negative should consider PrEP. If a possible HIV exposure occurs, PEP may provide emergency protection.
- Use condoms during vaginal and anal sex.
- Get tested and treated for STIs and follow healthcare providers recommended screening schedule.
- Before having sex with someone, ask them to get tested for HIV and STIs.
- Those who inject drugs should get clean needles from a needle exchange.
- Avoid sharing needles for drugs and tattoos.
Talk to a healthcare provider about PrEP if a sexual partner has HIV with a detectable viral load or theres another known risk of contracting the virus. Heres a search tool for finding healthcare providers who prescribe PrEP.
Anyone who thinks they might have contracted HIV needs to get tested immediately. Early treatment can help manage the symptoms, lower the risk of complications, lower the risk of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner, and help people to live a long and healthy life.
Where Could The Lump Come From
Lumps can arise from the outside surface of your neck, ie your skin, or from anything underneath it. Lumps can come from many structures, most commonly:
- Your skin, and the layers of tissue, fat and muscle underneath it.
- Your thyroid gland. This gland is in the middle of the lower part of your neck and helps to control your metabolism.
- Your salivary glands. These glands release saliva when you eat, or think about food. There are three main salivary glands on each side of your neck. Your parotid gland is in front of your ears. Your submandibular gland is under your jaw, and your sublingual glands are under your tongue.
- The blood vessels in your neck. The main blood vessel in your neck is your carotid artery.
- Your lymph nodes. These swell up in the process of combatting infection or inflammation in your body. You have them in various places in your body, including many in the neck.
The specific location of the lump within your neck helps your doctor work out what the cause of the lump might be.
What Makes Vb So Much More Dangerous
Patients with VB had a viral load the virus level in the blood between 3.5 and 5.5 times higher than the typical HIV strain. They were also more likely to transmit the virus to others.
Moreover, the rate of decline in T cells the hallmark of immune system damage occurs twice as fast in patients with VB. Also known as CD4 cells, T cells are special cells in the immune system that fight off infections. By the time of a patients diagnosis with the new variant, they were vulnerable to full-blown AIDS within two to three years.
Our findings emphasize the importance of World Health Organization guidance that individuals at risk of acquiring HIV have access to regular testing to allow early diagnosis, followed by immediate treatment. This limits the amount of time HIV can damage an individuals immune system and jeopardize their health. It also ensures that HIV is suppressed as quickly as possible, which prevents transmission to other individuals, says senior author Professor Christophe Fraser.
Scientists first identified VB in 17 HIV-positive individuals from the BEEHIVE project that collects samples from across Europe and Uganda. Since 15 of those cases come from the Netherlands, the researchers analyzed data from a cohort of over 6,700 Dutch HIV patients.
HIV researchers divide the virus into two main types HIV-1 and HIV-2. The former is more virulent and responsible for most cases. VB belongs to a subgroup of this strain.
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A Sharp Tearing Pain In Your Upper Back
If this severe pain comes on suddenly, theres a very serious possibility that you have an aortic dissection. This condition most commonly occurs in elderly people with uncontrolled blood pressure. It happens when the inner layer of a weak artery tears and blood starts gushing through the new hole, causing the inner and middle layers to dissect . Up to 20 per cent of people who suffer an aortic dissection will go on to have an acute rupture, and that could be fatal within seconds. Pain also sometimes starts in the chest and presents much like a heart attack. Either way, youll want to see a doctor, because youll likely need emergency surgery.
During Pregnancy You Feel Decreased Movement From The Baby
Moms-to-be are notoriously nervous, but this is one time that you should definitely err on the side of caution, especially if youre in your third trimester. First, see if you can get your baby moving by drinking some juice and lying on your left side. If you still dont feel any movement, head straight to the hospital, advises Carolyn Alexander, MD, an ob-gyn at Southern California Reproductive Center. Time is of the essence because the umbilical cord supplies blood to the baby, she says, and if it is compromised, the baby may need to be delivered immediately.
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Here’s What Happens When You Get Goose Bumps Out Of Nowhere
Everyone has experienced “the chills” at some point. Your skin gets goose bumps and your body shivers uncontrollably. But why does it happen?
HuffPost consulted Hadley King, a dermatologist, to find the answer.
King said there are two types of chills that cause a physical response. The first a physical input, like feeling cold. The second is a psychological input, something that makes you feel a certain way.
