How Hiv Is Not Spread
The HIV virus is NOT spread through “casual contact.” Some ways HIV/AIDS is NOT spread are:
- Normal day-to-day contact like shaking hands, being in the same room or hugging.
- Sharing plates, cups or silverware with someone who is HIV positive.
- Using a phone or toilet seat after someone who is HIV positive.
- Sharing a swimming pool with someone who is HIV positive.
So far no other family members of HIV infected children have gotten the virus from casual contact.
Strength Of Oral Rapid Hiv Testing
The superior result of oral rapid testing may be attributed to its prompt and simplified procedures. Unlike conventional routine HIV testing, oral rapid testing does not collect full blood samples, minimising safety concerns about the risk of needle exposure. Similarly, it also substantially reduces blood phobia in the participants. Further, it offers a much faster turnover for test results and flexibility for implementation during the waiting time before doctor consultation. In contrast, some patients in the routine group completed the test but did not return for the results. This might be owing to an inability to return on a separate day once they had returned to their busy life schedules. The quick availability of test results from an oral rapid test improved the willingness of the patients to wait.
What The Findings Tell Us
From the point of view of specificity, the figures confirmed that the incidence of false positives remains extremely low, even with the earlier generation tests.
The figure only worsened when retesting bloods from the acute stage infections. Of the 58 samples tested, the 3rd generation rapid tests achieved a sensitivity of only 5.2 percent to 25.9 percent, meaning that the majority of such infections would be missed using these rapid, antibody-based tests.
Even the 4th generationDetermine rapid antigen/antibody test was able to identify only half of the acute infections despite having an estimated sensitivity of 96.6 percent and specificity of 100 percent. According to the UCSF researchers, the Determine worked best during acute infection when the patient’s viral load was over 500,000.
Not surprisingly, the lab-based ARCHITECT combination antigen/antibody test performed best. With an estimated specificity of 99.1 percent and a specificity of 100 percent, the tests were able to identify nearly 90 percent of acute infections.
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Making An Informed Choice
In terms of testing selection and performance, the following conclusions can be reasonably drawn:
- Commercial, over-the-counter HIV tests perform least well overall, not only in terms of detecting acute infection but in returning a false negative rate of 7 percent.
- Combination HIV antigen/antibody tests are far more accurate than traditional antibody-based assays, particularly during the acute stage of infection. Lab-based tests still outperform at-site, point-of-care HIV tests, most especially in cases of recent HIV exposure.
With that being said, high levels of sensitivity are only part of the reason why certain tests are preferred over others.
For example, a significant number of people fail to return for their results after testing. The ability to return a result within 20- to 30 minutes makes rapid testing the ideal choice for most people .
Similarly, people with confidentiality concerns or fears about HIV stigma may be better served by taking an in-home rapid test. While there remains little data as to the number of people linked to care following a positive result, it is presumed that the tests will at least provide an entry point for those who might otherwise avoid testing clinics.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv
Not everyone will get symptoms of HIV when they are infected. However, most people will experience a short illness that is like the flu. This normally occurs 2 to 6 weeks after being infected and will pass in 1 to 2 weeks. After this illness, most people do not get any further symptoms for several years. These symptoms are caused by many other infections so they do not necessarily mean you have HIV.
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Situations In Which Rapid Tests May Not Be Accurate
Performance of rapid tests is poorer in a number of situations. Results may not be accurate.
- In cases of recent HIV infection, during the tests window period.
- In people with diagnosed HIV who are taking HIV treatment. These tests are not a reliable way to confirm that you still have HIV infection.
- In people who are taking pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis . If you acquire HIV, you may have a delayed antibody response, extending the window period.
Where Can People Find Free Hiv Testing Locations
The CDC maintains a list of HIV testing locations for people who want to find out whether they have contracted the virus. This National HIV and STD Testing Resource can be accessed at . This site includes the ability to search for free testing locations as well as locations that provide rapid tests. Some clinics only provide HIV testing. However, sexually transmitted diseases clinics routinely provide HIV testing along with testing for diseases like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes.
