The Expanding Hiv Prevention Toolkit
In the past decade the number of HIV prevention options available to reduce the risk of HIV transmission has increased. Some of these strategies are generating a lot of excitement because they may provide an option for people who don’t want to, or are unable to, use condoms. These include the following:
- Antiretroviral treatment — which reduced the risk of HIV transmission by 96% among heterosexual serodiscordant couples in a randomized controlled trial .
- Pre-exposure prophylaxis — which reduced the risk of HIV transmission by 40 to 70% for gay men and heterosexual men and women, in RCTs. Further analysis suggested that PrEP may have reduced HIV risk by up to 90% among those who always took their pills.,
- Post-exposure prophylaxis — which reduced the risk of HIV transmission by up to 80% in an observational study of healthcare workers exposed to HIV in the workplace.
- Observational studies suggest that behavioural strategies such as serosorting, strategic positioning and withdrawal may slightly reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
Male Latex Condoms And Sexually Transmitted Diseases
In June 2000, the national Institutes of Health , in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the Food and Drug Administration , and the United States Agency for International Development , convened a workshop to evaluate the published evidence establishing the effectiveness of latex male condoms in preventing STDs, including HIV. A summary report from that workshop was completed in July 2001 . This fact sheet is based on the NIH workshop report and additional studies that were not reviewed in that report or were published subsequent to the workshop. Most epidemiologic studies comparing rates of STD transmission between condom users and non-users focus on penile-vaginal intercourse.
Recommendations concerning the male latex condom and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases , including human immunodeficiency virus , are based on information about how different STDs are transmitted, the physical properties of condoms, the anatomic coverage or protection that condoms provide, and epidemiologic studies of condom use and STD risk.
The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual intercourse, or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and you know is uninfected.
Do Condoms Prevent Hiv
Condoms can help prevent transmission of HIV and other STIs. They do this because they form a barrier that viruses and bacteria cannot effectively pass through.
According to the , lab studies have found that the barrier created by condoms is effective against even the tiniest pathogens, including HIV.
However, results from lab tests can be different from whats found in daily life.
This is because its possible that people may not use condoms consistently or correctly during sex.
Data collected by the National Institutes of Health from both lab and epidemiological studies estimates that, when used consistently and correctly, condoms lower the risk of HIV transmission by about
Lets examine what some of the research says.
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Ive Heard Condoms Cant Prevent The Spread Of Hiv Is That True
By | Aug. 4, 2010, 11:01 a.m.
Id like to know if its true that condoms are not a safe method to avoid getting HIV AIDS. I heard that the size of the virus AIDS is smaller than the spaces of a condom and therefore, its possible that people are getting infected even with the use of a condom.
No, its not true. HIV is a virus that is carried in blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. None of these substances can pass through an intact latex condom, a polyurethane male condom, or a polyurethane internal condom.
Latex and internal condoms are the most effective way for people who have vaginal and anal intercourse to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. While oral sex is not nearly as risky as unprotected intercourse is for HIV, latex barriers can further reduce the risk.
Latex condoms are also up to 98 percent effective against pregnancy when used correctly. Polyurethane male condoms are less effective against pregnancy because they are somewhat more likely to break. Polyurethane internal condoms are up to 95 percent effective against pregnancy.
Some people use animal skin condoms, but theyre not as effective as latex or polyurethane condoms in preventing viral infections like HIV.
How To Avoid Hiv
The main ways to prevent HIV infection are to reduce the risk of exposure by using a condom when you have sex and not share needles and other equipment used for injecting drugs.
If a person living with HIV is taking antiretroviral medication correctly and the virus is undetectable in their blood, they will be unable to pass HIV to a sexual partner.
It is important to know your HIV status and that of your partner. If you are at regular risk of potential exposure to HIV you should have a regular HIV test and consider using PrEP .
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Do Male And Female Condoms Provide The Same Protection Against Hiv
Yes. Studies show that female condoms are as effective at protecting against HIV as male condoms. Female condoms are made of nitrile, which is an effective barrier to HIV. Male and female condoms should not be used at the same time. Female condoms, like latex male condoms, are available in some drug stores, community health centers, and AIDS service organizations.
Do Condoms Protect You From The Virus That Causes Aids
Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
AIDS is, by far, the most deadly sexually transmitted disease, and considerably more scientific evidence exists regarding condom effectiveness for prevention of HIV infection than for other STDs. The body of research on the effectiveness of latex condoms in preventing sexual transmission of HIV among people is both comprehensive and conclusive. In fact, the ability of latex condoms to prevent transmission of HIV has been scientifically established in “real-life” studies of sexually active couples as well as in laboratory studies.
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The Reality Of Hiv Protection
According to the CDC, an unbroken and properly used condom is 99% effective at blocking HIV. These sound like excellent odds, until we consider:
- Condoms slip or break 8.08% of the time.
