Breast Cancer Medications Anastrozole Exemestane Letrozole
Anastrozole , exemestane , and letrozole are medications used in the treatment of breast cancer. They belong to a group of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors that either block estrogen hormones from being made or block estrogens effect on the body. These three medicines are usually taken for years to prevent breast cancer from recurring. Half of all women taking them experience joint pain.
The Effects Of Hiv On The Body
Most people are likely familiar with HIV, but they may not know how it can affect the body.
HIV destroys CD4 cells , which are critical to the immune system. CD4 cells are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from common diseases and infections.
As HIV gradually weakens the bodys natural defenses, signs and symptoms will occur.
Find out what happens when the virus enters the body and interrupts its systems.
Once HIV enters the body, it launches a direct attack on the immune system.
How quickly the virus progresses will vary by:
- a persons age
- how quickly theyre diagnosed
The timing of their treatment can make a huge difference as well.
HIV targets the types of cells that would normally fight off an invader such as HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4 cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells.
Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving a person at risk for serious illnesses and infections.
However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier a person receives treatment, the better their outcome will be.
Early on, HIV symptoms may be mild enough to be dismissed.
Hip Pain And Fractures In People With Hiv
The problem starts out innocuously enough with some vague discomfort in the leg, especially in the groin area. Later, the pain becomes more severe and starts to involve the hip. Within a short period of time, walking will become difficult, and the pain will grow in intensity until it eventually feels unbearable. It is only that this stage that most people will see a healthcare provider.
Among people with HIV, these sorts of symptoms can mean any number of things, some of which are related to the infection and others that are not. However, one of the more common causes is a degenerative bone disorder of the hip known as avascular necrosis, or AVN.
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How To Figure Out The Cause Of Body Pains In Hiv
The main causes of the body pains are usually unknown to the patient of HIV, but you should be clear that it is not the HIV causing it. Instead, it is some opportunistic infection culminating inside your body.
There can be plenty of reasons why your body aches including muscle tensions or sprains, sharp pains, cyclic pains, muscle cramping, and exercise pain.
The pain is usually related to the hips, back, and lower hips area of the body.
Moreover, the pain can result in critical weakness as well. That is why you should get yourself checked by a doctor immediately when you experience even slight permanent pains.
It is necessary to get yourself examined in order to rule out neurologic diseases, as they might be the primary reasons for the pain.
Lymph Nodes Protect Both Your Blood And Immune System By:
Swollen lymph nodes may also be the first signs of an infection, including HIV.
Sore Throat: People living with HIV may have a chronic or recurring sore throat, and its not uncommon for people living with HIV and AIDS to develop thrush, an opportunistic, secondary infection. Candida is the fungus that causes thrush flourishes when the immune system is compromised is found in the mouth and throat and contributes to difficult swallowing.
Rash: If a rash can’t be easily explained or treated and you have participated in high-risk behaviour, you should consider an HIV test. Rashes can occur anywhere on the skin but are often found on the trunk of the body. These rashes may or may not itch.
Fatigue: The inflammatory response generated by the besieged immune system can also cause tiredness, general listlessness and a lack of energy to do tasks you may consider normal or routine. Fatigue can be debilitating and occurs as both an early and later sign of HIV infection and AIDS.
Muscle and Joint Aches and Pains: Other common symptoms of infection include muscle ache and joint or body pain, rheumatic disease. These can be caused by the HIV infection alone or by other viruses or bacteria, and inflammation often accompanies.
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Mental Health Effects Of Hiv
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, people with HIV experience higher rates of mental health conditions than the general population. It is essential that people with HIV look after their mental health and a range of treatments is available.
Anyone experiencing the following symptoms may benefit from seeking help for their mental health:
- high stress or anxiety levels
- a feeling of emptiness or sadness
- finding less enjoyment in things they used to enjoy
- thoughts of suicide
The following treatments can help improve a persons mental health:
- speaking to a psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker, or another therapist
- developing a strong social support network
- joining support groups of people with similar issues
- trying meditation
- maintaining or increasing healthful habits, such as eating well and moderate exercise
- taking medications
In As Little As Two Weeks To As Long As Three Months Signs Can Occur In Your Body Which Are Reactions To An Hiv Infection
If you have recently engaged in unprotected sex or shared an injectable needle with someone whose HIV status you cannot confirm, you should consider being tested for the HIV virus. An early HIV test is a good idea for your health, safety and benefit of others.
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Figuring Out The Cause
Everyone has the occasional muscle ache, especially as they age. And many people who exercise or play sports know the benefits of stretching to counteract muscle tightness that comes with physical activity. But people with HIV can experience more serious muscle conditions, including muscle pain, muscle cramping and muscle disorders that result in weakness. The pain often involves the back, hips or lower limbs.
In order to distinguish between minor and more severe muscle problems, it is very important to visit your doctor when any muscle problems develop. This is not a time for self-diagnosis. Your muscle problem could be something relatively minor, but it could also be the result of a serious problem only a doctor can properly diagnose.
