Exploring Hiv Transmission Rates
World Health Organization , about 36.7 million people worldwide lived with HIV as of 2016. Still, thanks to antiretroviral therapy , people with HIV are leading longer, better quality lives. Many of these strides have been made in the United States.
To help reduce the risk of transmission, its important to understand how the virus is spread. HIV is only transmitted through bodily fluids, such as:
Learn which type of exposure is most likely to transmit the virus and how antiretroviral drugs are making a difference.
, direct blood transfusion is the route of exposure that poses the highest risk of transmission. While uncommon, receiving a blood transfusion from a donor with HIV may increase the risk.
The CDC also discusses HIV transmission risk in terms of how many times the virus is likely to be transmitted per 10,000 exposures. For example, for every 10,000 blood transfusions from a donor with HIV, the virus is likely to be transmitted 9,250 times.
Since 1985, however, blood banks have adopted stricter screening measures to identify blood with HIV. Now all blood donations are carefully tested for HIV. If they test positive, theyre discarded. As a result, the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion is very low.
Hiv Treatment And Antiretroviral Therapy
HIV can be controlled and treatedthough not fully curedthrough the use of antiretroviral therapy medicines, which can keep patients healthy for many years by reducing the amount of HIV present in the body. ART both helps slow the progression of the virus and also reduces the chances of transmitting the virus to other people. ART is typically taken as a combination of three or more medications, which can sometimes be combined into one pill.
Patients whose viral loads drop to fewer than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood are said to have entered viral suppression or viral load suppression. Some even achieve an HIV level so low it is unmeasurable via current tests. This is classified as an undetectable viral load and is the ideal condition for HIV patients.Approximatley 72% of the total population of those diagnosed with HIV are being treated with ART. Testing and treatment coverage of HIV has dramatically improved around the world. That said, poverty, gender inequality, and HIV stigma and discrimination are major barriers to HIV prevention and treatment in many countries.
The Worlds Largest Hiv Epidemic In Crisis: Hiv In South Africa
In some communities of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, 60 percent of women have HIV. Nearly 4,500 South Africans are newly infected every week one-third are adolescent girls/young women ages 15-24. These are staggering figures, by any stretch of the imagination. Yet, the HIV epidemic is not being treated like a crisis. In February, we traveled to South Africa, to understand what is happening in these areas with hyper-endemic HIV epidemics, where prevalence rates exceed 15 percent among adults. We were alarmed by the complacency toward the rate of new infections at all levels and the absence of an emergency response, especially for young people.
This is no time for business as usual from South Africa or its partners, including the U.S. government through the U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief . The epidemic is exacerbated by its concentration in 15-49-year-olds, those of reproductive and working age who are the backbone of South Africa. Without aggressive action to reduce the rate of new infections in young people, HIV will continue to take a tremendous toll on the country for years and generations to come. Collective action is needed to push beyond the complacency and internal barriers to implement policies and interventions that directly target HIV prevention and treatment for young people. PEPFAR should ensure its programs support those efforts.
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Us States With The Highest Hiv
In the 1980s and 1990s, HIV and AIDS had suddenly risen from oblivion to become the an alarming cause of death across the entire globe. However, the rate of infection began to experience a steady decline, particularly in the United States, after the public got more information about the disease and ways of protection from infection. Despite the increased sensitization programs in recent years, Americans are still dying of HIV/AIDS. The recent data from Statista established the states in the US where AIDS-related deaths are still higher than the national average. The states of Louisiana and Florida had the largest number of AIDS-related deaths of any state in the US.
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Effects Of Hiv/aids On Society
HIV/AIDS has far-reaching adverse effects on the economic, cultural, and social spheres of society. The epidemic drains the economy of the country as funds need to be diverted to treat the infected patients. It is also a great economic burden on individual families with HIV/AIDS as a significant portion of the income needs to be spent on treatment procedures. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS cripples the entire society and reduced the nation’s productivity.
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Countries With The Highest Rates Of Hiv/aids
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that weakens the human immune system, sometimes leading to AIDS. If detected early, HIV can be managed to prevent it from progressing to the final stage of AIDS. HIV attacks CD4 cells exposing the infected person to opportunistic infections. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and medical care are essential factors to effective management and control of AIDS which has no permanent cure. While HIV is majorly a sexually transmitted disease, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion and during birth or breastfeeding, as well as through a few other means.