- Incorrect use is common.
- The integrity of a condom may be compromised before consumer purchase, especially in the third world where manufacturing, shipping, and storage standards are lower.
- The studies that found 99% effectiveness did not simulate realistic conditions of intercourse.
Real-world analyses of condom efficacy in preventing HIV transmission are much less optimistic. A 2002 synthesis of studies focusing on heterosexual couples shows 80% protection per person-year,10 while a 2016 study shows only 70% protection.11 The outlook is no brighter for homosexual men engaging in receptive sex with HIV positive partners. Analyses of the available data show that this group has a 13.2% chance of contracting HIV in one year without condom protection, which drops to 3.8% for those who use condoms every time, and translates to 72% prevention per person-year.12
All this latest study has shown is that increasing the number of ones sexual partners is as dangerous as we always knew it was, and that the solution is to live a monogamous lifestyle.
Be good to yourself. Chastity is healthy, and its also a virtue!
What Doesnt Transmit Hiv
Saliva, tears, and sweat cannot transmit HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact.
HIV can only be transmitted through exposure to infectious secretions. This can occur during sex, through shared needles or drug paraphernalia, or workplace exposure to blood and secretions. Universal precautions have largely eliminated the transmission of HIV in American healthcare settings.
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The Lowdown On Dental Dams
Dental dams are barriers used to prevent the transmission of viruses during oral sex. Placing this latex barrier between your mouth and your partners genitals can help to prevent STIs. Dental dams can be used for both cunnilingus and rimming .
Dental dams can be purchased. They can also be made from condoms and gloves. Its very easy to make a dental dam from a latex or polyisoprene condom. Just cut the tip off the condom and then cut down one side. Now you have a dental dam ready to use.
Us Study Panel Confirms Condoms Are Effective Against Hiv/aids
In July 2001, a National Institutes of Health study panel in the United States issued its report on condom effectiveness in preventing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Family Health International is distributing this concise list of typical questions and answers about the report to health providers and scientists worldwide to help explain key findings. The 48-page report is available over the Internet at: .
Q: What were the report’s major findings?
A: The NIH report concluded that correct and consistent use of male latex condoms effectively reduces transmission of HIV/AIDS in women and men, and gonorrhea in men and prevents pregnancy. The report also found that evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the six other sexually transmitted infections it reviewed.
Q: What did the panel say about these six other STIs?
Q: What is FHI’s professional opinion about the study’s implications?
Q: Was any significant recent research not included in the panel’s report?
Q: How was the panel selected, and how did it reach its conclusions?
Q: What are the long-term health consequences from STIs?
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Condoms And Antiretroviral Therapy
HIV is treated with antiretroviral drugs. These are medications that are taken daily to help prevent the virus from replicating and further weakening the immune system.
A large 2016 study looked at HIV transmission risk in 888 heterosexual and 340 MSM couples who were not using condoms. In the study, one partner was HIV-negative, and the other partner had HIV with an undetectable viral load and was taking antiretroviral drugs.
During 2 years of follow-up with 58,000 reported condomless sex acts, no HIV transmission from HIV-positive partners to HIV-negative partners was seen.
A big part of a condoms effectiveness at preventing HIV has to do with using it correctly. Now lets examine how to put on and remove a condom if you have a penis.
How Hiv Is Transmitted
HIV is a virus that can be transmitted by exposure to certain types of bodily fluids. If fluids containing HIV get into the body through openings in the skin or through contact with mucosal surfaces , they can lead to infection.
Bodily fluids that can contain enough HIV to transmit the virus include:
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Condoms In The Real World Fail A Lot
The oft-quoted statistic that condoms are 98% effective is misleading because the tests that produced that data were conducted under laboratory conditions which do not accurately reflect the real world.
According to Contraceptive Technology, the real-world success rate of condoms in preventing pregnancy is 85% over one year for couples who use condoms 100% of the time.1 What does that mean? Every condom failure may not lead to pregnancy but it does post a risk for HIV exposure. The 15% failure rate over one year increases with time, reaching 56% at five years and 80% at 10 years.
Correct condom use is uncommon because it is complicated and involves significant attention to detail in moments when one is strongly distracted. A 2012 synthesis of 50 studies on condom use errors identified more than ten potential user errors, in addition to the issues of fit, slippage and breakage that are inherent to the condom itself.2 Several user errors were found to be extremely common, including failure to lubricate the condom , incorrect withdrawal , and incorrect storage .3 These error rates are recorded from populations in the USA, Canada, and the British Isles, where education about correct condom use is relatively widely accessible.
The HIV virus.
