What You Eat And When
Some HIV medicines move into your bloodstream more easily if you take the pills on an empty stomach. Others work better if you take them with food. Your doctor will help you sort out which is which. Also, ask them if there are any foods you should avoid. Some, like grapefruit juice, can get in the way of how well your HIV drugs work.
Taking Care Of Yourself When Living With Hiv
Starting antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible, and sustaining it as part of your everyday routine, is the best way of ensuring that your immune system stays strong.
Exercising regularly, eating well, getting enough rest and quality sleep are all vital to maintaining your health.
Your mental wellbeing is just as important as your physical health. Talking about your concerns with family, friends or a support group can really help.
Having HIV doesnt have to stop you living a healthy life in the way that you choose to do. With the right treatment and care, you can expect to live as long as someone who doesnt have HIV. Find out how you can look after yourself and stay healthy.
What Are The Long Term Side Effects Of Arvs
Antiretroviral HIV Drugs: Side Effects and Adherence
- Managing side effects.
Also know, how do you stop side effects of ARVs?
You can manage these short-term side effects with a few self-care steps:
Subsequently, question is, does ARVs change body shape? Lipodystrophy, or lipo for short, is a collection of body shape changes in people taking antiretroviral medications . Lipo refers to fat, and dystrophy means bad growth. These changes include fat loss, fat deposits, and metabolic changes. Fat loss occurs in the arms, legs, or face .
Similarly, you may ask, how long do ARV side effects last?
People sometimes experience headaches, nausea, muscle pain, diarrhea or dizziness while their bodies adjust to a new medication. These side effects may disappear in two to six weeks. The same can hold true for other, more specific symptoms.
How long does ARVs stay in your body?
ARV drugs keep HIV under control, but they don’t stay in your body for a long time, so you have to keep topping them up. If you stop taking your HIV drugs, then your viral load will go up. This means HIV can damage your immune system, and that you are more likely to pass HIV on.
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Fatigue And Psychosocial Measures
The HIV-Related Fatigue Scale , is a Likert-type self-report measure with two scales measuring fatigue intensity and impact of fatigue on daily functioning . A higher score on scales and items indicates more intense fatigue or greater adverse impact of fatigue a mean score of 7 on the intensity scale indicates severe fatigue. Subjects whose intensity of fatigue is low on all of the first seven HRFS items are told to skip the rest of the instrument, because all of the remaining items are dependent on the subject being fatigued. Therefore, the few subjects with virtually no fatigue were given a 1 on all scales, subscales, and individual items.
Number of categories of traumatic events was adapted from previous research- and was assessed with a detailed interview. Childhood trauma was constructed by assigning one point for each of 14 traumas occurring at or before age 18. The number of categories of adult trauma included seven types of trauma occurring after age 18. Number of categories or types of traumatic events has been widely used in research experiencing more types of trauma has been shown to predict higher rates of life-threatening medical conditions among health maintenance organization patients and higher risk for mortality in HIV. Because of our interest in predictors of fatigue, in this study we examined the number of categories of childhood and adult trauma separately.
Stressful Life Events
Why Do We Need To Sleep
On average we spend about a third of our life asleep . A disruption in the amount or quality of sleep we get takes a toll on mood, energy levels, and concentration. Sleep also plays an important role in the state of our immune system, with chronic insomnia and sleep depletion often correlating to a poorer immune response.
A typical night’s sleep is comprised of many stages ranging in length from five minutes to a couple of hours. Each stage starts with light sleep, a stage where you can be awakened quite easily. From there, as your brain waves slow and you gradually progress to what is known as REM sleep, your body movement slows and you are able to achieve deep, restful sleep needed to feel fresh and clear-minded.
Prolonged or regular interruptions of these cycles only take away any gains you may make from having a proper, good night’s sleep.
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Factors That Contribute To Hiv
As the studies above suggest, fatigue in HIV disease is associated with a variety of factors. Among these are anemia, hormonal imbalances , depression and anxiety, poor nutrition, insufficient or poor quality sleep, lack of physical activity, and medication side effects. Active infections, including AIDS-related opportunistic infections , also play a role. In addition, use of caffeine, alcohol, and/or illicit drugs may interfere with sleep and otherwise contribute to unusual tiredness. Often, several factors act together to cause HIV-related fatigue. The most common factors are discussed in more detail .
Can Hiv Symptoms Appear In 3 Days
Approximately 40 percent to 90 percent of people will experience mild to moderate symptoms of the flu during this time, while the rest will not experience any symptoms at all. It is not uncommon for these signs to appear within 7 to 14 days of exposure, but they can also appear as early as 3 days after exposure.
