Cdc Backing Could Help Lessen Stigma
Misinformation, stigma, and fear around HIV remains prevalent.
People diagnosed with HIV overestimate the risk of infecting their HIV-negative partner. Even though only 10 percent of participants in a recent survey had non-suppressed viral loads, a third of respondents believed their chance of infecting a partner was high, according to AIDSMAP.
We hope the CDCs endorsement of this fact helps lessen the stigma that still exists around people living with HIV, and that it encourages an open dialogue between sexual partners about their status, treatment, and prevention methods, said Sawyer.
Prevention Access Campaign has been a leader in education around the issue with the U=U campaign.
Advocates also hope the CDCs backing will provide additional leverage for challenging state nondisclosure laws, which criminalize HIV-positive people who dont disclose their HIV status.
Sawyer pointed out, The CDCs acknowledgement is a further indication that our laws around nondisclosure are no longer supported by the current accepted science and research about HIV transmission.
When Your Viral Load Is Undetectable
Eventually, you want to have an undetectable viral load — one so low that a lab test canât find it. When you have an undetectable viral load, you canât spread the virus to your sexual partner.
Even when you reach that point, you must remember that the virus is still in your body. To keep it at bay, take your medicine every day, just as your doctor prescribes. If you skip doses or stop treatment, your viral load can go up quickly. The chance that you can transmit the virus to your partners also goes way up.
Tell your doctor if you have trouble sticking to your treatment. Talk to your partners, too. Discuss other kinds of protection, like condoms, safer sex, or pre-exposure prophylaxis . This daily pill can lower the chance of infection in people who donât have HIV by up to 99%.
How Hiv Is Transmitted
HIV is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses.
HIV lives in the blood and in some body fluids. To get HIV, 1 of these fluids from someone with HIV has to get into your blood.
The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are:
- vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
- breast milk
- contact with animals or insects like mosquitoes
Recommended Reading: Atlanta Hiv Statistics 2016
When Both Partners Are Positive: What About Reinfection
Many HIV positive people have sexual partners who are also positive.
If both partners are positive this removes the anxiety of worrying about HIV.
Knowing about reinfection is important. If either partner has drug resistance or a different type of resistance this can be transmitted.
How often reinfection occurs is not known. The risk is probably at least as low as catching HIV the first time. This will be higher if viral load is detectable and dramatically less for someone on effective treatment.
The implications for your health if reinfection occurs will depend on how serious the resistance is.
This means knowing about both your and your partners treatment history.
If neither of you have resistance, or if you both have the same resistance, then reinfection is not a problem.
But if one of you has drug resistance, and a detectable viral load, then reinfection would stop these drugs from working.
Male Problems Of Neglected Chlamydia
Men can also experience complications when chlamydia is left untreated. The epididymis the tube that holds the testicles in position might end up being irritated, creating discomfort. This is referred to as epididymitis.
The infection can additionally spread to the prostate gland, triggering a fever, painful intercourse, as well as discomfort in the lower back. Another feasible issue is male chlamydial urethritis.
These are simply several of one of the most typical problems of unattended chlamydia, which is why its important to get medical attention today. Lots of people who get treatment swiftly have no long-term medical troubles. Can You Get Hiv If You Have Chlamydia
Link to next post: Can You Get Mouth Sores From Chlamydia
Hi there, Im Melissa and welcome to Genier. Im not ashamed to admit that Ive dealt with an STD before and recovered. It was not a pleasant experience but Im glad I got myself tested. If theres one message that you can take away from my site is get tested today! Stay safe.
Recommended Reading: Hiv Causes Hair Loss
Sex With Someone You Live With
If you live in the same house as asexual partner and you both have no symptoms, then you can continue having sex as normal for your relationship.
However, if you or your partner have any symptoms of COVID-19 a fever, dry cough, tiredness or loss of taste or smell you will need to keep your distance from each other for 14 days to avoid passing the virus on. During this time, you should avoid sex or any kind of physical intimacy, such as kissing and cuddling.
If your partner is having sex with other people who dont live with you, your risk of getting COVID-19 will be higher.
Risk Factors In Women
The risk of HIV from unprotected vaginal sex is higher among women for a number of reasons. From a physiological standpoint, the tissues of the vagina are far more susceptible to HIV than those of the penis.
HIV is able to pass through these tissues when the immune system recognizes the invading virus and send defensive cells to “grab and drag” them through the lining to be destroyed.
Instead, HIV turns the table and attacks the very cells meant to help neutralize them. By doing so, the body helps facilitate its own infection. And, because the surface area of the vaginal epithelium is far greater than that of the male urethra, the opportunity for infection is increased, often exponentially.
Other physiological vulnerabilities include:
While the daily use of an HIV drug called pre-exposure prophylaxis can dramatically decrease the risk of HIV in an uninfected partner, there is evidence that works less well in women. Research published in 2016 suggests the level of the active drug molecule in vaginal tissue isn’t near as high as in rectal tissue.
None of this, of course, takes into account any of the social vulnerabilities that can place women at increased risk. These include sexual violence in relationships which not only steals a woman’s chance for self-protection but can result in damage to delicate vaginal tissue.
Also Check: Does Nba Youngboy Have An Std
Hiv & Sex In Relationships
Having safe sex in relationships can be complicated by the play of strong emotions. Feelings like trust and closeness can make it difficult to have safe sex’ ‘Because you trust somebody you don’t think to use condoms.’ The views expressed here are of gay and Black African communities that we interviewed in 2005. Several people we talked to believed they became infected with HIV because they trusted their partners and were unaware their partners were infected with HIV or having unsafe sex outside the relationship. Also having safe sex is not always straightforward. For instance, a partner who wants safe sex may have trouble convincing the other.
Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV and AIDS are not the same thing. And people with HIV do not always have AIDS.
HIV is the virus thats passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system that helps protect you from infections. When you dont have enough of these CD4 cells, your body cant fight off infections the way it normally can.
AIDS is the disease caused by the damage that HIV does to your immune system. You have AIDS when you get dangerous infections or have a super low number of CD4 cells. AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV, and it leads to death over time.
Without treatment, it usually takes about 10 years for someone with HIV to develop AIDS. Treatment slows down the damage the virus causes and can help people stay healthy for several decades.
Also Check: Can You Get Aids From Dried Blood
How Do You Get Hiv From Sex
HIV is transmitted through semen , vaginal fluid, blood, and anal mucus. During sex without a condom the bodily fluids from one person can pass into the body of their sexual partner. This can happen through the mucous membranes of the penis, vagina and rectum, or sores in the mouth and throat.
You can only get HIV from someone who is living with HIV and has a detectable viral load.
How Can A Person Who Is Hiv Positive Prevent Passing Hiv To Others
Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART cannot cure HIV, but it can reduce the amount of HIV in the body . One of the main goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
Here are some other steps you can take to prevent HIV transmission:
- Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
- Talk to your partner about taking PrEP.
- If you inject drugs, do not share your needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with your partner.
Read Also: Does Nba Youngboy Have Hiv
Talking About Sex And Sex Habits Is Part Of Sti Testing And It Leads To A Better Outcome
When you get tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, always remember to tell your healthcare professional what kind of sex you have had to make sure the tests are taken correctly and infections can be treated right. Syphilis and HIV are always tested from a blood sample, and several weeks later than gonorrhea and chlamydia. Thus, in addition to sex practices, it is essential to discuss the timing of sexual contacts so that tests are done at the right time.
At Hivpoint, we get feedback from our customers about their problems when having STI tests. Based on this feedback, in many places where STI testing is performed, tests are not taken correctly: often only a urine sample has been taken, although based on the sex habits, also samples from the throat and / or anus would have been necessary.
So, if you are asked what kind of sex you have had when testing for STIs, you do not have to feel ashamed or embarrassed. Instead, you can be happy, because then the testing is likely to be done correctly.
When there is an opportunity to talk about sex during STI testing, it leads to a better outcome in terms of sexual health. Transparency in STI testing can also lead to a good opportunity to ask questions about your sexual health and get individual counseling.
Which Law Is Used To Prosecute Hiv Transmission In England And Wales
The law used in England and Wales to prosecute people for HIV transmission is the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 . People are prosecuted under the section on grievous bodily harm.
There are two possible offences – reckless transmission and intentional transmission .
You must have actually transmitted HIV to be successfully prosecuted.
You May Like: How Long Can Hiv Lay Dormant
Which Law Is Used To Prosecute Hiv Transmission In Scotland
The common law offence of Culpable and Reckless Conduct is used to prosecute cases in Scotland.
This is a legal catch-all vehicle which criminalises acts that cause injury to others or create a risk of injury. This means that people can technically be prosecuted for both passing on the virus and for putting someone at risk through unprotected sex.
The law in Scotland focuses on the behaviour of the defendant, rather than the harm caused, and whether their conduct can be considered reckless or not.
How Hiv Infects The Body
HIV infects the immune system, causing progressive damage and eventually making it unable to fight off infections.
The virus attaches itself to immune system cells called CD4 lymphocyte cells, which protect the body against various bacteria, viruses and other germs.
Once attached, it enters the CD4 cells and uses it to make thousands of copies of itself. These copies then leave the CD4 cells, killing them in the process.
This process continues until eventually the number of CD4 cells, also called your CD4 count, drops so low that your immune system stops working.
This process may take up to 10 years, during which time you’ll feel and appear well.
Page last reviewed: 22 April 2021 Next review due: 22 April 2024
Don’t Miss: Does Nba Youngboy Have Hiv
Getting Pregnant And Having Children With An Hiv
According to the British government organization AIDSMap, HIV-positive women can have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies, without passing HIV to their child. But this takes careful planning, and extra steps are necessary to reduce the risk. Talk to your doctor if youre planning to become pregnant, since your best options may be affected by whether youre on ART, whether your health is generally good, and which person in the relationship has HIV.
Other options for couples affected by HIV include:
What Is The Difference Between Hiv And Aids
The term AIDS refers to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. Most of the conditions affecting people with AIDS are opportunistic infections that generally do not affect healthy people. In people with AIDS, these infections are often severe and sometimes fatal because the immune system is so ravaged by HIV that the body cannot fight off the infection. Symptoms of opportunistic infections common in people with AIDS include:
- coughing and shortness of breath
- seizures and lack of coordination
- difficult or painful swallowing
- severe headaches
People with AIDS also are particularly prone to developing various cancers. These cancers are usually more aggressive and difficult to treat in people with AIDS.
Read Also: Walgreens At Home Hiv Test
How To Have Safer Sex With Your Hiv
In recent years, several advances have made intimacy between a couple with one HIV-positive partner somewhat safer. People who are aggressively managing their HIV with medications called antiretroviral therapy, or ART, usually have lower levels of HIV in their blood and bodily fluids. This, Henderson explains, also decreases the chances that theyll transmit the virus to someone else. According to the CDC, people who maintain undetectable viral loads that is, the level of HIV in the blood is lower than can be detected with current technology have virtually no chance of infecting a sexual partner.
Individuals at high risk for contracting HIV can also take a combination of medicines called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, which works to prevent the virus from establishing a permanent infection in the body, Henderson explains. PrEP involves taking an antiretroviral pill every day and seeing a healthcare provider every three months to take an HIV test and get a prescription refill.
Though its often given in an emergency room in urgent situations, post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, offers an option for people who have just participated in high-risk sex, such as having had anal intercourse with a man who is HIV positive. Henderson notes that PEP has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to the virus.
When Is Someone Found Guilty Of Reckless Hiv Transmission
In England and Wales, you may be found guilty of reckless HIV transmission if all of the below apply:
- You had sex with someone who didnt know you had HIV.
- You knew you had HIV at that time.
- You understood how HIV is transmitted.
- You had sex without a condom.
- You transmitted HIV to that person.
In Scotland, the law is more strict. You can also be prosecuted for putting someone at risk without their prior knowledge or consent, even if transmission did not take place.
Recommended Reading: Hiv Stays Alive In Dried Blood
Multiple Vulnerabilities Increase Risk In Men And Women
Vaginal sex is one of the primary ways a person can become infected with HIV. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, it accounts for about 6,300 new infections among women each year in the U.S. and about 2,800 new infections among heterosexual men.
Globally, the figures are even more dismaying. While the sexual transmission of HIV in the U.S. is highest among gay and bisexual men , heterosexuals are by far the group most affected worldwide.
This is especially true in Africa where most new infections are among heterosexuals. In these populations, vaginal sex is the predominant route of infection.
Are Certain Activities Higher Risk
Yep. Penis-in-anus and penis-in-vagina sex are higher risk activities.
Penis-in-anus sex is the riskiest type of sex for contracting or transmitting HIV. The risk is higher for the receptive partner, sometimes referred to as the bottom.
This is because the rectums lining is very thin. Tiny abrasions give infected bodily fluids direct access to the bloodstream.
The risk is slightly lower for the insertive partner, or top, though they can still contract HIV. The virus can enter the body through the urethra, the foreskin , or any open sores or tiny scratches on the penis.
A person with a vagina can contract HIV from unprotected sex when the virus enters the body through the mucus membranes lining the vagina and cervix.
The partner with the penis contracts it from blood or vaginal fluid that enters the body through the urethra, foreskin, or small cuts or open sores on the penis.
This involves the mother with HIV taking ART as prescribed all through pregnancy and childbirth, as well as giving the baby HIV medicine for 4 to 6 weeks after birth.
Also Check: Free Hiv Testing Planned Parenthood