But How Well Do Contraception Methods Such As Condoms Prevent Hiv And Other Stds
Condoms are highly effective when it comes to preventing STDs. In fact, condoms are one of the most effective forms protection against HIV and other STDs, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, if used the right ways every time you have sex.
However, as per the CDC, condoms provide less protection against STDs that spread through skin-to-skin contact like human papillomavirus or HPV , genital herpes, and syphilis.
Moreover, theres still a chance that youll get HIV even if you use condoms correctly every time you have sex. Hence, its suggested take individuals at high risk take additional preventive measures, which include taking medicines to prevent and treat HIV, to further reduce their risk. So, abstinence – meaning avoiding all oral, vaginal, or anal sex – is the only way that can provide 100 per cent protection against pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purposes only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a professional healthcare provider if you have any specific questions about any medical matter.
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Condom Efficacy With Intermittent Use
This analysis also shows that sometimes using condoms is no better than not using them at all. Overall, men who said they sometimes used condoms were only 4.4% less likely to acquire HIV than men who never used them. This difference was statistically insignificant the margin of uncertainty means that, statistically, the ‘true’ efficacy of ‘sometimes’ versus ‘never’ using condoms could be anything between 29% fewer infections to 29% more infections, which is as good as saying that intermittent condom use essentially has zero efficacy.
There were 26% fewer infections in EXPLORE in men who used condoms intermittently than in men who never used them, but this was not statistically significant.
In VAX004 sometimes using condoms was, if anything slightly less effective than never using them, with nearly 10% more infections in sometimes versus never users. How could this be? In the 1989 study, gay men who said they ‘sometimes’ used condoms were no less than 70% more likely to acquire HIV than men who said they never used them. The researchers at the time hypothesised that this because men who never used condoms might be more likely to be in monogamous relationships.
The researchers are now going to do further research to split sometimes into different frequencies of use to find out below which level condom use ceases to be protective.
Vatican: Condoms Don’t Stop Aids
The Catholic Church is telling people in countries stricken by Aids not to use condoms because they have tiny holes in them through which HIV can pass – potentially exposing thousands of people to risk.
The church is making the claims across four continents despite a widespread scientific consensus that condoms are impermeable to HIV.
A senior Vatican spokesman backs the claims about permeable condoms, despite assurances by the World Health Organisation that they are untrue.
The church’s claims are revealed in a BBC1 Panorama programme, Sex and the Holy City, to be broadcast on Sunday. The president of the Vatican’s Pontifical Council for the Family, Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, told the programme: “The Aids virus is roughly 450 times smaller than the spermatozoon. The spermatozoon can easily pass through the ‘net’ that is formed by the condom.
“These margins of uncertainty… should represent an obligation on the part of the health ministries and all these campaigns to act in the same way as they do with regard to cigarettes, which they state to be a danger.”
The WHO has condemned the Vatican’s views, saying: “These incorrect statements about condoms and HIV are dangerous when we are facing a global pandemic which has already killed more than 20 million people, and currently affects at least 42 million.”
The Vatican’s Cardinal Trujillo said: “They are wrong about that… this is an easily recognisable fact.”
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No 3 Having Anal Sex : 1 In 909
The insertive partner is less likely than the receptive partner to get the infection from an HIV-positive partner. However, bodily fluids carrying the virus can enter the insertive persons body through the urethra or any cuts or sores on the penis.
- Reduce the risk. If the insertive partner uses a condom, that can cut the risk of HIV transmission by an average of 63 percent, according to the CDC. You can help lessen the chance that the condom will slip or break by using water- or silicone-based lubricants. In addition, be aware that condoms dont fully protect against certain sexually transmitted diseases that can be contracted through skin-to-skin contact, like syphilis and herpes.
What Doesnt Transmit Hiv
Saliva, tears, and sweat cannot transmit HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact.
HIV can only be transmitted through exposure to infectious secretions. This can occur during sex, through shared needles or drug paraphernalia, or workplace exposure to blood and secretions. Universal precautions have largely eliminated the transmission of HIV in American healthcare settings.
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How To Have Safe Sex With Stds
Some STDs never go away, even if you get treatment and dont have symptoms. If you have one, safe sex can help keep you from giving it to your partner.
Be open with new partners. Talk about past partners, history of STDs, and any drug use.