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Understanding Hiv Drug Resistance
A different type of side effect can occur when your HIV medication no longer works effectively. Drug resistance is a major issue in HIV treatment. It typically occurs when HIV mutates, or makes new variations of itself, and can no longer be controlled by a medicine that was previously effective.
Failing to take a prescribed HIV medication exactly as directed can increase the risk for drug resistance. Skipping doses or starting and stopping use of an antiretroviral drug may allow the virus to multiply, which gives it more opportunities to mutate.
If an HIV treatment plan that was once effective no longer seems to be controlling your disease, tell your doctor. Blood tests can identify drug resistance and help determine other effective HIV treatment options for you.
Create A Bedtime Ritual
This might be enjoying a warm bath or shower, reading a book or listening to soothing music by candlelight.
Relaxing activities support better sleep by easing the transition between wakefulness and drowsiness.
Be wary of watching the TV or using computers, phones and tablets as part of your bedtime ritual. Some research suggests that screen time and other media use before bedtime interferes with sleep.
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Sudden Unexplained Weight Loss
National Human Genome Research Institute
Weight loss is common in people living with HIV during the advanced stages of the disease. This is not about the loss of just a few pounds. This is the sudden, unexplained loss of 10% or more, in which both fat mass and lean muscle are lost.
Also known as HIV wasting syndrome, the condition is seen less often today due to the use of antiretroviral drugs that keep the virus suppressed and allow the immune system to rebuild itself. Wasting is mainly seen in people who have not been treated for HIV.
The exact cause of HIV wasting is unknown, but it is thought that the constant inflammation caused by HIV increases the speed at which energy is burnt and reduces testosterone levels needed to build lean muscle.
Other common causes of wasting include malnutrition, chronic diarrhea, tuberculosis, and cancer, all of which require urgent diagnosis and treatment.
Sleep Stress And Depression
A mental health problem causing long-lasting low mood that interferes with everyday life.
You can develop fatigue if you are having difficulty sleeping. Sometimes difficulty sleeping, or insomnia, can be caused by stress, anxiety, depression, or worrying. If you can identify what is causing you to feel these things and take steps to begin tackling any issues, you may find that your sleep improves. Support from family and friends, or help in the form of a talking therapy, like counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy is often useful.
Set yourself some goals and give yourself time to adjust to your new routine. Too much coffee and alcohol can lead to fatigue, as can some recreational drugs.
Having a baby, or young children, often has a major impact on your sleep. Support from your partner, family or friends can be really important in helping you to cope. You can also talk to your health visitor or GP for advice and details of local support services.
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How To Describe Fatigue To Your Doctor
Fatigue can start slowly and build up without you realising it. To describe this to your doctor it helps to give examples of when you feel more tired.
If you can compare how you feel now with how you felt six months or a year ago, this will also help.
Describe how often you are tired or out of breath. As fatigue can be related to poor sleep, include information about your sleep patterns.
Describe how fatigue affects your daily life.
Stick To A Sleep Plan
Go to bed and get up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off. A regular routine reinforces your body’s sleep-wake cycle and promotes better sleep at night.
If you don’t fall asleep within about 15 minutes, get up and do something relaxing. Go back to bed when you’re tired. If you agonise over falling asleep, you might find it more difficult to nod off.
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Hiv Effects On The Digestive System
More than half of people who have AIDS report digestive symptoms as the virus or an opportunistic infection targets the walls of their intestines. Diarrhea is the most common one. Over time, the virus can change how your digestive tract works and even how it looks.
Some HIV medications can damage your liver. Many people with HIV also have a form of inflammation called hepatitis.
Limit how much alcohol you drink, and don’t use recreational drugs. Having diabetes, high cholesterol, or triglycerides and being overweight can lead to fatty liver disease, so keep an eye on the carbs, fats, and calories you eat each day.
Talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. Thereâs no vaccine against hepatitis C, but you should get tested for it.
Get regular blood tests to catch any liver problems early.
Your mouth might be one of the first places where you notice signs of HIV. Things like dry mouth, fungal infections, gum disease, cold sores, and canker sores can make chewing or swallowing painful. If they go on too long, you might not be able to take your HIV medication or get the nutrients you need.
Good dental habits can help prevent these issues, so brush and floss regularly. See your dentist for checkups, and tell them if youâre having problems. Most mouth conditions tied to HIV are treatable.
Hiv: A Brief Overview
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a sexually transmitted virus that spreads through exposure to certain body fluidsâlike genital secretions or blood. HIV transmission can also occur from a mother to a child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
HIV attacks and impairs the bodyâs immune cells, which weakens the immune system and can eventually progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome if it isnât treated. AIDS can be a life-threatening condition, particularly if HIV treatment is not initiated promptly, which is why HIV testing is crucial for protecting your health.