Physical chills are easier to explain. George A. Bubenik, a physiologist, explained to Scientific American in animals with thick hair, a rising coat of hair helps insulate the skin beneath from the cold.
For emotional chills, however, the science is less clear. King said it may be that emotional stimuli trigger the release of dopamine, which causes temporary skin tingling.
These emotional triggers can include being moved by a piece of art or being afraid.
“The reason for all these responses is the subconscious release of a stress hormone called adrenaline,” Bubenik said. “In humans, adrenaline is often released when we feel cold or afraid, but also if we are under stress and feel strong emotions, such as anger or excitement.”
According to Bustle, these emotional chills are more likely to happen if something unexpected happens in the art a person in consuming.
The science isn’t clear, but it seems a good place to start to give yourself the chills is consuming some great art that can surprise you.
Should I Be Concerned
The only way to be sure your lump isn’t anything to worry about is to visit the doctor and get it all checked out. As a very broad rule, if it is soft, it is less likely to have a worrying cause. If it goes on its own, or comes and goes, it is also less likely to be anything serious. If it is red or very tender, it might well be an infection and it may need antibiotics. The most worrying types of lumps tend to feel very hard, solid or craggy, and have gradually grown over a period of a very few weeks.
You will need to see your doctor for any lump which sticks around, but if you have any of the following symptoms in addition to the lump then do so as soon as possible:
- Losing weight without trying to.
- A change in your voice for more than three weeks.
- Night sweats.
- A persistent feeling of tiredness.
- Bruises you can’t explain.
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Effects On The Immune System
HIV primarily affects the body by targeting and damaging cells in the immune system. The immune system protects the body against viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
After attaching itself to a type of white blood cell called a CD4 T cell, the virus merges with it. These T cells are an important part of the immune system.
Once inside the CD4 T cell, the virus multiplies. It damages or destroys the cell, then moves on and targets other cells.
A persons CD4 T-cell count is an indication of the health of their immune system.
A healthy CD4 T-cell count is 5001,600 cells/mm3 of blood. If a person does not receive treatment for HIV, their CD4 T-cell count drops over time.
When it drops below 200 cells/mm3, the persons immune system is significantly impaired, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Current Hiv Treatment In South Africa Is Pretty Incredible
As long as you swallow your three-in-one antiretroviral tablet each day at more or less the same time, and start your treatment relatively early after infection , youre almost certainly going to be okay.
The combination ARVs currently available in the country are extremely safe, simple to take, and are very well tolerated with very few people experiencing persistent side effects. The government provides treatment for free to anyone with HIV and in the private sector care is similarly easy to access, although you will have to pay for it.
A monthly supply of first-line generic ARVs in SA costs about R300, based on quotes we got from pharmacies we phoned, but most medical schemes pay for this in full. Serious side effects such as things that affect your kidneys or bones seem to be very unusual, and even if kidney issues develop theyre relatively easy to monitor and correct.
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Covid Vaccine Does Not Cause Aids Debunking Another Anti
Well, this is a new one anti-vaxxers are pushing a myth that the COVID-19 vaccine causes AIDS. Of course, those of you with solid science neurons would say to me, wait, what? You must have read it wrong. Unfortunately, I read it right.
This is going to be an easy one to debunk because I cant even figure out how one gets from a COVID-19 vaccine to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. But here we are, the anti-vaxxers will try anything to discredit vaccines because they have been empowered to spread disinformation by social media. Of course, Ill debunk this ignorant myth, and tomorrow Ill probably be trying to debunk a new myth that COVID-19 vaccines will turn your kids into alien lizards.
So here I go again. I just hope I dont lose my few functioning neurons reading this junk science from a quack.
Red Streaks Under The Skin
If red streaks appear and radiate from a wound, that could signal a very serious bacterial infection called lymphangitis. It happens when bacteriamost often strep or staphenter the lymphatic system and head toward the closest lymph gland. Often incorrectly referred to as blood poisoning, lymphangitis is accompanied by symptoms that include high fever, swelling, redness, and pain at the wound site. While antibiotics should clear this up, it could take weeks or even months to heal fully. If left unchecked, you could develop deadly complications like sepsis.
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How Do You Get Gonorrhea
People usually get gonorrhea from having unprotected sex with someone who has the infection. Gonorrhea is spread when semen , pre-cum, and vaginal fluids get on or inside your genitals, anus, or mouth. Gonorrhea can be passed even if the penis doesnt go all the way in the vagina or anus.