Tell your doctor about any muscle weakness, aches or pains you develop so that a proper workup can determine the cause. In particular, it is very important to rule out any neurologic diseases that could be causing your symptoms.
A Look At The Types Of Pains
A muscle disorder that ultimately results in severe weakness, myopathy results in musculoskeletal pain which occurs in lower parts of the body like hips, back, and lower limbs.
Causes of Myopathy:
It cannot be termed as one of the main causes of myopathy, but it is said that usage of raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir can also lead to the pains and cause fatigue as well as muscle weakness.
The pains can be stopped after discontinuing any combination of drugs. But when an antiretroviral therapy is in progress, then discontinuation will not be an option.
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Limitations And Future Research
While our study had adequate statistical power to identify relevant symptom clusters and associations, there were a number of limitations, including not categorizing symptom clusters based on immune status or function. The patient sample was recruited at a single clinic at an academic institution with a proportionally well-controlled population in the southeast United States, so the results may not be generalizable to other areas. But the findings of symptom prevalence results were consistent with studies of other HIV-infected populations .
Living With Arthritis And Muscle Pain
There are no guidelines for the treatment of rheumatic conditions in people with HIV. However, most therapies used in the general population appear safe and effective among people with HIV when used prudently.10 The UK Royal College of Physicians guidelines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis recommend a combination of agents: short-term glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation, agents from a class called the DMARDs and agents called biologics. People also use NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors to manage the pain associated with the condition.
DMARDs include drugs such as methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine. Methotrexate was originally avoided in people with HIV because it suppresses the immune system. However, it is now used with careful monitoring of CD4 count and viral load.11
Hydroxychloroquine is used to treat both rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and is used in people with HIV. It has antiretroviral properties: in early studies, high doses of the drug were comparable to AZT monotherapy in controlling viral replication.
Remember, it is important to tell your HIV healthcare team about anything you are taking, including supplements and herbal remedies, in case there are interactions with your HIV treatment.
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What’s The Difference Between Hiv And Aids
Many people automatically equate HIV with AIDS. However, HIV and AIDS are separate clinical entities. Specifically, a person is initially affected by the HIV virus, but it may take a few years to develop AIDS. Furthermore, because the treatments for HIV/AIDS has advanced significantly, many people with HIV who vigilantly take daily antiretroviral treatments have a good chance of never decompensating to a point where they develop AIDS they may go on to live otherwise healthy lives.
HIV infection attacks CD4 cells which help our bodies fight off infection. When CD4 cell counts fall to below 200 cells/cubic millimeter, a person develops AIDS. Alternatively, a person can develop AIDS if they develop an opportunistic infection.
Why Does Hiv Cause Fatigue
Sometimes, HIV causes fatigue because of its impact on a persons immune system. Other times, additional health conditions, treatment factors, or psychological factors are responsible.
Some sources claim that fatigue is the most problematic and frequent symptom in people with HIV. Although a 2010 research review states that 33 to 88 percent of people with HIV experience fatigue, estimates vary as fatigue is difficult to define and measure.
According to , the following factors have links with HIV-associated fatigue:
- substance use
Fatigue can have a significant effect on a persons wellbeing and quality of life. Because fatigue can make a person feel tired but unable to sleep, it can impact their motivation and decision-making abilities.
Fatigue can also weaken a persons immune system, which can make HIV progress more rapidly. It is essential to find out the cause of the fatigue and to treat both the cause of the fatigue and HIV.
Potential causes of fatigue for people with HIV include:
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What Does The Research Say
Recent research published in The Lancet in October 2020 finds that nearly 15 percent of COVID-19 patients report experiencing joint pain. Viral infections are a known cause of acute arthralgia and arthritis, the authors of the research write. Approximately 1 percent of all cases of acute inflammatory arthritis have a viral origin.
A different study, carried out at Northwestern University and published in Skeletal Radiology in February 2021, finds that the COVID virus can trigger the body to attack itself in different ways that could lead to rheumatological issues.
Research findings are not necessarily surprising, says Dr. Siddiqi. Inflammatory joint disease can occur from a systemic viral infection that stimulates a widespread immune response throughout the body, which includes both muscle aches and joint pain, he says. Inflammatory arthritis can be caused by autoimmune conditions or sometimes viral infections, and it can be felt in the knees, shoulders, ankles, wrists and hips.
Clinical Contributors To This Story
Ahmed Siddiqi, D.O. contributes to topics such as Orthopedic Surgery.
COVID-19 is characterized by a variety of symptomssome common to respiratory illness and others altogether strange . Although some COVID-19 patients have complained of joint pain, new research has quantified the prevalence of the symptom and is beginning to reveal the causes behind it.
As more people are infected with the novel coronavirus and recover, more is known about the different ways it affects the human body, says Ahmed Siddiqi, D.O., an adult reconstruction orthopedic surgeon at Jersey Shore University Medical Center and JFK University Medical Center.