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If The Test Is Positive
If the screening test is positive, you will be given your results and a packet of information. Blood work will also be done to confirm the results from the Oral Point of Care Test, but these results will not be available right away. In the meantime, you should avoid activities that transmit the virus. All positive test results will be referred to the Family AIDS Clinic and Education Services Clinic at Nationwide Childrens Hospital. The FACES staff has over 30 years of experience working with HIV. They provide many services to persons living with HIV. Appointments include time with a nurse, social worker, doctor, dietitian, peer navigator, and pharmacist. When a referral is received at the FACES clinic and labs are reviewed, staff will contact you to set up an appointment.
Faster More Accurate Hiv Test Just Needs Spit
You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4.0 International license.
A new HIV test combines the convenience of spitting in a cup with the reliability of blood tests, researchers report.
The earlier you can detect, the better, because people can infect other people.
Currently, public health officials have a tough choice to make when it comes to screening people for HIV: administer a reliable blood test that can detect infections early on, but that few people will volunteer for, or give people a convenient test using saliva that is less reliable during the first stages of infection. The new test could change that.
The earlier you can detect, the better, because people can infect other people, says Carolyn Bertozzi, professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University and a professor of chemistry.
Every day that goes by that a persons behavior is not modified based on their HIV status is a day that they could be infecting other people, especially for young people, says Bertozzi, who is also a faculty fellow of Stanford ChEM-H and a member of Stanford Bio-X.
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What Is The Cost Of A Rapid Hiv Test
Prices may be different in different parts of the country. The SUDS test kit usually costs $6 to $10, which is more expensive than an EIA. However, the EIA requires expensive equipment and rapid HIV tests do not. Additional costs such as a laboratory or a laboratory technicians time for conducting the tests should also be considered. Rapid HIV tests are simpler to perform and require fewer specialized skills than does an EIA.
How Accurate Are Hiv Tests
Some tests can detect HIV within 10 days of exposure, but detection ultimately depends on how quickly ones immune system reacts to the virus. For some people, detection could take months.
Accuracy of a negative test result depends on a persons body and the type of test that was used. There are a number of HIV tests that have been developed since the virus was first detected in the 1980s.
Each test has whats called a window period, or the time between contact with the virus and when the virus can be detected in the body.
The window period is different for each test and person. Ask a healthcare professional about the window period for your specific test.
Newer laboratory tests work to detect antibodies to HIV as well as a viral protein called p24 to detect an infection. Because p24 can appear before antibodies to HIV, antigen/antibody tests have a tighter window period than older tests for antibodies alone.
In fact, the newest types of antigen/antibody tests are 99 percent conclusive within 44 days of exposure.
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What About False Results
Some HIV tests have a very slight chance of giving you false results. A âfalse-positiveâ result means your test shows you have HIV when you donât. Tests may also give you a âfalse-negativeâ result. That means the test says you donât have HIV, but you do.
The rapid oral fluid test is more likely to give you a false-positive result than other tests. If you take a rapid oral test and get a positive result, the doctor will give you a blood test to confirm your diagnosis.
The HIV RNA or viral load test is not generally used to diagnose HIV. If you have this test done and get a positive result, the doctor may start you on HIV treatment, but you should always take an antibody test a few months later to confirm your diagnosis.
If you test positive: These tests are all screening tests for HIV. That means that if you take an HIV test and get a positive or even an unclear result, youâll need another blood test to confirm that you do or donât have the virus. The results of both tests together are more than 99% accurate. The tests used to confirm HIV infection are either the Western blot or indirect fluorescent antibody test. If your screening test went to a laboratory, they can do this additional testing on the same blood sample. But if you were tested in a community clinic or at home, youâll need to give an additional blood sample for follow-up.
When You Should Take An Hiv Test
What testing service you should use, and which type of test, depends on when you might have been exposed to HIV. Signs of HIV infection dont show up in the blood right away. It normally happens within four weeks of infection, but can be longer.
If you think you might have been exposed to HIV in the last 72 hours , its possible to take post-exposure prophylaxis to help stop an infection from happening.
If your risk was recent, then your test provider will probably advise you to take a test immediately, followed by a second one a few weeks later. The second test will pick up any infection the first one may have missed.
If your risk was in the last three months, make sure you tell the person testing you, as it may affect the type of test youre given.