Sex Toys Fingering Fisting And Hiv
Sex toys, such as dildos, come into direct contact with rectal/vaginal fluids and mucous membranes. This means sharing an uncleaned dildo or other toy can pass on HIV. Using sex toys on your own has no risk.
There is no direct risk of HIV from fingering or fisting , but be aware of being rough. Damage to anal/vaginal tissues, especially if there is any bleeding, will increase risk of HIV transmission if you then have anal, vaginal or oral sex later.
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Which Types Of Condoms Protect You From Stds
Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, condoms are highly effective in keeping you prevent pregnancy, and transmission of STDs like
Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of getting other sexually transmitted diseases , including discharge and genital ulcer diseases.
There are two primary ways that STDs can be transmitted.
Do Condoms Protect Against Hiv When Used By Heterosexual Couples
Foteini Giannou and a group of European researchers that examined 25 studies that recruited a total of 10,676 couples with one HIV-positive and one HIV-negative partner. These studies were done in a range of countries between 1987 and 2013. They found that consistent condom users were 71 to 77% less likely than never or intermittent users to acquire HIV following repeated encounters with the same partner. This is a slightly lower level of protection to that found by an earlier meta-analysis, which reviewed many but not all of the same studies, and found that consistent condom use afforded an 80% reduction in HIV incidence.
“Condoms work most effectively if they are combined with other forms of prevention.”
The evidence therefore shows that while condoms are highly effective against HIV transmission under laboratory conditions, unsurprisingly in the real-world they are not always used perfectly. This lowers protection levels for both heterosexual and gay couples. Its therefore worth taking a closer look at ineffective and incorrect use of condoms.
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Are Some Types Of Condoms Better At Preventing Hiv
To use condoms to effectively prevent HIV, its important to note the material of the condom. Always use condoms made from latex or a synthetic material like polyurethane.
Since lambskin condoms are more porous than other types of condoms, viruses can pass through. For this reason, they do not prevent HIV.
Additionally, some condoms may come coated with a spermicide, which is a chemical that works to kill sperm. One of the most common spermicides is called nonoxynol-9.
What Are The Next Steps If You Think Prep Is Right For You
Make an appointment with your doctor and talk about why you think you would like to take this medication. Your doctor will run tests to check for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections as well as hepatitis A, B, and C, and check your kidney function before starting PrEP. Usually your provider will need to get prior authorization for the medication. Most insurances cover the cost. If your provider is uncomfortable prescribing this medication, ask to be referred to an HIV specialist in your area.
You will need to see your doctor initially after one month and then every three months, when HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing will be repeated. Your kidney health will be monitored via a blood test once within six months, and PrEP must be stopped if the kidneys are adversely affected.
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I Feel Too Awkward Mentioning It
Specially for the show, an online survey* was conducted in collaboration between OK and ResearchMe on what Runet users think of using protection during intimacy and what safer sex means to them.
It turns out that 87% of the survey respondents have engaged in unprotected sex without a condom, and the older the respondents, the higher the percentage: 70% for those aged 30 and younger, 80% for the 31 to 40 group, and up to 99% of Runet users aged 41 and older.
The most common reasons for not using condoms during intercourse include awkwardness , followed by trusting ones partner , discomfort during intercourse , fear of ruining the romance , and fear of being misunderstood by the partner .
*The online survey was completed by 1,050 people aged 18 to 60.
Po Pravde Govorya is an educational talk show series provided by UNESCO IITE and UNAIDS Regional Office, with support from Odnoklassniki social media network. Each livestream features a straightforward, honest and open discussion with experts and celebrity guests focused on a pressing issue relevant to our health and well-being in an ever-changing world.
Do Condoms Protect Against Stds Other Than Hiv Std
A STAFF REPORT FROM THE STRAIGHT DOPE SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD
Dear Straight Dope:
Do latex condoms provide adequate protection against all STDs? I know they are effective against HIV, but are they effective against HPV or herpes? Also, how dangerous is it for a man to receive oral sex from a woman without a condom?
Josh from New York City
Good questions, Josh. Lets start off with a basic premise, as laid out last year in the New England Journal of Medicine: “he protection that condoms offer against a specific sexually transmitted infection cannot be precisely quantified.” The article gives a few reasons. First well, its a bit awkward to discuss, really, but researchers studying condom use dont typically watch their subjects use condoms to make sure that they really are using them, and theyre using them correctly instead, they rely on self-reporting, the reliability of which is suspect. Second, the transmissibility of HIV specifically is affected by numerous factors , which in turn creates variation in the observed effectiveness of condoms. Also, ethics get in the way of some of the more effective research designs if a subject has an STD thats treatable, for example, its not OK to withhold treatment to see if condom use will keep them from infecting their partners. And theres also the need to control for the fact that often people at lower risk of exposure use condoms less regularly than people at higher risk .
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