Is There A 100% Effective Way To Prevent Sexual Transmission Of Hiv And Stds
The only 100% effective way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and STDs is through abstinence – avoiding all vaginal, anal and oral sex. Using a latex male condom or a female condom can greatly reduce, but not entirely eliminate, the risk of HIV and STD transmission. Abstinence is the only method to completely eliminate the possibility of sexual transmission of HIV or STDs.
Do Condoms Prevent Hiv
Condoms can help prevent transmission of HIV and other STIs. They do this because they form a barrier that viruses and bacteria cannot effectively pass through.
According to the , lab studies have found that the barrier created by condoms is effective against even the tiniest pathogens, including HIV.
However, results from lab tests can be different from whats found in daily life.
This is because its possible that people may not use condoms consistently or correctly during sex.
Data collected by the National Institutes of Health from both lab and epidemiological studies estimates that, when used consistently and correctly, condoms lower the risk of HIV transmission by about
Lets examine what some of the research says.
Other Stds And Associated Conditions
- Consistent and correct use of latex condoms reduces the risk for many STDs that are transmitted by genital fluids .
- Consistent and correct use of latex condoms reduces the risk for genital ulcer diseases, such as genital herpes, syphilis, and chancroid, only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected.
- Consistent and correct use of latex condoms may reduce the risk for genital human papillomavirus infection and HPV-associated diseases .
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Do Condoms When Used Properly Reduce Hiv Transmission Rates
In 2002, the Cochrane Collaboration published a meta-analysis of 14 studies that examined the effects of condom use on the probability of HIV transmission.10 The authors of the meta-analysis estimated that consistent condom use by a couple in which one partner was infected with HIV and the other was not resulted in an 80% reduction in the rate of transmission of HIV to the uninfected partner.11 The authors note that the studies were not randomized controlled trials, and that this reduction may therefore have been caused by systematic, unmeasured differences between the types of couples who always and never use condoms.12
As mentioned above, we have not thoroughly reviewed the rest of the literature on the general effectiveness of condoms. We are aware of several other papers and meta-analyses that might give us a more accurate and reliable picture of the effectiveness of condoms, were this to become an important question to us.13
Condoms Are Made From Different Materials
Its possible to purchase condoms made from a variety of different materials, including latex and synthetic materials, like polyurethane and polyisoprene.
Lambskin condoms are more porous than other types of condoms. This allows germs, particularly viruses, to pass through the condom. Because of this, theyre not effective at preventing HIV and many other STIs.
Its estimated that about of the worldwide population is allergic to latex. People with a latex allergy can use condoms made of synthetic material to prevent having an allergic reaction while protecting against HIV transmission.
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Protect Cuts And Scrapes From Exposure
Merely touching the blood or semen of an infected person isnt enough to contract the virus. However, if these fluids come in contact with damaged tissue or a mucous membrane, transmission can occur, Dr. Collman says. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth, he notes.
Learn About Viral Load
In 2017 the CDC declared that people with HIV who have an undetectable viral loadmeaning levels of HIV in the blood is below the threshold of detectionare unable to transmit HIV to their partners. This is often summarized with the phrase Undetectable = Untransmittable or U = U.
The CDC made the declaration after analyzing the results of three studies that included thousands of couples engaging in sexual acts without condoms, where one partner was HIV-positive with an undetectable viral load, and the other was HIV-negative . Not one of the HIV-negative people in the three studies contracted the virus from a positive person when their viral load was suppressed, the CDC reported.
The way to obtain and maintain an undetectable viral load is through taking a combination of antiretroviral medications. This treatment is referred to as antiretroviral therapy or ART, according to the CDC. HIV researchers, doctors, and activists alike now view having an undetectable viral load as a means of HIV prevention, commonly referred to as Treatment as Prevention .
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Because They Prefer Condoms
Perhaps you are perfectly comfortable with taking PrEP, but often your partner might have a different need. Sometimes your partners will prefer to use condoms, which could be due to wanting to reduce their risk of other STIs or just a personal preference.
The fact of the matter is they are taking their own sexual health seriously and for that, they deserve a *clicks fingers* Yaaaasssss.
How To Avoid Hiv
The main ways to prevent HIV infection are to reduce the risk of exposure by using a condom when you have sex and not share needles and other equipment used for injecting drugs.
HIV treatment with antiretrovirals substantially reduces the risk of passing the virus onto someone else.
Knowing your HIV status and that of your partner is important and if you are at regular risk of potential exposure to HIV you should have a regular HIV test.