A self test is not guaranteed to pick up an infection thats occurred in the previous three months. If you think youve been exposed in the last three months, you should get a test in person.
Very occasionally it can take up to three months for antibodies to appear in the blood, so an HIV negative result is only totally accurate if three months have passed between the test and the last time a risk was taken. However, a negative result four to eight weeks after taking a risk is a very good sign that HIV infection hasnt happened.
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What Do The Test Results Mean
There are three possible test results:
1) Negative . The test did not find any evidence of HIV infection. You probably dont have HIV .
2) Reactive . The test assay has reacted to a substance in your blood. This does not necessarily mean that you are HIV positive. It means you need to take more tests to confirm the result. These extra tests are best done at a healthcare facility where they have access to the most accurate HIV testing technologies.
3) Indeterminate, equivocal or invalid. The test result is unclear. Another test needs to be done.
How Hiv Is Spread
HIV can only live inside the body. It can only be spread through INTIMATE CONTACT between an infected person and an uninfected person. HIV is passed to another person only when blood, semen, vaginal fluids or breastmilk that contains HIV gets into that person’s body.
Examples of intimate contact and ways of spreading the virus are:
- Through contact with an infected person’s blood .
- From an infected mother to her baby through the placenta during pregnancy, during delivery or in the breastmilk to her baby.
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Study Shows That Some Tests Fall Short In Early Infection
As the United States aims to increase early diagnosis and treatment of people with HIV, a greater focus has been placed on determining the accuracy of HIV tests in real-world settingsnot only to minimize the number of false positive or negative test results but to better identify people during the early stages of infection when the risk of transmission is especially high.
In order to do this, researchers from the University of California, San Francisco conducted a review of over 21,000 HIV tests performed between the years 2003 and 2008 in some of the city’s high prevalence populations.
Of four types of tests used during this periodfrom first generation antibody tests to rapid oral tests761 people were diagnosed with HIV , while 58 were identified during acute infection.
The study also aimed to compare the accuracy of newer testing assaysincluding 4th generation antigen/antibody testsby retesting the blood from the 58 people previously diagnosed with acute HIV infection.
The accuracy was measured both in terms of sensitivity and specificity .
Hiv : : 9 Week Oraquick Is Accurate
I had unprotected vaginal insertive back on11/28/2015 and 12/2/201 with the same girl. On 12/08 I was treated for Chlamydia AND LATER FOUND POSITIVE FOR IT. After a round of antibiotics it was presumably gone. However the Doxycycline caused me to experience all the ARS symptoms. After a week or so of being off they were gone. Reading over and over again about symptoms I told the girl to test and she kept saying she was negative and finally went and bought an Oraquick test at her 8 week post exposure to her ex who gave her the chlamydia and it came back negative. I was only at 4 weeks and so the wait was on. After my 9 week exposure I went and bought an Oraquick Swab test from CVS and it came back negative. I am now going on week 10 and still feel like garbage. Can I assume that my 9 week Oraquick is pretty accurate?
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What Is A False Negative Test Result
A false negative test result occurs when the test shows negative and the person is really HIV positive.
This is very rare and usually occurs during the window period when people are newly infected but the test cant quite pick up the infection.
As with other types of tests, there is always be a small margin of error. With antibody-only tests only 0.3% of tests will be a false negative after 3 months.
With 4th generation tests this is even lower. In practice, a negative result after six weeks means you do not have HIV.
You do not need to test again unless you have new risks in the future.
What Happens When You Go For A Test
Normally, testing involves taking a small sample of blood from your finger or your arm, or an oral swab. This is where you rub the testing pen along your gums to collect cells from your mouth.
How long it takes for HIV test results to come back will depend on the type of test you are taking. If youre taking a rapid test, you will be given your results within 20 minutes. Other types of tests will be sent to a laboratory and it may take between a few days and a few weeks for you to receive a final result.
Tests these days are very reliable, but if your result comes back positive, you should have a second confirmatory test to double check your result. If this is also positive, you will get an HIV diagnosis, after which you can start treatment.
Remember, HIV treatment these days is very effective and people with HIV can live long and healthy lives just like anyone else.
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