Tuberculosis Among People Living With Hiv
Tuberculosis is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV. Death due to tuberculosis still remains high among people living with HIV, however the number of deaths is decreasing. Most of the global mortality due to TB among those with HIV is from cases in Sub-Saharan Africa.
In the charts here we see the number of tuberculosis patients who tested positive for HIV the number receiving antiretroviral therapy and the number of TB-related deaths among those living with HIV.
People who use ART are living longer
ART not only saves lives but also gives a chance for people living with HIV/AIDS to live long lives. Without ART very few infected people survive beyond ten years.3
Today, a person living in a high-income country who started ART in their twenties can expect to live for another 46 years that is well into their 60s.4
While the life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS in high-income countries has still not reached the life expectancy of the general population, we are getting closer to this goal.5
ART prevents new HIV infections
There is considerable evidence to show that people who use ART are less likely to transmit HIV to another person.7 ART reduces the number of viral particles present in an HIV-positive individual and therefore, the likelihood of passing the virus to another person decreases.
We need to increase ART coverage
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How Common Is Hiv
Globally, there are over 37 million people living with HIV. About 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. Of those people, however, it’s estimated that as many as 13% do not know their HIV status.
Since the 1980s, rates of HIV have declined. In 2019, there were 34,800 new cases identified in the U.S., and the incidence rate was 12.6 per 100,000 people.
Hiv Transmission Is Driven By Gaps In The Hiv Care Continuum
- One in seven people with HIV still dont know they have it, meaning they are not receiving the care they need to stay healthy and prevent transmission to others.
- One in three people with HIV are not receiving needed HIV care. 80 percent of new HIV infections are transmitted by people who are not aware they have HIV or not receiving any HIV care.
- 44 percent* of people in HIV care have not reached viral suppression through treatment.21
*Based on 2018 data
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Are Some Regions Of The United States More Impacted By Hiv Than Others
Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
*Rates per 100,000 people. Includes adults, adolescents, and children under the age of 13.
Hiv Infections By State
In the United States, where you live plays a large part in how likely you are to get HIV. While it is clear that dense urban populations with high prevalence rates contribute to the risk, there are other unique factors that account for a growing disparity between U.S. states.
A prime example is the rate of infection in states that have either adopted or refused Medicaid expansion, intended to expand healthcare to economically disadvantaged people.
According to the CDC, the 13 states that refused Medicaid expansion account for 42% of all new infections. Florida, Texas, Georgia, and North Carolina represent the lions share of these infections.
Poverty remains a driving force for HIV infections, particularly in the South where the rates of poverty are highest. Moreover, nearly half of all Americans without health insurance live in the South.
With that being said, the Northeast has a higher prevalence rate overall, centered mainly in dense urban populations like New York City, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
These dynamics are reflected in the 10 U.S. states with the highest HIV prevalence rates, according to the CDC.
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Youth also accounts for the highest rate of undiagnosed infections. Today, nearly half of all HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 and 24 are unaware of their status and, as a result, are more likely to infect others. The picture is little improved among adults 25 to 34, where one in three remains undiagnosed.
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The Differential Hiv Experience Of African
While African-Americans make up 12 percent of the U.S. population, they accounted for 46 percent of new HIV infections in 2010, substantially higher than the rate for Whites or Hispanics. The majority of these were men however, African-American women also have a high rate of HIV diagnosis nearly 20 times that of White women . More disheartening is that 1 in 16 African-American men and 1 in 32 African-American women will eventually be diagnosed with HIV.
The causes of this HIV health disparity are complex. HIV infection prevalence is higher and more broadly represented in the African- American community compared to the White population thus African-Americans are at increased risk of infection simply by choosing intimate partners within their own ethnic communities.24 Additionally, African-American communities experience high rates of other sexually transmitted infections, and some of these infections can significantly increase the risk of contracting HIV. African-Americans also tend to be diagnosed at later stages in the disease and therefore begin therapy later, increasing the length of time of their infectivity. Once engaged in HAART, African-Americans are more likely to discontinue therapy prematurely,25 risking resurgence of HIV infectivity and further health complications.
