Recent Advances In Hiv Prevention
Antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV transmissions by 96% in serodiscordant heterosexual couples, a strategy now known as treatment as prevention . In serodiscordant male homosexual couples, interim results from the partner study showed no linked HIV transmission in 282 couple-years where the positive partner had undetectable viral load . Nevertheless, the interim partner study data could not exclude transmission occurring in as many as 1% of couples per year due to the relative short follow-up and thus limited statistical power. Full results from ongoing cohort studies in serodiscordant male homosexual couples, including the partner study in Europe and the Opposites Attract study in Australia, will be available around 2017 when the studies complete . Despite the lack of conclusive evidence, some gay and other men who have sex with men appear to use undetectable viral load as one of the considerations when having CLAI with a HIV-positive partner, a phenomenon recognized as viral load sorting . Also, early evidence from the opposites attract study indicates that serodiscordant homosexual couples where the HIV-positive partner has undetectable viral load report more CLAI than couples where the viral load is detectable .
The Myth: You Cant Get Pregnant From Anal
The truth: While its technically true, the fact of the matter is that depending on where the ejaculating partner ejaculates and how careful you both are at cleaning up, theres still some risk involved, says Melancon. Lets say youre in doggy-style, and your partner ejaculates inside your anus but isnt careful when they pull out. Its rare, but possible semen could leak down south toward the vagina and get inside, says Melancon. Another good reason to always wear a condom and practice safe sex! As another bonus, condoms make any potential clean up needed afterwards way easier as well.
Why Do Gay Men Have An Increased Risk Of Hiv
In the United States, gay men are at a disproportionately high risk of getting HIV and AIDS. In 2016, 68% of all HIV infections in the U.S. affected men who have sex with men. The risk is even higher for gay black men. Why are gay men more likely to get HIV?
There are several reasons why gay and bisexual men are at higher risk of HIV than their straight counterparts. Some of the reasons are based on certain types of sex that result in greater risk of infection due to how HIV is biologically transmitted. Other reasons reflect social realities about how men who have sex with men live in the world and are treated by society.
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Hemorrhoids And Anal Sex Okay
I want to know if you are able to have anal sex when you have hemorrhoids, and if there is a way that it will only hurt as much as it does to have sex that way without them. And if so, how can I reduce the pain?
Anal sex shouldn’t hurt. However, having hemorrhoids can make anal sex painful. In addition, people who find anal sex painful often do not use enough water-based lube others are not relaxed or aroused enough. Using lots of silicone- or water-based lube â which makes anal sex more slippery and wet â can increase pleasure for both you and your partner. Relaxation will also minimize or prevent the possibility of tearing the thin lining of the rectum, and make insertion easier and more comfortable. Some people relax by taking a warm bath others begin with a massage, starting with the butt and inner thighs, then gently playing in and around the anal sphincter with a finger. As the sensations become more comfortable and pleasurable, some people experiment by placing more fingers inside the anus. Others might progress to a small sex toy, or be ready to be penetrated by a larger toy, or even a penis. Communication with your partner about what feels good and how you want to be touched is essential for enjoyable anal play.
No 1 Sharing A Needle: 1 In 159
About 6 percent of the HIV diagnoses in 2015 can be attributed to the use of injection drugs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The reason is that needles, syringes, and other equipment can contain blood, and therefore HIV, which can then be directly transmitted into the bloodstream. Under the right environmental circumstances, the virus can survive in a used needle for up to 42 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, using drugs can lower peoples inhibitions, making them less likely to use a condom during sex or to take preventive HIV medications, further increasing their risk.
- Reduce the risk. Although the number of HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs has declined by 48 percent from 2008 to 2014, according to the CDC, experts worry that the rising opioid epidemic is putting new people at risk for getting the virus. To find substance abuse help, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations national helpline at 1-800-662-HELP or visit its website, findtreatment.samhsa.gov, for a list of treatment facilities near you.
- Reduce the risk. People who inject drugs can help lower their risk of exposure to HIV by using a sterile needle and syringe for each injection sterile needles can be obtained without a prescription at pharmacies and through syringe services programs at state or local health departments.
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The Myth: Theres Poop In Your Rectum And Anus Which Is Where Your Partners Penis Would Enter
The truth: Dr. Goldstein explains that stool actually hangs out higher in your body, above the anus and rectum in a section known as the sigmoid colon. In reality, if you eat healthily and get enough fiber for regular, bulky stools, this should be enough to keep the anal canal clean for play. People tend not to believe it when we share this information, so take a toy and test the landing strip. Prove it to yourself, he says.