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How Can I Prevent Hiv Transmission And Stds During Vaginal Sex
HIV is spread during vaginal sex when HIV-infected semen, vaginal fluid or menstrual blood comes into contact with the mucous membranes of the vagina or penis. Some STDs are spread the same way as HIV. Other STDs are transmitted through contact with infected skin or mucous membranes. In general, since there is more mucous membrane area in the vagina, and a greater possibility of small cuts in the vagina, women are more likely than men to get infected with HIV and some STDs through unprotected vaginal sex. Teenagers and women entering menopause are at especially high risk for getting HIV and other STDs because the tissue lining the vagina is more fragile at these ages. Cuts or sores on the penis or vagina raise the risk of HIV infection and STDs during vaginal sex for both men and women. Using a latex male condom or a female condom lowers your risk of getting HIV and STDs through vaginal sex.
What Is Pep And How Does It Prevent Hiv
PEP stands for post-exposure prophylaxis. Its a series of pills you start taking after youve been exposed to HIV that lowers your chances of getting HIV. You have to start PEP within 72 hours , after you were exposed to HIV for it to work. The sooner you start it, the better. Every hour counts, so if you think you were exposed to HIV, call your nurse or doctor or go to the emergency room right away. PEP is only for emergencies it doesnt take the place of using condoms or PrEP. Read more about PEP.
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What Types Of Condoms Are Available To Prevent Hiv Transmission
Two types of condoms are available to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV:
The external condom, also known as the male condom, is a sheath made from polyurethane, latex or polyisoprene, which covers the penis during sexual intercourse. There are many types and brands of external condoms available.
The internal condom, also known as the female condom, is a pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile. The internal condom was designed for vaginal sex but can also be used for anal sex. The pouch is open at one end and closed at the other, with a flexible ring at both ends. The ring at the closed end is inserted into the vagina or anus to hold the condom in place. The ring at the open end of the pouch remains outside of the vagina or anus.
Effective Ways To Prevent Hiv/aids
The human immunodeficiency virus destroys immune cells which fight infection. This makes it difficult for your body to fight off infections and certain kinds of cancer. Without proper treatment, an HIV infection can progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS, a stage where your immune system is seriously damaged and you get a number of severe illnesses known as opportunistic infections.1
HIV spreads through contact with body fluids like blood, semen, pre-seminal fluids, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, or breast milk from an infected person. In the United States, this virus is mostly spread by having sex with or sharing syringes or other injection equipment with someone who is infected. It can also be transmitted from a mother to her child during the course of the pregnancy, while breastfeeding, or during childbirth.2 Although the number of people being infected with HIV has been declining, it still remains a cause of concern with thousands of new cases being diagnosed every year.3 But take heart, there are things you can do to protect yourself from this dangerous infection.
Here are some ways to keep yourself safe.
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What Is Art And How Does It Help Prevent Hiv
Antiretroviral therapy is a combination of medicines that slows down the effects of HIV in your body and can help you stay healthy for many years. It can also lower or even stop your chances of giving HIV to anyone else.
ART lowers the amount of HIV in your body sometimes to the point where HIV wont show up on standard blood tests. If your HIV viral load is so low that certain tests cant see it, its called undetectable. When someone has an undetectable viral load, they cant spread HIV to others during sex.
Its important to remember that even with an undetectable viral load, HIV is still present in your body. If you stop treatment your viral load can go up, making it possible to pass HIV to others you have sex with. Your doctor or nurse can help you find the treatment thats best for you to help keep your viral load low, so you can stay healthy.
The New Do It London Campaign Advises The Use Of Condoms Regular Testing Preventative Drugs And Becoming ‘undetectable’ As Ways Of Averting The Spread Of The Virus
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To help reduce HIV transmission, an innovative new Do It London campaign will run until early next year.
A partnership of 31 London boroughs, and delivered by a specialist team based in Lambeth, it encourages Londoners to do it your way when it comes to HIV prevention, with options including using condoms, regular testing for the virus, taking part in the new NHS PrEP drugs trial and, for people who are HIV positive, becoming undetectable by taking antiretroviral medication.
This new campaign is rooted in clear and emerging evidence that combination prevention is starting to have a significant impact in reducing HIV transmission in London, explains Paul Steinberg, lead commissioner of the London HIV Prevention Programme.