- Text Description: Diagnosis of HIV Infection Among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category Graph
Male-to-male sexual contact: 61%
In 2019 It Was Estimated That There Are 105200 People Living With Hiv In The Uk
- 94% of these people are diagnosed, and therefore know that they have HIV. This means that around 1 in 16 people living with HIV in the UK do not know that they have the virus.
- 98% of people diagnosed with HIV in the UK are on treatment, and 97% of those on treatment are virally suppressed which means they cant pass the virus on. Of all the people living with HIV in the UK, 89% are virally suppressed.
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Pregnancy Or Breastfeeding Transmission
There are a few ways HIV can be passed from a pregnant person to a baby. During pregnancy, the virus can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. It can be transmitted during childbirth through contact with blood or other body fluids that contain the virus.
Because the virus can also be detected in breastmilk, it’s possible for a baby to contract HIV through breastfeeding.
In the absence of intervention or treatment, the rate of HIV transmission from a parent living with HIV to their child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breastfeeding ranges from 15% to 45%.
No Kogi State Doesnt Have Highest Hiv Prevalence Rate In Nigeria
IN SHORT: the latest data shows Kogi state in the northcentral has a 1% HIV prevalence rate. This climbs to 5.6% in Akwa Ibom in the southsouth, making it the state with the highest rate.
The claim that Kogi state in north-central Nigeria has the highest HIV prevalence rate in the country has been in multipleposts on .
The posts all read along the lines of BREAKING: Kogi state ranks 1st in HIV transmission in Nigeria.
But is this true? We checked.
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How Does Hiv Affect Different Groups Of People
There are different ways to answer this question.
In 2020, male-to-male sexual contactdaccounted for68% of all new HIV diagnoses in the United States and dependent areas.In the same year, heterosexual contact accounted for 22% of all HIV diagnoses.
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions.NOTE: Does not include other and perinatal transmission categories.* Among people aged 13 and older.
If we look at HIV diagnoses by race and ethnicity, we see that Black/African American people are most affected by HIV. In 2020, Black/African American people accounted for 42% of all new HIV diagnoses. Additionally, Hispanic/Latino people are also strongly affected. They accounted for 27% of all new HIV diagnoses.
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions.* Among people aged 13 and older.Black refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America.Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.
The most affected subpopulation is Black/African American gay and bisexual men.
Mother To Child Transmission
Having HIV does not mean a woman cant have a healthy baby. The key is to work with a doctor to take all the necessary precautions.
Aside from blood and sexual secretions, HIV can also be transmitted during pregnancy or through breast milk while breastfeeding. Mother to child transmissions can also occur at any point during pregnancy, as well as during delivery.
All pregnant women should be screened for HIV. Antiretroviral therapy is strongly recommended for pregnant women with HIV to achieve viral suppression. This will subsequently reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby during pregnancy and labor. Sometimes a caesarean delivery is recommended to reduce transmission during delivery if the infection is not suppressed.
Its also important to protect the baby after birth. Breastfeeding might not be recommended in some cases, though consistent viral suppression may reduce the transmission of HIV through breast milk. A doctor may also recommend that the baby take antiretroviral therapy for up to six weeks after birth.
Overall, great strides have been made in decreasing HIV transmission between mothers and infants due to improved screening and use of anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy.
In the United States, the
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Us Response To The Global Epidemic
The U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for more than 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2021 and, as of September 30, 2021, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.96 million men, women, and children. PEPFAR also enabled 2.8 million babies to be born HIV-free to parents living with HIV.
In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.
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Cities Show Movement In Our Rankings
Numerous cities worsened significantly in our rankings, including:
- Washington, DC rose 12 spots from 17 5
- Knoxville, TN rose 17 spots from 26 9
- New Orleans, LA rose 13 spots from 24 11
- Jacksonville, FL rose 15 spots from 38 23
- Albany, NY rose 15 spots from 68 53
It wasnt all bad news some cities bucked the national trend with improved STD rates. For instance, Milwaukee, WI and Indianapolis, IN both moved out of the Top 10, though they remain among the Top 25 cities.
Other cities rankings also improved dramatically, such as:
- Shreveport, LA improved 12 spots from 9 21
- Denver, CO improved 13 spots from 19 32
- Richmond, VA improved 12 spots from 32 44
- Portland, OR improved 15 spots from 73 88
- Omaha, NE improved 13 spots from 79 92
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