The main ways people get gonorrhea are from having vaginal sex, anal sex, or oral sex. You can also get gonorrhea by touching your eye if you have infected fluids on your hand. Gonorrhea can also be spread to a baby during birth if the mother has it.
Gonorrhea isnt spread through casual contact, so you CANT get it from sharing food or drinks, kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or sitting on toilet seats.
Many people with gonorrhea dont have any symptoms, but they can still spread the infection to others. So using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex is the best way to help prevent gonorrhea even if you and your partner seem totally healthy.
Excessively Long Or Heavy Menstrual Cycles
While normal is different for every woman, you should be concerned if your period lasts much more than seven days or youre having two periods a month. According to the Mayo Clinic, that could be a sign of cervical cancer. If this happens more than two months in a row, you should talk to a doctor. Other possible diagnoses: PCOS, uterine polyps, or uterine cancer.
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Exciting Hiv Prevention Options Are On The Table
Once-daily tablets to prevent HIV work extremely well for people in high-risk situations, for example, university students who are exploring their sexual freedom.
HIV prevention pills can reduce your risk of infection via sex by more than 90% if you take it each day. The tablets consist of two ARVs the same medication that people with HIV use in South Africa and you can buy PrEP with a doctors prescription from pharmacies for about R300 per month or get it free from the government at more than 2 000 health facilities. Since 2016, about 400 000 people have received HIV prevention pills in the public sector.
What Are My Chances Of Contracting Hiv
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What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making an individual more vulnerable to serious illness. Untreated HIV can lead to AIDS, which occurs when the immune system is so weak it becomes susceptible to serious infections and some cancers.
Theres an epidemic of HIV in the United States and around the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , more than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and 1 in 7 of them arent aware of it. An estimated 39,782 people in the country were diagnosed with HIV in 2016 alone.
HIV transmission occurs in many different ways, including through condomless sex and by sharing needles. Risk of transmission varies depending on several factors including:
- sexual practices and the HIV status of sexual partners
- sharing needles for drug use or tattoos
- use of PrEP, PEP, condoms, or having an undetectable viral load
Its important to understand the risk level based on actual factors in preventing the transmission of HIV.
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Finding Support For Mental Health
Its important to get help for depression because it can worsen and have a significant impact on your quality of life. Left untreated, it can increase the risk of substance use disorders and suicidal ideation.
Its worth it to look for a mental health professional with experience in HIV concerns. You deserve to find someone you feel comfortable with so that you can speak freely, be open about important information, and avoid feeling judged or discriminated against for past actions. You shouldnt have to educate them about what HIV is or how it affects you.
Treatment isn’t only for when those feelings of depression spiral. In fact, HIV-specialized mental health professionals can help give you preventative treatment so that you dont have to add mental illness to the equation.
Sudden Confusion Or Change In Mental Status
Whenever someone has a change in mental status that is not caused by substance abuse, intoxication, or withdrawal of medications, they should immediately see a doctor, says Dr. Rajput. In addition, if the confusion occurs while the person has a fever, they are at a higher risk of infection of the brain, such as meningitis and encephalitis. Sudden confusion can also be the result of a head injury, a reaction to a new medication, dangerously low blood sugar, or a neurological problem, such as a stroke. Whatever the root cause, immediate medical attention is necessary.
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How Antiretroviral Drugs Affect The Body
While there is no cure for HIV, antiretroviral therapy can reduce the amount of the virus in the blood to very low levels. By doing this, it keeps the person healthy and prevents the transmission of the virus to other people.
A very low, or undetectable, viral load means that the risk of transmission to others is virtually zero, which has led to the phrase: undetectable = untransmittable .
Experts encourage all people with HIV, regardless of their CD4 T-cell count, to start taking antiretroviral drugs as soon as possible after their diagnosis. Early treatment is key to a good outcome.
As with other medications, antiretroviral drugs can cause side effects in some people. However, modern drugs tend to produce fewer and less severe side effects than older drugs.
Possible side effects of antiretroviral drugs include:
Some side effects may last for a few days or weeks after the person starts treatment. Others may start later or last longer.
If a person experiences severe side effects that make them consider stopping treatment, they can talk to their healthcare provider. Stopping treatment or skipping doses can lead to drug resistance and limit a persons treatment options.
Some people can reduce some side effects by taking the medication 2 hours before going to bed. Other people may prefer to take it in the morning to prevent sleep disturbances.
Certain HIV drugs may also lead to less obvious changes, such as: