Hiv/aids Prevention And Treatment In Botswana
The AIDS crisis shook the world in the 1980s, but some countries, including Botswana, are still trying to find their footing in terms of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Botswana has been a struggle, but the country is taking the right steps forward to fight the virus.
HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment in Botswana
Botswana has the fourth-highest rate of HIV in the world, with a rate of 20.3%. In 2000, the peak rate was 26.3% and rates have decreased every year since. The National AIDS Coordinating Agency created a treatment plan to offer universal free antiretroviral treatment , making Botswana the first country in the Southern African region to do so. This effectively reduced the rates of HIV in Botswana.
This first strategy for treatment is simple. The test and treat strategy gives people who test positive for HIV access to immediate treatment. With enough treatment, HIV levels can become so low that they are undetectable on a test. However, this does not mean treatment should be stopped. Continued treatment is necessary in order to maintain an undetectable viral load, which means the chance of a person transmitting HIV is zero.
Women and HIV/AIDS
Us Response To The Global Epidemic
The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for more than 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2021 and, as of September 30, 2021, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.96 million men, women, and children. PEPFAR also enabled 2.8 million babies to be born HIV-free to parents living with HIV.
In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.
Start Free Stay Free Aids Free
is about galvanizing global momentum around a shared and ambitious agenda. Led by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the U.S. Presidentâs Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief , Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free brings together a coalition of partners to build on the tremendous progress achieved under the Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive . Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free provides a roadmap for the urgent work ahead, elevating and amplifying key initiatives that are already accelerating progress for children, adolescents and young women. These include the DREAMS Partnership, the Accelerating Childrenâs HIV/AIDS Treatment Initiative, All-in and many others.
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% Of People Living With Hiv Access Treatment
Adetimi Bayo lives with HIV in a heart of poverty in remote Nigeria. Being remote and being poor can mean out of reach of help and hope. When Nigeria decided to change its AIDS story, it changed the life story of thousands of people like Bayo.
Back in 2018, the country which has the third highest burden of HIV cases was struggling with an ineffective response characterized by poor data quality, low service coverage and sub-optimal coordination and ownership.
We have been able to ensure that 100% of our clients are retained in care and that we provide quality pharmaceutical care, so we are able to monitor them.Anya Chidinma, Pharmacist, Heartland Alliance
Recognizing the need for change, the Government embraced a catch-up plan, devised by World Health Organization to fast-track finding people living with HIV and putting them on treatment in states that contribute more than 50% of the national unmet treatment needs. WHO provided guidance on setting up an HIV situation room for coordinating commodities logistics and distributing HIV drugs, ultimately improving service points and patients retention in care. A clinical HIV mentorship programme for facility health workers strengthened service delivery and equity in care.
Coverage of HIV treatment in Nigeria in 2021 was around 90%, up from 50% in 2015, when only about 61% of the population knew their status. New infections are on a downward trend, from 95,000 in 2015 to 74,000 in 2021.
Additional Challenges To Scaling Up
Clearly, there are numerous barriers to scaling up access to treatment in poor countries that are beyond the scope of this document, including those related to weak health systems and poor access to health care in general. But two additional factors contribute to the current bottleneck: insufficient training of health care workers and the lack of support for local NGOs and associations of people living with HIV/AIDS.
In addition to increased political commitment from donor countries and developing countries to address the needs laid out above, several other strategies are needed to scale up treatment in resource-limited settings. These include large-scale training initiatives for nurses, counsellors, medical officers, physicians and other care providers, and supporting community mobilisation. Led by people living with HIV/AIDS, local initiatives should provide treatment, carry out HIV/AIDS educational programmes including treatment literacy components, and develop advocacy initiatives to strengthen the role of people living with HIV/AIDS in formulating and implementing national and international AIDS programmes and policies.
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Principles Of Equality And Non
International law also establishes the basic principles of non-discrimination and equality. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims that veryone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status . Additionally, under that Declaration, ll are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law . The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights echoes the UDHRs proclamations against discrimination, binding States parties to recognize the rights it guarantees without distinction of any kind, including based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status ). The ICCPR also notes the equality of all persons before the law and requires that the law prohibit discrimination and guarantee equal protection against discrimination on any ground, including the above-noted ones . The Human Rights Committee , the ICCPRs monitoring body, has determined non-discrimination, equality before the law, and equal protection, to be basic principles in the protection of human rights.
List Of Countries By Hiv/aids Adult Prevalence Rate
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The human immunodeficiency virus , which causes AIDS, varies in prevalence from nation to nation. Listed here are the prevalence rates among adults in various countries, based on data from various sources, largely the CIA World Factbook.
As of 2018, 38 million people are estimated infected with HIV globally.
The HIV pandemic is most severe in Southern Africa. Over 10% of all people infected with HIV/AIDS reside within the region. Adult HIV prevalence exceeds 15% in Eswatini, Botswana, and Lesotho, while an additional six countries report adult HIV prevalence of at least 10%. Outside Africa, the highest prevalence rate is found in the Bahamas .
In absolute numbers, South Africa , followed by Mozambique , India and Nigeria had the highest HIV/AIDS number of cases by the end of 2022. While South Africa’s large population of HIV-positive people is attributable to its high disease prevalence , Nigeria’s is lower at 1.3%, with India’s prevalence rate at 0.2%. However, countries such as Nigeria with high HIV rates above 1% are classified as having Generalized HIV Epidemics by UNAIDS, while India’s prevalence is well below this threshold, with a prevalence lower than the US’s and about the same as Spain.
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Should I Tell My Gp That I Have Hiv
Its important to be registered with a GP as well as an HIV clinic. Although you’re not obliged to tell your GP that you have HIV, there are good medical reasons to do so. When treating you and giving you prescriptions, your doctor should know about other health issues you have, and all other medicines you’re taking.
Some drugs your GP may prescribe can interact with HIV medicines.
Because of rules of confidentiality, the HIV clinic needs your permission before it can discuss your health with your GP.
GPs will not get involved in HIV treatment decisions, which are left to the HIV clinic.
Hiv Rates By Country 2022
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a disease that weakens a persons immune system by attacking CD4 cells, which help the body fight off infection. If HIV advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, a terminal condition. HIV spreads through certain body fluids, most often during unprotected sex, pregnancy and childbirth, transfusion of contaminated blood, or shared use of hypodermic needles. The human body cannot completely eliminate HIV. Therefore, once the virus is contracted, the individual will remain HIV-positive for life. However, HIV can be controlled and its progression slowed significantly by treatment with antiretroviral therapy medicines. HIV rates vary drastically between countries, particularly in Africa, the continent from which the virus is believed to have originated.
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Moving Towards Equitable Access
Drug budgets constitute a significant part of overall programme costs. For this reason, MSF supports the implementation of Equitable Access to keep drug prices down. Equitable pricing is based on the principle that the poor should have access to, and pay less for, essential medicines. Drug prices must be fair, equitable and affordable, both to individuals and the health systems that serve them. To ensure this, drugs must be bought from lowest cost reliable suppliers through competition and local production. WHO and UNICEF should offer technical support, including pre-qualification of medicines, bulk purchasing and assistance in overcoming patent barriers to access more affordable medicines.
Right To Highest Attainable Standard Of Health
All individuals have the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health, a right which has been enshrined in international and regional treaties.
According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , veryone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services ). The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights also guarantees the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of health, and requires States parties to take steps individually and through international cooperation to progressively realize this right via the prevention, treatment, and control of epidemic diseases and the creation of conditions to assure medical service and attention to all . Progressive realization demands of States parties a specific and continuing obligation to move as expeditiously and effectively as possible towards the full realization of . According to the WHO and the Office of the UNHCR,
hen considering the level of implementation of this right in a particular State, the availability of resources at that time and the development context are taken into account. Nonetheless, no State can justify a failure to respect its obligations because of a lack of resources. States must guarantee the right to health to the maximum of their available resources, even if these are tight. .
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Hiv Treatment Information For Spain
Treatment is provided exclusively through the pharmaceutical services in hospitals. Care is provided by large hospitals through the specific service called “Unidad de enfermedades infecciosas” in smaller hospitals by the internal medicine service.
Access to Spanish healthcare system is universal and free of charge for all citizens. Foreigners are also entitled to healthcare under the same conditions as any other citizen. All residents must be registered with the City Council irrespective of their migratory status in the country. This is a quick and easy process which can be done at no cost. However, there can be differences and exceptions to this rule, depending on residency status, work situation or the region. We strongly recommend people to contact a local NGO in the region where they are planning to live, before moving to Spain.
It may be challenging to register with the City Council for irregular immigrants, because registration requires a rental contract. Such immigrants should contact a local NGO.
Due to a legal change implemented since 2012, students from outside Europe are no longer entitled to local health cards. To receive their visa, they are obliged to purchase a private insurance for the duration of their studies. This insurance will however not cover pre-existing conditions such as treatment for HIV infection.
The Global Hiv/aids Epidemic
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of the worlds most serious public health challenges. But there is a global commitment to stopping new HIV infections and ensuring that everyone with HIV has access to HIV treatment.