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Data Extraction And Management
Two authors independently extracted data using a standardised data extraction form and performed risk of bias assessment. Extracted information included the study details, participant details, intervention details and outcome details. We assessed the risk of bias for RCTs using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions . For crossover and cluster RCTs, we assessed for risk of bias specific to these study designs as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions . Disagreements between the authors who extracted data and assessed risk of bias were resolved by discussion and consensus. We planned to asses for publication bias using a funnel plot, but this was not done due to the insufficient number of studies reporting the various outcome measures. Data were entered into Review Manager 5.3 software and checked for accuracy.
For cluster randomised trials, we reduced each trial to its effective sample size by dividing its original sample by the design effect where the design effect equals 1+ * ICC . M is the average cluster size and ICC is the intracluster correlation coefficient. We used an ICC of 0·03 which was reported by one of the included studies. Finally, we assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach, as outlined in the GRADE handbook .
What Doesnt Transmit Hiv
Saliva, tears, and sweat cannot transmit HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact.
HIV can only be transmitted through exposure to infectious secretions. This can occur during sex, through shared needles or drug paraphernalia, or workplace exposure to blood and secretions. Universal precautions have largely eliminated the transmission of HIV in American healthcare settings.
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Risk Of Bias In Included Studies
We assessed the included studies for selection bias. One study assigned participants to intervention arm based on the week of initial visit and this was scored as high risk for random sequence generation and unclear risk for allocation concealment . Three studies failed to provide sufficient information and were scored as having unclear risk of bias for both random sequence generation and concealment . Three studies reported adequately on the methods of random sequence generation but failed to report on allocation concealment and were scored as having unclear risk of bias for allocation concealment . The rest of the studies adequately reported random sequence generation and allocation concealment and were judged to have low risk of bias for both domains.
With regards to blinding, it was generally difficult to blind the participants and to some extent the research personnel due to the nature of the female condom. All studies had unclear risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel. All except one study had unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors .
Never Share Needles Or Syringes
Sharing needles, whether youre injecting hormones, steroids, or illegal drugs, can increase your risk for HIV. Needles, syringes, or other injection equipment that has already been used may have HIV-infected blood in them that can make you sick, according to the CDC. In addition to HIV, these needles often also carry the viruses that cause hepatitis, which can lead to liver failure, Dr. Collman says.
Thats why he says that needle-sharing programs, where injection drug users can obtain clean hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at no cost, are very effective in preventing the spread of HIV.
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Do Condoms Always Prevent Hiv Transmission
They have a very low failure rate and are effective for all forms of sex, including oral and anal sex.
Condoms are classed as medical devices so therefore must meet essential requirements and go through quality tests.
Always check the expiry date of the condom, and choose condoms that carry the BSI kite mark and the European CE mark. These are recognised safety standards.
Condoms are most effective when used properly, which includes using one that is the right size. Condoms come in different widths and lengths, so it may take a while to find the right condom.
Here are some basic things you can do to make sure youre using a condom properly:
- use a new condom each time you have sex
- put the condom on as soon as an erection occurs and before any sexual contact
- avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or baby oil, which can weaken the condom and increase the chances of it splitting water-based lubricants are best and can be bought at most supermarkets or pharmacies
- the man should withdraw from his partner immediately after ejaculating, holding the condom firmly to keep it from slipping off
How Do You Get Hiv From Sex
HIV is transmitted through semen , vaginal fluid, blood, and anal mucus. During sex without a condom the bodily fluids from one person can pass into the body of their sexual partner. This can happen through the mucous membranes of the penis, vagina and rectum, or sores in the mouth and throat.
You can only get HIV from someone who is living with HIV and has a detectable viral load.
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How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Hiv To Anyone During Sex
If you find out that you have HIV, try to stay calm. People living with HIV can have normal, healthy relationships and sex lives. But its important to take precautions to help your partner stay HIV-free.
There are a few ways that you can avoid giving HIV to other people:
Always use condoms when you have vaginal and anal sex.
Start treatment for HIV as soon as possible, and keep taking your HIV medicine. When you take it correctly, HIV treatment can lower or even stop your chances of spreading the virus to your sexual partners .
Theres a daily pill your partner can take to lower the risk of getting HIV, called PrEP.
Dont share needles for shooting drugs, piercings, or tattoos.
Get tested and treated for other STDs besides HIV regularly. Having other STDs makes it easier for you to spread HIV to others.
If you test positive for HIV, its important to tell your sexual partners about it so they can be tested, too. Even if youre really careful to not spread HIV, be honest with your future partners about your status so you can both be informed and help each other stay healthy. Read more about talking with your partners about HIV.