Wednesday, May 22, 2024

How Can Hiv Aids Be Spread

How Can I Protect Myself

How is HIV Transmitted? Episode 2

The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.

If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:

  • using a condom every time you have sex
  • getting tested for HIV and making sure all partners do too
  • reducing the number of sexual partners you have
  • getting tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection

Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.

Can I Get Hiv From Sharing Needles

Yes. Sharing needles or syringes and other injection drug equipment is very risky. Sharing needles is the second most common way that HIV is spread to women in the United States . Any woman who shares needles with someone is at risk for HIV infection, because the needles may have someone else’s blood in them.

Learn more about HIV risk and sharing needles.

How Do You Get Hiv

HIV is carried in semen , vaginal fluids, anal mucus, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes . You can get HIV from:

  • having vaginal or anal sex

  • sharing needles or syringes for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

  • getting stuck with a needle that has HIV-infected blood on it

  • getting HIV-infected blood, semen , or vaginal fluids into open cuts or sores on your body

HIV is usually spread through having unprotected sex. Using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex and not sharing needles can help protect you and your partners from HIV. If you do have HIV, treatment can lower or even stop the chances of spreading the virus to other people during sex. If you dont have HIV, theres also a daily medicine called PrEP that can protect you from HIV.

HIV can also be passed to babies during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A pregnant woman with HIV can take medicine to greatly reduce the chance that her baby will get HIV.

HIV isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get HIV from kissing, sharing food or drinks, or using the same fork or spoon. HIV is also not spread through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And you cant get HIV from a toilet seat.

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Major Factors That Influence The Spread Of Hiv/aids In The Developing World

Fredrick is a social science researcher. He mainly researches on social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV/AIDS prevention.

According to World Health Organization , the developing countries have the highest number of HIV/AIDS infections in the whole world. There are approximately 32 million people living with the virus in these countries.

The worst hit regions include Sub-Saharan Africa, Caribbean, and South-East Asia. The countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates and the largest number of HIV-positive people in these regions include South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Tanzania, Swaziland, Lesotho, Botswana, Zambia, Uganda, Mozambique, Ghana, Bahamas, Belize, Jamaica, Haiti, India, Thailand, Nepal, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

The spread of the virus decreased from 15% in 1990 to around 8% in 2015, but more than 6 million new infections occur every year in these countries. This is according to Center for Disease Control .

In this article, I am going to discuss the major factors that fuel the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Third World countries. Read on to learn about the social, economic, and cultural factors, and some ways that I have recommended to help reduce the epidemic.

HIV/AIDS Prevalence High in Developing World

Ways Hiv Cannot Be Spread

Comprehensive HIV/AIDs Information

HIV is not spread by:

  • Air or water
  • Mosquitoes, ticks or other insects
  • Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
  • Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
  • Drinking fountains

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Answer: Nipple Sucking And Hiv Risk

The question of whether you can get HIV by sucking someones nipples is an important one. It gets even more interesting when you add lactation into the mix. While there are a host of myths around the ways HIV is spread, it is true that breast milk is one of the few bodily fluids in which potentially infectious levels of HIV can actually exist.

As Ness Cooper, a clinical sexologist at The Sex Consultant, points out, forced lactation or lactation play is a practice in the kink community. This is when a lactating person forces the other person to drink their breast milk as a part of consensual sexual play.

Babies and fetuses can get HIV during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. But what are the implications for adults? Is it possible to get HIV through nipple sucking? And can you get other sexually transmitted infections from nipple sucking?

Lets investigate.

To Prevent Hiv Infection Couples Try Testing Together

“There were cases where it was suspected, but not all the pieces were there to say it so clearly as this one,” says Patrick Sullivan, an epidemiologist at Emory University who wasn’t involved in the study.

The circumstances in this case were unique, a spokeswoman for the CDC tells Shots. The couple frequently had sexual contact without a barrier and exchanged blood through rough sex with toys.

The case is a good reminder that HIV can spread during all types of sexual interactions, Sullivan says.

“Anytime there’s intimate contact even through the use of sex toys prevention measures should be taken, especially when there’s a chance of blood contact,” he says.

