How Can You Prevent Getting Opportunistic Infections
The best way to prevent OIs is to take HIV medication daily as prescribed so that you can get and keep an undetectable viral load and keep your immune system strong.
It is also important to stay in HIV medical care and get lab tests done. This will allow you and your health care provider to know when you might be at risk for OIs and discuss ways to prevent them.
Some of the ways people living with HIV can reduce their risk of getting an OI include:
- avoiding exposure to contaminated water and food
- taking medicines to prevent certain OIs
- getting vaccinated against some preventable infections
Stage : The Asymptomatic Stage
Once a person has been through the acute primary infection stage and seroconversion process, they can often start to feel better. In fact, HIV may not cause any other symptoms for up to 10 or even 15 years .
However, the virus will still be active, infecting new cells and making copies of itself. HIV can still be passed on during this stage. If left untreated, over time, HIV infection will cause severe damage to the immune system.
How Do You Deal With Side Effects
Some side effects can be hard to deal with. One way to cope with them is to know what to watch out for and have a plan to deal with problems that come up.
That’s why you need to talk to your provider about the risk of side effects from different drugs, before you start therapy.
At the beginning of any treatment, you go through a period of adjustment–a time when your body has to get used to the new drugs you’re taking. Sometimes you’ll have headaches, an upset stomach, fatigue, or aches and pains. These side effects may go away after a few days or a few weeks.
If you notice any unusual or severe reactions after starting or changing a drug, report the side effects to your provider immediately.
More information is available in the Side Effects Guide.
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Are Opportunistic Infections Common In People With Hiv
OIs are less common now than in the early days of HIV and AIDS when there was no treatment. Todays HIV medicines reduce the amount of HIV in a persons body and keep the immune system stronger and better able to fight off infections.
However, some people with HIV still develop OIs for reasons such as:
- they do not know they have HIV and so they are not on treatment
- they know they have HIV but are not taking ART
- they were living with HIV for a long time before they were diagnosed and so have a weakened immune system
- they are taking ART, but their drug combination is not working as expected and is not keeping their HIV levels low enough for their immune system to fight off infections
The Most Dangerous Complications Of Hiv And Aid
An infection is the invasion of an organism’s body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disease or communicable disease, is an illness resulting from an infection.. Infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens, most prominently. AIDS-related cancers Patients with late-stageAIDS may develop Kaposi’s sarcoma , a skin tumor that primarily affects homosexual men. KS is the most common AIDS-related malignancy. It is characterized by reddish-purple blotches or patches on the skin or in the mouth Introduction Hemodialysis is a vital management option for end-stage renal disease patients. With adequate hemodialysis, patients can have a good quality of life but complications do occur during the session, which can be minor to life-threatening. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of acute complications during this procedure The HIV care continuum is useful both as an individual-level tool to assess care outcomes, as well as a population-level framework to analyze the proportion of people with HIV in a given community who are engaged in each successive step. This helps policymakers and service providers better pinpoint where gaps in services might exist and develop.
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How Do Hiv/aids Medicines Work
HIV/AIDS medicines reduce the amount of HIV in your body, which helps by:
- Giving your immune system a chance to recover. Even though there is still some HIV in your body, your immune system should be strong enough to fight off infections and certain HIV-related cancers.
- Reducing the risk that you will spread HIV to others
What Are The Types Of Hiv/aids Medicines
There are several different types of HIV/AIDS medicines. Some work by blocking or changing enzymes that HIV needs to make copies of itself. This prevents HIV from copying itself, which reduces the amount of HIV in the body. Several medicines do this:
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors block an enzyme called reverse transcriptase
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors bind to and later change reverse transcriptase
- Integrase inhibitors block an enzyme called integrase
- Protease inhibitors block an enzyme called protease
Some HIV/AIDS medicines interfere with HIV’s ability to infect CD4 immune system cells:
- Fusion inhibitors block HIV from entering the cells
- CCR5 antagonists and post-attachment inhibitors block different molecules on the CD4 cells. To infect a cell, HIV has to bind to two types of molecules on the cell’s surface. Blocking either of these molecules prevents HIV from entering the cells.
- Attachment inhibitors bind to a specific protein on the outer surface of HIV. This prevents HIV from entering the cell.
In some cases, people take more than one medicine:
- Pharmacokinetic enhancers boost the effectiveness of certain HIV/AIDS medicines. A pharmacokinetic enhancer slows the breakdown of the other medicine. This allows that medicine to stay in the body longer at a higher concentration.
- Multidrug combinations include a combination of two or more different HIV/AIDS medicines
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What Are Opportunistic Infections
Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV.