According to UNAIDS:
Number of People with HIVThere were approximately 38.4 million people across the globe with HIV in 2020. Of these, 36.7 million were adults and 1.7 million were children . In addition, 54% were women and girls.
New HIV InfectionsAn estimated 1.5 million individuals worldwide acquired HIV in 2021, marking a 32% decline in new HIV infections since 2010. New HIV infections, or HIV incidence, refers to the estimated number of people who newly acquired HIV during a given period such as a year, which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a year. Of these 1.5 million new HIV infections:
- 1.3 million were among adults
- 160,000 were among children
HIV TestingApproximately 85% of people with HIV globally knew their HIV status in 2021. The remaining 15% did not know they had HIV and still needed access to HIV testing services. HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services.
- 85% knew their HIV status
- 75% were accessing ART
- 68% were virally suppressed
Perinatal TransmissionIn 2021, 81% of pregnant people with HIV had access to ART to prevent transmitting HIV to their babies during pregnancy and childbirth and to protect their own health.
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Regional And Local Production Through Licensing And Technology Transfer
The capacity to produce quality ARVs exists today in many developing countries. Brazil and Thailand have dramatically increased affordability of ARVs by producing them locally within government manufacturing organisations. Local production is a long-term, sustainable strategy that has the added benefit of stimulating the economic development and autonomy of developing countries. Existing production capacity should be enhanced and used to produce the drugs that are needed. This can be achieved through voluntary licensing agreements with originator companies or compulsory licensing if originator companies choose not to cooperate and technology transfer. In practice, a patent-holder is more likely to grant a voluntary licence if a country has a strong compulsory licensing system. Under TRIPS, developed countries are obligated to transfer technology to least developed countries.
Hiv Travel Restrictions In Practice
It is important to note, however, that there is often a lack of clarity about these laws, with some either not addressing HIV directly or not enforcing the laws all that stringently, if at all. As such, the assessments provided below are couched in terms that best reflect whether an action “will,””can” or “may” take place.
Similarly, there is a lack of clarity about the import of antiretroviral drugswhether the drugs are allowed for personal use how much can be brought in if they are permitted or if possession of such constitutes the right to deny entry.
For these reasons, it is advised that you always speak with the consulate or embassy of any of the listed destinations if you plan to visit.
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Other Information To Note
When contacting an embassy or consulate to ask about travel restrictions, an individualâs name and HIV status can be kept anonymous.
For British Overseas Territories, The Foreign & Commonwealth Office website is a good place to start at www.fco.gov.uk. It may also be beneficial to contact an HIV organisation in the destination country to ask for information.
If a country does have entry restrictions, people with HIV who still decide to travel risk being refused entry or deported. It is worth noting that some countries will offer waivers under certain circumstances, particularly if the trip is to visit family members, but they may be difficult to obtain.
Travel restrictions for people with HIV can change quickly and so need to be checked before any trip. China and America are two examples of countries that recently lifted their restrictions on HIV-positive visitors.
In countries where restrictions have been recently changed, extra caution should be taken if discussing HIV status. If someone with HIV flouted the regulation and travelled into a country when the ban was in place, they could still be open to deportation following a travel ban being lifted. This could happen if there was proof that the individual knew of their HIV-positive status when the ban was in place and still entered the country. In this circumstance, the individual would have broken the law in the past and could be deported for that reason.
The Brazilian Hiv/aids Economy
Antiretroviral drugs are distributed to PLWHIV in Brazil by 953 official ARV dispensation centers across the country´s 5570 municipalities. Drug dispensation and stocks are monitored by an internet-based ARV logistics management system that is hosted entirely within Brazils HIV/AIDS Program. Individual-level patient data is collected in 97% of all dispensation centers in Brazil and gathered information of almost 100% of PLWHIV on ART in 2018.
Presently, the budget for the Brazilian HIV/AIDS Program is approximately US$ 408 million per year approximately US$ 302 million are for ART alone. Dolutegravir as a first-line drug was only made sustainable following intense negotiation between the Brazilian government and pharmaceutical industries, leading to a 70.5% drop in pricesfrom US$ 5.10 to US$ 1.50 a pill. This meant approximately US$ 139.2 million in savings for Brazil only in that first acquisition in November 2016. Currently, Brazils HIV/AIDS Program pays US$ 1.00 for a DTG pill.
Incentives to national generic ARV also sustained the Brazilian HIV/AIDS Program. Zidovudine began to be locally produced in 1994. Facing the ineffectiveness of single-drug ART, SUS began to distribute the AIDS cocktail combination drug therapy in 1996, now simply called modern ART. Currently, eight of the 38 ARVs supplied by SUS are made in Brazil by public laboratories private laboratories produce another five.
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