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Biology And Chemistry Of Love

There are also other ways in which alcoholism and drug use affects the spread of the disease in these countries. For example, the alcohol users find themselves not being able to make wise decisions when getting involved in sexual activities. On the other hand, people who are addicted to drugs are turning to careless sexual behaviors to relieve the pain and stress caused by the addiction.

What Are The Estimated Chances Of Contracting Hiv In A Workplace Environment

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Based on Henderson et al16s findings, the risk of HIV infection transmitted through percutaneous exposure to infected blood is zero. Each exposure will cost you 3%. Approximately 200 contaminated needles are infected with HIV every 200 needles, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.

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How Can A Person Who Is Hiv Positive Prevent Passing Hiv To Others

Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART cannot cure HIV, but it can reduce the amount of HIV in the body . One of the main goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.

Here are some other steps you can take to prevent HIV transmission:

  • Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
  • Talk to your partner about taking PrEP.
  • If you inject drugs, do not share your needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with your partner.

What Is Pep And How Does It Prevent Hiv

PEP stands for post-exposure prophylaxis. Its a series of pills you start taking after youve been exposed to HIV that lowers your chances of getting HIV. You have to start PEP within 72 hours , after you were exposed to HIV for it to work. The sooner you start it, the better. Every hour counts, so if you think you were exposed to HIV, call your nurse or doctor or go to the emergency room right away. PEP is only for emergencies it doesnt take the place of using condoms or PrEP. Read more about PEP.

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What Diseases Do Mosquitoes Transmit

Although mosquitoes cant transmit HIV, there are many diseases they do transmit.

Mosquitoes in different parts of the world transmit different diseases. This is due to the fact that different pathogens thrive in different environments. In addition, different mosquito species often transmit different diseases.

Diseases that mosquitoes transmit include:

  • chikungunya

How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv

HIV Resources &  FAQ

You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:

  • Blood
  • Semen and pre-seminal fluid
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.

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Can I Pass Hiv To My Partner

Many HIV-positive women with HIV-negative partners worry about passing HIV. Research shows that it is easier for an HIV-positive man to spread HIV to an uninfected woman than for an HIV-positive woman to spread HIV to an uninfected partner. But it is possible for women to spread HIV to their uninfected partners through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. While very rare, it is possible for HIV-positive women to spread HIV to their female sex partner. This is because HIV is in blood , vaginal fluids, and cells in the vaginal and anal walls.

If you are HIV-positive, you can pass the virus at any time, even if you are getting treatment. But getting treated with antiretroviral medicine can lower the risk of passing HIV to your partner by 96%.1

Do Condoms Stop Hiv Being Passed On

Yes.Using a condom correctly prevents contact with semen or vaginal secretions , stopping HIV from being passed on. The virus cannot pass through the latex of the condom.

Condoms should only be used with a water-based lubricant as oil-based lube weakens them.

People with HIV who are on effective treatment and have an undetectable viral load cannot pass on HIV through any of their body fluids.

Its also important to remember that if you have sex without a condom other sexually transmitted infections can be passed on.

Sex without a condom can also result in pregnancy if other contraception is not being used.

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Immigration And Movement Of People

First, HIV/AIDS was introduced in most of these developing regions by people from other countries . And even today, there is a big number of new infections that are caused by immigrants.

Second, the movement of people within these regions has been increasing the spread of the disease. Infected people spread the virus when they move to work or study in areas that are free from the disease. This is one of the reasons for the high prevalence rates in urban centers that are located along the major highways

Can You Get Other Stis From Nipple Sucking

Can mosquitoes spread HIV infection from infected persons? – Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad

There are certain STIs that can be spread through skin-to-skin contact, most notably herpes and human papillomavirus . It is possible to spread herpes or syphilis to any part of the breast, including the nipples and areola, Sparks says.

However, even if an STI is present on the nipples and it is technically possible that youll contract it, there is only a teeny, tiny chance of this happening. You have a better chance of getting pregnant from a Jacuzzi than getting HIV from nipple play, says Daniel Saynt, founder of the New Society for Wellness, a sex- and cannabis-friendly private club in New York City.

As we noted earlier with HIV, the potential risks of STI exposure go up very slightly if a persons nipples have open cuts or sores. But its still unlikely that you will get an STI from nipple sucking, nipple play, or anything in that same vein. Nipples and breasts simply arent moist enough to be the home of an STI. Unless your nipples are literally bleeding, youre most likely in the clear.