How Can I Prevent Hiv Transmission And Stds During Vaginal Sex
HIV is spread during vaginal sex when HIV-infected semen, vaginal fluid or menstrual blood comes into contact with the mucous membranes of the vagina or penis. Some STDs are spread the same way as HIV. Other STDs are transmitted through contact with infected skin or mucous membranes. In general, since there is more mucous membrane area in the vagina, and a greater possibility of small cuts in the vagina, women are more likely than men to get infected with HIV and some STDs through unprotected vaginal sex. Teenagers and women entering menopause are at especially high risk for getting HIV and other STDs because the tissue lining the vagina is more fragile at these ages. Cuts or sores on the penis or vagina raise the risk of HIV infection and STDs during vaginal sex for both men and women. Using a latex male condom or a female condom lowers your risk of getting HIV and STDs through vaginal sex.
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How Can I Prevent Hiv Transmission And Stds During Oral Sex
Although oral sex presents less of a risk for HIV and some STDs than vaginal or anal sex, the risk still exists. Herpes is commonly passed between genitals and the mouth, and you can get a bacterial infection in your mouth or throat from an STD. The risk of HIV transmission through oral sex is low, but people have been infected this way. Oral sex can be made safer by using a latex barrier. For oral sex performed on a man, a non-lubricated condom is recommended. For oral sex performed on a woman, a dental dam , a non-lubricated condom that is cut open or a plastic wrap can be used to cover the vagina. Oral-anal sex is a high-risk activity that may be made safer by using a dental dam.
How Can I Protect Myself
The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.
If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:
- using a condom every time you have sex
- getting tested for HIV and making sure all partners do too
- reducing the number of sexual partners you have
- getting tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.
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Products For Rectal Use
Virtually all pathogens that can be transmitted through vaginal intercourse can also be transmitted through anal intercourse. Importantly, it is easier to transmit HIV by anal intercourse, both because of the CD4-like receptors on rectal epithelial cells and because of the trauma to the epithelial surface that is likely to result in direct inoculation into the bloodstream. Furthermore, because anal intercourse is practiced frequently among men who have sex with men, and occasionally among heterosexual couples, especially adolescents, there is a need for microbicides that are safe and effective for anal intercourse. However, specific product development strategies must be developed that account for the unique characteristics of a rectal microbicide. The differences in epithelium, flora, pH, volume, organic matter etc., are compelling. Effective vaginal microbicides will have to be clinically evaluated to determine their effectiveness for rectal use.
I. Robbins, in, 2007
What Makes Hiv Transmission Risk Higher With Anal Sex
While the risk of HIV transmission varies according to sexual activity, unprotected anal intercourse, or the insertion of the penis into the anus, carries the highest risk, especially without the use of condoms. During anal sex, the person with the penis is called the insertive partner, and the person receiving the penis is called the receptive partner.
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A study by the CDC found that out of 10,000 cases of HIV, 138 of them contracted the virus through being the receptive partner in penile-anal sex, as opposed to the eight people who contracted the virus through being the receptive partner in penile-vaginal intercourse. The high risk has to do with the thinness of the rectum lining. Thus, its important to note this is the anatomy of anyone with a rectum lining, not just MSM. The rectum is lined with a single layer of columnar mucosal epithelium, which is prone to tearing from repeated movement. Wounds allow the virus to enter directly into the bloodstream. As part of the gastrointestinal tract, the rectum houses a majority of lymphocytes that HIV targets, such as CD4 immune cells .
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I Had Unprotected Anal Sex What Are The Chances Of Having Hiv
By | June 28, 2011, 9:41 p.m.
I had unprotected anal sex with another man for the first time in over a year. We were versatile and used a lot of lube. I asked him about his HIV status and he said he was negative but, Im still not sure. He precummed and cummed outside of my body well after anal sex but, still precum may have gotten inside of me at some point, Im not sure. What are the chances of having HIV? Im still getting tested but, this happened just a week ago.
Like unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected anal sex is high risk for many sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis. While many of these can be diagnosed immediately by getting tested, it generally takes at least three months for HIV antibodies to show up on a test.