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Here Are Some Of The Most Common Indicating Early
Fever: One of the first signs of an HIV infection can be a mild fever, up to about 102F/39C. At this point the virus is moving into the blood stream and starting to replicate in large numbers. You are highly contagious in the early stages of an HIV infection because the undetected, unchecked virus is making millions of copies of itself as it destroys cells your immune system uses to fight disease.
Swollen Lymph Nodes: Lymph nodes often become inflamed, or swollen, when the body is trying to fight an HIV infection. Major lymph nodes are located in the armpit, groin, and neck areas. Often, lymph nodes in the neck are involved, become tender and may be called swollen glands.
Lymph nodes are a part of your lymphatic system. This system plays an important role in your immune system. Lymph, a clear fluid that circulates throughout your body, is partly made of white blood cells that attack bacteria and viruses.
Lymph nodes are located in certain parts of the body, including your neck, groin, and armpits. Theyre shaped like beans and measure no more than 2.5 centimetres long. Your lymph nodes are responsible for filtering lymph and producing mature immune cells.
Key Points About Hiv And Rheumatic Diseases
There are several key points to note when discussing the association of HIV and rheumatic diseases. These include:
- Any rheumatic disease can occur without HIV infection.
- From 30 percent to 70 percent of HIV infected persons may develop an associated rheumatic disease.
- The presence of an associated rheumatic disease worsens the prognosis of an HIV infection.
- People who have rheumatic diseases in addition to HIV have a poorer quality of life.
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Study Design And Subjects
The University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Clinic is a Ryan White-funded ambulatory HIV clinic providing comprehensive medical care and social services including primary and specialty HIV care, mental health, and dental care, serving 3,000 adults living with HIV. Patients are able to access the siteâs Liver Clinic for hepatitis treatment and clinical trials. The UAB 1917 Clinic is the largest HIV health care facility in the state of Alabama. Providers are infectious disease board-certified physicians and HIV specialty nurse practitioners. Practitioners provide specialty care clinics in dermatology, endocrinology, neurology, palliative care, psychiatry, and womenâs health. Prior to scheduled clinic appointments, all patients privately report symptoms at an electronic kiosk using the HIV Symptom Index, a 20-item survey routinely used for clinical care and research with PLWH to capture prevalence and magnitude of HIV-related symptoms. The index was developed to identify and describe symptoms for the purpose of developing targeted interventions. It is a useful tool to consider patterns of symptoms and the impact on patient quality of life . Patients identify symptoms experienced and then rate each reported symptom as to the level of bothersomeness on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from symptom not present to bothers me a lot . The HIV Symptom Index has demonstrated construct validity with high test-retest reliability , and internal consistency .
Therapy Of Inflammatory Arthritis In Hiv Positive Patients
There are potential issues regarding the safety of disease modifying anti rheumatic drugs and biologic therapy in HIV positive patients, with most available data coming from case series. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs remain the first line treatment for HIV-associated arthritis. Due to the typically self-limited nature of the condition, DMARDS are rarely required . This is in contrast with the other forms of arthropathy found in association with HIV infection. The arthritis of undifferentiated SPA, and indeed all the SPA can improve significantly with highly active antiretroviral treatment alone . Both the arthritis and the cutaneous lesions of HIV-associated reactive arthritis and PsA have been found to respond to etretinate according to one report .
There are several important drug interactions of relevance for HIV positive patients with inflammatory arthritis. For example, ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of liver enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Ritonavir can potently increase the action and duration of action of corticosteroids and severe Cushings syndrome has been reported on several occasions following single intra-articular injections of triamcinolone for musculoskeletal disease . Therefore triamcinolone preparations should not be administered to patients on ritonavir.
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Hiv Joint Pain Singapore
|Help me about HIV Joint Pain !|
HIV Joint Pain in Singapore: Among the possible symptoms of early HIV infection is arthralgia, or joint pain. This can occur in just one joint or in many joints, and often occurs along with muscle pain. There are many possible causes of joint pain, so youll need to get an HIV test to determine whether HIV is the cause.
There can be a variety of symptoms in the early phase of an HIV infection, which is known as acute HIV infection. These are general symptoms that can be hard to tell apart from other infections. Fever and fatigue are common, but there are also many other ways that an acute HIV infection can manifest itself.
One possible symptom of acute HIV infection is arthralgia, which is the medical term for joint pain. This could show up in just one joint, but more commonly there will be joint discomfort in several different joints. Some people describe joint pain all over the body. It often goes along with muscle pain, which is also often present in several different locations. The joint soreness may be severe enough to make it difficult to do normal daily activities, or may be a more mild joint pain.
If you have an exposure to HIV, dont wait until you have HIV symptoms to go to your doctor. If you go within 72 hours, you may be able to take HIV PEP, which is a regimen of medications that can help to prevent an infection after an exposure. After 72 hours, HIV PEP wont work, so go to an STD clinic as soon as possible.