Many OIs are considered AIDS-defining conditions. That means if a person with HIV has one of these conditions, they are diagnosed with AIDS, the most serious stage of HIV infection.
What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . The abbreviation HBV can stand for either the virus or the infection it causes.
HBV can be a short-term or a long-term illness:
- Acute HBV occurs within 6 months after a person is exposed to HBV. In some people, acute HBV can lead to chronic HBV.
- Chronic HBV is a lifelong disease. Without treatment, chronic HBV can cause liver cancer or liver damage that leads to liver failure.
HBV is a contagious infection that can spread from person to person.
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Can Hbv Infection Be Prevented
Yes. The best way to prevent HBV is to get the hepatitis B vaccine.
CDC recommends that people with HIV and people who are at risk for HIV get the HBV vaccine . The housemates and sexual partners of people with HBV should get the HBV vaccine, too.
People, including people with HIV, can also take the following steps to reduce their risk of HBV infection:
- Use condoms during sex to reduce the risk of HBV infection and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis.
- Do not inject drugs. But if you do, do not share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment.
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal items that may come in contact with another person’s blood.
- If you get a tattoo or body piercing, make sure the instruments used are sterile.
Preventing Infection During The Covid
People who are taking immunosuppressive therapies may be more likely to have severe and even life-threatening disease from COVID-19. Such people may need extra precautions, such as the following:
- Avoiding leaving the home, except when necessary.
- Washing hands well after being in a public place.
- Covering face and nose with a cloth face covering when in public.
- Practicing social distancing by staying at least 6 feet away from people not in their household.
- Regularly cleaning surfaces that are frequently touched
The Centers for Disease Control and your local health department can continue to provide you with up-to-date guidance.
If you are taking an immunosuppressive therapy, it may be worth talking about your current treatment with your doctor. For some immunosuppressive therapies, an increased dose might increase your risk of having severe complications from COVID-19. However, it is not completely straightforward. Some immunosuppressive therapies are actually being studied as possible treatments for some severe symptoms of COVID-19 .
However, do not stop taking your immunosuppressive therapies without talking to your doctor. For many people, this would be a much greater medical risk. Instead, you can have a conversation about whether lowering your current dosage of your immunosuppressant might make sense for you.
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Which One Of The Following Is Considered An End Stage Complication Of Aids
The following is considered an end-stage complication of AIDS: MAC User: Which one of the following is considered an end stage complication of AIDS? Weegy: Complication : a condition, event, etc., that is complex or confused. Score .9514 User: Which of the following medications is used for PCP prophylaxis? Weegy: Bactrim is used for PCP prophylaxis. Score 1 User: It is important to follow an antiviral regimen strictly, as prescribed, t WhichoneofthefollowingisconsideredanendstagecomplicationofAIDS? weegy Answer Search More Help Account Feed Signup Log In Question and answer. Which oneofthefollowingisconsideredanendstagecomplicationofAIDS? Thefollowingisconsideredanend-stagecomplicationofAIDS: MAC. s. Expert answered|Cezss. Which one of the following is considered an end stage complication of AIDS? The final or end stages of AIDS are usually characterized by debilitating symptoms, resulting ultimately in death. Opportunistic infections or ois typically occur in the final stage of aids. However, some ois can occur at earlier stages prior to an aids diagnosis..
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Yu cautions that the findings may not be generalizable to most HIV patients. Both of her patients belong to a group known as elite controllers, or people who are able to suppress HIV at very low, often undetectable levels with their immune systems, without the help of anti-HIV drugs. Researchers around the world are studying these people intensively its not clear what percentage of those infected with the virus are able to naturally contain it with their immune systems, but Yu believes that the two patients she described suggest that there may be more. Shes hoping that hearing about the first two will encourage others to get tested and studied, so scientists can better understand what aspect of their immune systems are providing such an effective way to block HIV.
Many immune factors could be playing a role, she says. Now that we have a second case, there are probably many cases out there that may not know they have a sterilizing cure. Some may not even be aware they are infected. We are hoping to attract more patients if we have a cohort of these extremely rare cases, then that will allow us to really analyze their immune responses in more depth and breadth and hopefully give us a hint about what immune factors contribute most to this status. Then we can apply what we learn to the general population.
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What Is The Tuberculosis Skin Test
The tuberculosis skin test determines if someone has developed an immune response to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis . This response can occur if someone currently has TB, if they were exposed to it in the past, or if they received the BCG vaccine against TB . Estimates indicate that one-third of the world’s population has latent TB, and around 1.3 million people worldwide die of TB each year. The tuberculin test or PPD test are other names for the tuberculosis skin test.