Dont have sex while youre drunk or on drugs. You might forget to use a condom or take part in riskier activities than you usually would.
Hiv Transmission Between Females
There is very little data suggesting that HIV can be transmitted between females who are having sex with other females . While both menstrual blood and vaginal secretions can contain HIV, reported transmissions between females during sexual activity are extremely rare.
However, women who have sex with women may have other risk factors for HIV. Women who have sex with women may also have sex with men, use injection drugs, or exchange sex for drugs or money.
These activities are as risky for women who have sex with women as they are for women who do not. Therefore, it is important to engage in appropriate HIV-prevention behaviors such as safe sex and not sharing needles.
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How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv
There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:
- using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
- in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
- avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
- taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
- asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
- taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
- if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:
Ive Heard Condoms Cant Prevent The Spread Of Hiv Is That True
By | Aug. 4, 2010, 11:01 a.m.
Id like to know if its true that condoms are not a safe method to avoid getting HIV AIDS. I heard that the size of the virus AIDS is smaller than the spaces of a condom and therefore, its possible that people are getting infected even with the use of a condom.
No, its not true. HIV is a virus that is carried in blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. None of these substances can pass through an intact latex condom, a polyurethane male condom, or a polyurethane internal condom.
Latex and internal condoms are the most effective way for people who have vaginal and anal intercourse to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. While oral sex is not nearly as risky as unprotected intercourse is for HIV, latex barriers can further reduce the risk.
Latex condoms are also up to 98 percent effective against pregnancy when used correctly. Polyurethane male condoms are less effective against pregnancy because they are somewhat more likely to break. Polyurethane internal condoms are up to 95 percent effective against pregnancy.
Some people use animal skin condoms, but theyre not as effective as latex or polyurethane condoms in preventing viral infections like HIV.
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What Is Art And How Does It Help Prevent Hiv
Antiretroviral therapy is a combination of medicines that slows down the effects of HIV in your body and can help you stay healthy for many years. It can also lower or even stop your chances of giving HIV to anyone else.
ART lowers the amount of HIV in your body sometimes to the point where HIV wont show up on standard blood tests. If your HIV viral load is so low that certain tests cant see it, its called undetectable. When someone has an undetectable viral load, they cant spread HIV to others during sex.
Its important to remember that even with an undetectable viral load, HIV is still present in your body. If you stop treatment your viral load can go up, making it possible to pass HIV to others you have sex with. Your doctor or nurse can help you find the treatment thats best for you to help keep your viral load low, so you can stay healthy.
Obstacles To Condom Use Persist
Unfortunately, the provision of condoms to those most in need is hindered by several continued hurdles. On the supply side, bias against condoms and negative attitudes towards STI clients can be widespread among healthcare providers themselves, which serves to limit access during clinical contacts. In a simulated client study of men presenting with urethral discharge in pharmacies in Accra, Ghana, only 6% were counselled to use condoms.
Secondly, physical access to condoms remains a key impediment in many places. It is estimated that two thirds of the worlds population has ready and easy access to condoms. But that sort of gross geographic treatment ignores gaps in availability at important delivery points. For example, in western Kenya clients of sex workers indicated they do not have access to condoms in the places where sexual encounters are arranged. In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, condoms were not available at half of the non-clinical outlets checked. A review of survey data from eight African countries found that non-availability of condoms at the time of sex is one of the main reasons for non-use. Unfortunately, not nearly enough condoms reach that region, hardest hit by HIV. The number of condoms procured by leading donors has diminished over the past 5 years, and was no greater in 2000 than it was in 1990.
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Screen And Treat For Hiv During Pregnancy
If youre pregnant, you should get tested for HIV. If you do have HIV, taking the appropriate medicines religiously can greatly lower the risk of transmitting it to your baby. In fact, if you start treatment early enough, you can reduce the risk to about 1% or lower.9
Breast milk contains HIV. So if you have HIV, you can avoid transmitting it to your baby after delivery by not breastfeeding.10
Using Condoms Correctly And Consistently
Since condoms are impermeable to viruses, shouldn’t we expect them to be 100% protective against HIV? Unfortunately, it’s not that simple. As with any type of prevention strategy, condoms only work if they are used correctly and consistently. Inconsistent use can greatly decrease their ability to prevent HIV transmission.