There is a pretty significant chance that a sexually active person will, at some point in their life, worry about contracting an STI like HIV. What leads to a lot of this nervousness is a lack of information. We dont have a standard of comprehensive sex education in this country. Its an ongoing problem that contributes to adulthood trauma around our own sexuality, STI risk, and identity.

Gigi Engle

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Hiv And Aids Prevention

The CDC has set a goal of reducing new HIV infections by 90% by 2030, an objective made difficult by the COVID-19 pandemic, the continuing opioid crisis, and continuing gaps in health care for at-risk populations. The ultimate goal of medical researchers, health care workers, and government officials is to end the HIV epidemic by applying a diverse arsenal of preventive measures.

  • The most effective methods of preventing HIV infection are abstinence, always using a condom when having sex, and never sharing hypodermic needles.
  • Medications that help prevent HIV infection include Truvada and Descovy for pre-exposure prophylaxis , a treatment regimen that is taken daily and intended to prevent HIV infection before potential exposure, and post-exposure prophylaxis , a preventive treatment regimen that must be taken within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.
  • Researchers are working on long-acting medications and treatments to prevent HIV infection, including a form of the HIV drug cabotegravir thats injected once every eight weeks.

Other approaches under investigation to prevent HIV and AIDs are monoclonal antibodies that block both HIV and COVID-19 long-acting drugs, such as lenacapavir and HIV treatment regimens that are begun during pregnancy using dolutegravir and efavirenz .

Other Types Of Transmission

In the past, HIV was spread by transfusion with blood products, such as whole blood or the “factor” used by hemophiliacs. Many people acquired HIV this way. The blood supply is now much more strictly tested and controlled in most countries. The odds of acquiring HIV from receiving blood or blood factor in countries like the US, the UK, and Canada are extremely low. For example, statistics from the US show that a person is more likely to be killed by a lightning strike than they are to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion. However, not every country screens all blood donations for HIV.

It is also possible to get HIV from skin grafts or transplanted organs taken from people living with HIV. Again, the risk is considered very low, as these “bodily products” must be strictly tested in the same way as blood products. Semen donations collected by sperm banks for artificial insemination are also considered “bodily products” and rigorously tested in high-resource countries. Private semen samples that are not processed by sperm banks or similar organizations may not have been tested. It is important for anyone receiving a private donor’s sperm for artificial insemination to have the donor tested for HIV.

If you are getting breast milk from a milk bank, it is important to ask if the bank tests the milk for HIV. Also, if your baby is getting breast milk from a wet nurse, it is important to make sure that she tests negative for HIV before giving her milk to your baby.

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Different Types Of Hiv Tests

The biggest difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that infects the body and compromises its ability to fight off other diseases, while AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection in which the persons immune system is so compromised by HIV that opportunistic infections and diseases occur.

A person must be tested for the virus to determine whether they have HIV. The following are the three types of HIV tests:

  • Nucleic acid tests involve drawing blood from the persons vein and detecting HIV in the blood. NAT is the fastest and most expensive HIV test.
  • Antigen/antibody tests detect the presence of HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. The blood is drawn from a vein or extracted via a finger prick.
  • HIV antibody tests detect HIV antibodies in the persons blood or oral fluid. Tests involving drawing blood from a vein can detect antibodies sooner after the initial infection than either a finger prick or oral fluid.

A Mosquitos Feeding Mechanism

Teen Newsletter: December 2020

A mosquitos proboscis the elongated part of its mouth it uses to bite humans has two tubes.

One tube is used for sucking blood from humans. The other injects saliva into the bite. This means only saliva, not blood goes into your body when you get a mosquito bite.

HIV cant be transmitted through saliva, so it cant be transmitted through a mosquitos bite.

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Hiv Transmission Through Other Sexual Activities

HIV is also sometimes transmitted during oral sex . It may occasionally be passed from an HIV-positive person to someone sucking their penis.

Oral sex is much less risky than vaginal or anal sex, but it is not risk free. The risk depends on the viral load of the person with HIV, the dental health of the person performing oral sex and untreated sexually transmitted infections.

“Not every act of unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person results in HIV transmission.”

HIV can be transmitted by sharing sex toys such as dildos or butt plugs. They should be covered with condoms or disinfected between use by different people.

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