The tuberculin skin test is based on the fact that infection with M. tuberculosis bacterium produces a delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction to certain components of the bacterium. Medical professionals extract the components of the organism from TB cultures and are the core elements of the classic tuberculin PPD . This PPD material is used for skin testing for tuberculosis. Reaction in the skin to tuberculin PPD begins when specialized immune cells, called T cells, sensitized by prior infection, are attracted by the immune system to the skin site where they release chemical messengers called lymphokines. These lymphokines induce induration through local vasodilation leading to fluid deposition known as edema, fibrin deposition, and attraction of other types of inflammatory cells to the area.
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Immune function is typically measured by CD4 cell count. The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , which can take many years to develop if not treated, depending on the individual. AIDS is defined by the development of certain cancers, infections or other severe long-term clinical manifestations Which one of the following is considered an end stage . Weegy.com DA: 13 PA: 13 MOZ Rank: 56. User: Which one of the following is considered an end stage complication of AIDS? Weegy: Complication : a condition, event, etc., that is complex or confused Score .9514 User: Which of the following medications is used for PCP prophylaxis Untreated, life expectancy with end stage AIDS is about 3 years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-managed, and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection. People with AIDS often develop symptoms and signs of unusual infections or cancers largely due to the destruction of the CD4 cells in the immune system. When a person with HIV infection gets one of these infections or cancers, medical professionals refer to this as an AIDS-defining condition
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What Is The Connection Between Hiv And Hbv
Both HIV and HBV spread from person to person in semen, blood, or other body fluids. For this reason, the main risk factors for HIV and HBV are the same: having sex without a condom and injection drug use.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 10% of people with HIV in the United States also have HBV. Infection with both HIV and HBV is called HIV/HBV coinfection.
Chronic HBV advances faster to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer in people with HIV/HBV coinfection than in people with only HBV infection. But chronic HBV does not appear to cause HIV to advance faster in people with HIV/HBV coinfection.
When Is It Time To Start Taking Hiv Medicines
People with HIV should start taking HIV medicines as soon as possible after an HIV diagnosis. It is especially important for people with AIDS-defining conditions or early HIV infection to start HIV medicines right away.
Women with HIV who become pregnant and are not already taking HIV medicines should also start taking HIV medicines as soon as possible.
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Should You Ever Take A ‘holiday’ From The Drugs
Taking a “drug holiday” from your HIV treatments for reasons other than a severe reaction to medications may be harmful to your health. Having said that, your provider may suggest that you temporarily stop your antiretroviral drugs for certain specific reasons. Be sure to talk with your provider about this issue if you have questions about it. How you stop taking your HIV drugs safely can be a complicated process.
Remember, just skipping doses without your provider’s instruction is dangerous you should never change your treatment plan without talking with your provider.
Which Drugs Should You Take
Now that you have learned a little about the types of drugs that are available and how they work, you may be wondering how your provider will know which treatment you should take.
HIV drugs are used in combination with one another in order to get the best results. The goal is to get the viral load as low as possible for as long as possible.
HIV drugs do different things to the virus–they attack it in different ways–so using combinations works better than using just one by itself. Combinations usually include three antiretroviral drugs. Except in very special circumstances, anti-HIV drugs should never be used one or two at a time. Using only one or two drugs at a time can fail to control the viral load and let the virus adapt to the drug. Once the virus adapts to a drug, the drug won’t work as well against the virus, and maybe it won’t work at all.
There is no one combination of HIV drugs that works best for everyone. Each combination has its pluses and minuses.
So, how will your provider know which combination to choose? You and your provider can consider the options, keeping certain things in mind, such as possible side effects, the number of pills you’ll need to take, and how the drugs interact with each other and with other medications you may take.
Print out these questions to ask your health care provider so that you will be ready to discuss combination therapy.
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What Kinds Of Drugs Are Available
HIV drugs are also called antiretroviral drugs or antiretrovirals . A whole treatment regimen is called antiretroviral therapy, or ART. The ARVs work because they attack the HIV virus directly–they cripple the ability of the virus to make copies of itself. Usually an ART regimen consists of 3 different medicines from at least 2 classes of drugs. This is because it takes a powerful combination of medicines to suppress the HIV virus.
There are 5 main classes of HIV drugs:
- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
- Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
- Integrase Inhibitors
- Protease Inhibitors
- Entry Inhibitors
Each group attacks HIV in its own way and helps your body fight the infection. Most of these drugs come as tablets or capsules. Several of these drugs may be combined into one tablet to make it easier to take your medications. These are known as fixed-dose combinations or single tablet regimens.
The following is a short description of how each group of drugs works.