Incorrect use of condoms can also compromise their effectiveness. For example, some people may use condoms that are too small or too large, damaged or expired unroll condoms before putting them on not pinch the tip when putting them on use sharp objects to open condom packages not use enough lubrication in combination with condoms or use oil-based lubrication with latex or polyisopropene condoms or not hold the rim of the condom when pulling out. All of these can potentially increase the risk of HIV transmission by causing a condom to break, slip or leak.
Incorrect condom use can also take the form of putting on a condom late , removing the condom early or putting the condom on inside out and then flipping it over to use. If a condom is used incorrectly in these ways, then HIV transmission could occur even though the condom does not break, slip or leak.
A recent literature review of 50 studies revealed that the incorrect use of male condoms is surprisingly common. For example:
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Things You Need To Know About Prep
This video contains important information on PrEP including adherence, side effects and how to get started, and how to stop.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis is the most commonly used HIV prevention strategy by gay men. PrEP does not protect you against other STIs.
There are different ways you can take PrEP, different ways you can access PrEP and different ways to start PrEP depending on your personal circumstance.
For more information about PrEP head to What Works
There is some uncertainty amongst people when it comes to having sex without condoms with someone whose HIV status is different to theirs and the associated risk of contracting and/or transmitting HIV, especially if the HIV-positive partner has a low or undetectable viral load level. This section explains what viral load means and what the concept of an undetectable viral load means in relation to HIV risk.
What is Viral Load?
Viral load refers to the amount of HIV circulating in the blood. To find out a persons viral load, a doctor takes a sample of blood and sends it to a laboratory where a viral load test is conducted.
When the result comes back, viral load is indicated as a number. The number indicates the amount of viral copies per millilitre of blood . Viral load can range from below 20 to over one million copies/ml.
In laymans terms, viral load refers to the amount of virus that is in the HIV-positive persons body.
What does undetectable mean?
Viral Load and not using condoms
How do we know it works?
Condom Use For Preventing Hiv Infection
Consistent and correct condom use was one of the earliest recommendations for preventing HIV infection at the start of the pandemic outbreak in the early 1980s. It remains an essential tool in preventing the transmission of not only HIV, but also other sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia. Latex condoms offer an impermeable barrier, preventing the bodily fluids that contain active HIV from entering a partner during sex and infecting that person. HIV in bodily fluids must be capable of growing in order to present a risk of infection. In people with HIV who take antiretroviral medications as prescribed and maintain durable viral suppression, residual virus in bodily fluids does not grow or spread infection.
In 2000, NIAID conducted a rigorous review of scientific evidence on latex condoms to determine their efficacy in preventing the spread of HIV. The review included epidemiologic and laboratory studies, both of which conclusively demonstrated that the correct and consistent use of male latex condoms decreased the risk of HIV transmission by approximately 85 percent, providing a high degree of protection against infection.
Condom use is recommended today by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a key method of preventing HIV during vaginal and anal sex. For some individuals who meet certain risk criteria, condoms are recommended for use in conjunction with other HIV prevention tools, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis .
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Barriers For Safe Sex
Barriers block many infectious things, including viruses and bacteria. Most people use male condoms made of latex. If your partner wont use a male condom, try a female condom, which fits inside your vagina. These cost more than male condoms and take a little more practice to learn how to use.
Follow these steps when using condoms and other barriers:
- Use a new barrier every time you have sex.
- Use only latex condoms that are designed to prevent disease. You can buy these without a prescription. If youre allergic to latex, use a polyurethane condom with an oil-based or water-based lubricant.
- Use only water-based lubricants, such as K-Y Jelly, with latex condoms. Don’t use oil- or petroleum-based lubricants such as Vaseline or hand lotion they can cause the rubber to break.
- Keep condoms in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Don’t keep a condom in your wallet for more than a few hours at a time.
- Never use a condom thats brittle, sticky, discolored, or in a damaged package.
- During oral sex, cover the entire genital or anal area with a barrier. You can use a “dental dam” , a large piece of plastic wrap, or an unused condom cut lengthwise.
- If you and your partner have HIV, use latex surgical gloves when exploring each other sexually. Small cuts on your hands could get infected with or spread HIV.
Use PrEP along with safe sex methods to lower your HIV risk even more and to keep from getting other STDs.