The fact that your partner ejaculated outside of your body decreases the chance of HIV transmission, but its impossible for us to tell you what the chances are that you contracted HIV. The only way you can know that is by getting tested.
Its important to remember that about one out of three people will lie about their infection status in order to have sex, so always protect yourself and use a condom whether or not partners say they are negative.
Good luck with your test.
Stay On Top Of Medications Including Art Prep And Pep
Weve come a long way in HIV treatment and prevention, and some drugs can help you reduce the risk of transmission if youre living with HIV or are having sex with someone who is.
Talk with a medical professional about:
- ART: Antiretroviral therapy helps a person living with HIV stay healthy by lowering the viral load. Most people who take it as prescribed can lower their viral load to an undetectable level, so they cant transmit the virus to others.
- PrEP: A person whos HIV-negative significantly reduces their risk of contracting HIV by taking PrEP consistently.
- PEP: In the event of potential exposure to HIV, PEP is available for emergency use. It can help prevent HIV infection if started within 72 hours of exposure.
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Tops Bottoms And Prep: What You Need To Know About Hiv Prevention
Nearly 70% of people living with HIV are homosexual and bisexual men and thankfully the use of PrEP for HIV prevention is increasing among this group. According to a recent study, the number of gay and bisexual males taking PrEP increased by 500% from 2014 to 2017. However, only 35% of gay and bisexual males who were at high-risk of HIV transmission were taking the medication.
It is important that everyone takes the proper precautions to protect themselves from HIV transmission. While some people are at more risk than others due to lifestyle choices or other practices, there is a common misconception that your risk of HIV transmission is higher or lower depending on your sexual orientation or preferred sexual position.
PrEP is designed to help protect any person regardless of sexual orientation from HIV transmission. But, you may be wondering if PrEP could affect you differently or be more or less effective depending on if you are a top, bottom, or vers.
For instance, many tops assume they do not need to take PrEP since they are at a lower risk of contracting HIV than a bottom since they are not penetrated.
So, does PrEP work differently for tops and bottoms?
Well first, lets explain what puts you most at risk for HIV transmission and why you should consider taking PrEP in the first place regardless of sexual orientation.
Can I Get Pregnant If I Have Anal Sex
My boyfriend wants to have anal sex without a condom. Can I get pregnant? Lauren*
Getting pregnant through anal sex is unlikely. In theory, it’s possible that it could happen if semen from the anus gets into the vagina.
With anal sex, sexually transmitted diseases are a much bigger worry than pregnancy. The risk of getting an STD like HIV is even higher with anal sex than vaginal sex. That’s because the lining of the rectum is thin and can tear easily, allowing infection to get into your body.
If you decide to have anal sex, use a condom every time. Because there is less lubrication with anal sex, condoms are more likely to break than with vaginal sex, so use a lot of water-based lubricating gel .
Even if your boyfriend thinks he’s STD free, he may not be. Lots of people can have STDs without knowing it. Even if they don’t have symptoms themselves, they can still pass STDs on to a partner. So protect yourself with a condom whenever you have any type of sex vaginal, oral, or anal. It’s also a good idea to get tested for STDs at least once a year and whenever you have a new partner.
*Names have been changed to protect user privacy.
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The Myth: You Can Jump Right In
The truth: Well, not quite. Your rectum isnt as pliable as your vagina, and also unlike the vagina, its not self-lubricating. Vanderlinde strongly advises taking your time if youre just starting out and working your way up using smaller things like fingers and thin toys. Sometimes it takes a few different encounters, Vanderlinde says. Patience!
Sharing Injection Drug Equipment
Sharing needles for injecting drugs most efficiently transmits HIV. This is because used needles and syringes can still contain blood, which can carry the virus.
An older study found that HIV can survive up to 42 days in syringes, depending on the temperature.
There are also some less common ways that HIV can be transmitted. Lets take a look at some of them below.
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Like The Vagina The Anus Has Bacteria
An STI isnt the only thing you have to worry about sharing with anal sex. Bacteria living in or near the anus can be easily spread if you dont take precautions to tidy up after anal penetration.
If youre wearing a condom, be sure to remove it and roll on a new one before moving on to vaginal sex. If youre not wearing a condom or if youre using your hands or a toy, be sure to wash thoroughly after anal sex. Bacteria, such as hepatitis A and E. coli, can be spread from unclean anal sex practices.
For couples considering anal sex, answers to these common questions might help you decide if its right for you.