Learn more: What is the difference between HIV and AIDs?
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Hiv As A Cause Of Fatigue
HIV is a chronic infection and the body mounts a strong immune response against it. People with HIV may use a lot of energy because they are constantly battling the virus. This means that fatigue might slowly develop because the body is working so hard to fight HIV.
You may be more likely to develop fatigue if you have a high viral load. High viral load is particularly associated with fatigue. The aim of HIV treatment is to reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to undetectable levels. People often report an increase in their energy levels after starting HIV treatment.
Specific Causes Of Hiv
HIV infection itself may be an important cause of fatigue. According to Dr. Capaldini, fatigue is associated with high levels of HIV viremia , and many people have experienced a reduction in fatigue after starting potent antiretroviral therapy. However, as noted earlier in this article, studies have not found a direct, consistent correlation between viral load levels and fatigue. In fact, according to Julie Barroso, M.D., who reported on a study of fatigue in people with HIV at the 13th National HIV/AIDS Update Conference in March 2001, “Patients with very good viral suppression actually had the highest levels of fatigue.” Similarly, Dr. Capaldini has reported that some 10-15% of her patients who have had an excellent virological response to combination therapy still experience tiredness, and that “simply controlling the virus does not necessarily fix fatigue.” These findings suggest that some fatigue is a side effect of HAART or its components.
Testosterone levels differ widely among individuals, and to determine whether someone has a testosterone deficiency it is important to establish the normal level for that person. For example, while 300-1,100 nanograms/dL is typically considered normal, a man may be deficient at a level of 400 nanograms/dL if his normal, pre-HIV level is 700 nanograms/dL. Overall, the mean testosterone level for HIV positive men is less than that for age-matched HIV negative men.
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Hiv Effects On The Nervous System
About half of people with AIDS have nerve problems related to the virus. Infection or inflammation can damage your spinal cord or brain and keep your nerve cells from working the way they should. Some medications can also affect your nervous system.
Inflammation in your brain and spinal cord can lead to confusion and other thinking problems as well as weakness, headaches, seizures, and balance problems.
When AIDS is far along, you might get dementia and have problems remembering things.
Having HIV can also affect your mental health. Many people living with it have depression or anxiety. Mental health professionals and support groups can help you work through your concerns and manage your life with HIV.
The opportunistic infection cytomegalovirus can attack your nerves, making it hard for you to control your arms and legs or your bladder.
Itâs common for tiny holes to form in spinal fibers when people with AIDS donât get treatment. This is called vacuolar myelopathy and causes trouble walking.
HIV or the drugs that treat it can also damage nerves all over your body, causing neuropathy. You might have pain, numbness, weakness, burning, stiffness, or tingling.
Antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV can lower your risk of getting these conditions or complications. If a medication is causing the problems, your doctor might switch you to a different one.
A Sexually Transmitted Infection
Katie Salerno/Flickr Creative Commons
Some STIs like syphilis and herpes cause open sores that make it easier for HIV to enter the body. Others like gonorrhea and chlamydia cause inflammation in the genitals that attracts the very immune cells that HIV likes to target and infect.
Having syphilis can increase your risk of HIV by as much as 500%. Other STIs can do the same. Because of this, you should be tested for HIV if you test positive for any STI.
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What Matters Most To You
Your personal feelings are just as important as the medical facts. Think about what matters most to you in this decision, and show how you feel about the following statements.
Reasons to have a sleep study
Reasons not to have a sleep study
I want to do everything I can to find out why I’m snoring so much.
I want to just try things at home to reduce snoring.
Get The Most From Your Meds
One of the best ways to guarantee HIV drugs will work well is to stick to your treatment schedule. Take your pills at the same time every day. You can set an alarm to remind you, or pair it with another part of your routine, like brushing your teeth or making coffee. Use a pill box to help you track your doses. Keep extra pills with you in case youâre away when itâs time to take your meds. If there are things that make it hard to take your medicine, such as trouble paying for it or alcohol or drug use, talk to your doctor.
US Department of Veterans Affairs: âTreatment Decisions for HIV,â âFood and Supplements: ARV Interactions.â
US Department of Health and Human Services: âHIV Treatment,â âGuidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents.â
International Association of Providers of AIDS Care: âFact Sheet 405: Adherence.â
University of California, San Francisco HIV InSite: âDrugs and Alcohol Overview.â
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: âCirrhosis.â
HIV.gov: âTips on Taking Your HIV Medication Every Day.â
UpToDate: âPatient education: Tips for taking HIV medications.â
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