Tuesday, September 27, 2022

How Can Hiv Be Prevented

How Can You Get Hiv

How can you prevent HIV?

HIV is found in the following bodily fluids of someone living with the virus:

  • blood
  • vaginal fluids
  • breastmilk.

For you to get HIV, these bodily fluids need to get into your blood through a mucous membrane , via shared injecting equipment, or through broken skin .

There is not enough HIV virus in other bodily fluids, like saliva, sweat or urine, to transmit it from one person to another.

Someone living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load, meaning effective treatment has lowered the amount of virus in their blood to levels where it cannot be detected by a normal blood test, cannot pass on HIV.

A person living with HIV with a detectable viral load can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.

HIV is most infectious in the first few weeks after infection. At this time many people are unaware of their status.

The main ways you can get HIV are:

What Is The General Attitude Towards Prep

Truvada, and PrEP in general, has received a fair share of criticism since being introduced to the market. Questions have been raised about the true effectiveness of the product and participants commitment to taking the drug correctly and consistently, and whether the drug promotes promiscuity. In spite of this, prominent people like Professor Linda Gail Bekker, Deputy Director of the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation, have campaigned for the drug to be licensed as a preventative measure.

The school of thought which has driven the campaigns promote the point of view that PrEP is a cheaper and better way to prevent HIV infection. This is particularly for high-risk groups, including young women sex workers and gay and bisexual men.

South Africa is widely affected by HIV and carries one of the highest HIV burdens in the world. President Cyril Ramaphosa, in his tenure as Deputy President of South Africa, announced a National Health Workers HIV Plan, in light of an estimated 72% of sex workers in Johannesburg, alone, being HIV-positive. Efforts to promote the use of PrEP hope to combat this and ultimately slow down the transmission rate.

How Is Hiv Infection Prevented

On an individual level, the most effective methods for prevention of HIV infection include avoidance of sexual contact outside a monogamous relationship, the use of safer sex practices for all other sexual encounters, and abstinence from nonmedical parenteral drug use.

In addition, measures can also be taken to prevent or deter HIV transmission risk from infected persons to noninfected individuals through behavioral, biomedical, and structural interventions aimed at reducing their infectiousness and their risk of exposing others to HIV. Such measures are detailed in the CDC’s Recommendations for HIV Prevention in Adults and Adolescents with HIV Infection in the United States.

In March 2019, the CDC reported that approximately 80% of new US HIV infections are transmitted by 40% of persons with HIV infection. In 2016, persons unaware of their HIV infection transmitted 38% of new HIV infections. Persons aware of their HIV infection but not receiving care transmitted 43% of new HIV infections. Persons with HIV infection receiving care but not virally suppressed transmitted 20% of new HIV infections. HIV-infected persons undergoing treatment with viral suppression transmitted 0% of new infections.

References
  • US Preventive Services Task Force., Owens DK, Davidson KW, Krist AH, Barry MJ, Cabana M, et al. Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2019 Jun 18. 321 :2326-2336. .

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    How Can I Prevent Hiv If I Get Tattoos Or Body Piercings

    Follow these steps to lower your risk of getting HIV:

    • Ask questions about how the staff sterilizes their equipment. Single-use instruments that cut the skin should be used once and then thrown away. Reusable instruments that cut the skin should be cleaned and sterilized between uses.
    • Find out what steps the staff takes to prevent HIV and other infections, like hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
    • Make sure your tattoo parlor follows state regulations and health inspections.

    What Is The Outlook For Someone With Hiv/aids

    HOW IS HIV/AIDS PREVENTED?

    If you are diagnosed with HIV and you start ART soon after, your immune system will not be as compromised. If you continue to take your medicines every day, your outlook is very good.

    ART can keep blood levels undetectable but cannot entirely rid the body of the virus . If you do not keep up on your medication, the virus goes back into the blood.

    If you have HIV and dont treat it, it can take about 10 years to lead to AIDS. If you have AIDS and dont treat it, the survival rate is about three years.

    It is so important to know that people who have HIV and who follow treatment guidelines are able to live full lives for nearly as long as HIV-negative people.

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    Promising Routes To Hiv Prevention

    The report, released here at the XVI International AIDS Conference, surveyed the state of research on six promising approaches for the prevention of HIV: male circumcision cervical barriers such as diaphragms HIV “prevention pills” suppression of herpes, which raises the risk of contracting HIV threefold topical microbicides and HIV vaccines.

    1. Male Circumcision

    A trial of over 3,000 young men showed that those who are circumcised are about 60% less likely to be infected with HIV, compared with those who are not circumcised, says Gita Ramjee, PhD, of the HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South Africa Medical Research Unit.

    And another study predicted that widespread implementation of male circumcision could avert 2 million new infections in sub-Saharan Africa alone.

    But circumcisions must be safely performed by trained health providers — something that is lacking in many developing countries, the report notes.

    2. Microbicides

    Gels and creams applied to the vagina or rectum to reduce HIV transmission, microbicides are a hot area of research, Ramjee says.

    They can combat HIV on a variety of fronts: disabling the virus, interfering with the process by which the virus enters and takes hold in cells, and even strengthening the body’s defenses against infection.

    As of mid-2006, there were over 25 products in various stages of development, with five in late-stage studies of effectiveness. Results could be available by late 2007, Ramjee says.

    Hiv Is Detected With A Blood Test

    Blood tests are the most common and reliable tests for HIV. The virus is detected by taking a sample of your blood either with a conventional blood test or a rapid test .There is a short period of time between exposure to HIV and the ability for tests to detect HIV or its antibodies. This is often referred to as the ‘window period’ between 2 and 12 weeks.

    Most tests used in Australia can detect HIV as early as 2 to 4 weeks after infection.

    If your blood test shows that HIV or its antibodies are present, you are HIV-positive.

    If you have no antibodies in your blood you are HIV-negative. Sometimes negative results might also mean you are in the window period, so you might need a follow-up blood test to make sure.

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    How Can You Prevent Getting Or Transmitting Hiv Through Sex

    There are several ways to prevent getting or transmitting HIV through anal or vaginal sex.

    If you are HIV-negative, you can use HIV prevention medicine known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis to protect yourself. You can also use other HIV prevention methods, below.

    If you have HIV, the most important thing you can do to prevent transmission and stay healthy is to take your HIV medicine , every day, exactly as prescribed. People living with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. Read more about Treatment as Prevention. There also are other options to choose from, below.

    Sex With A Partner That Is Hiv+

    HIV Prevention

    Condoms should be used during all sex acts, whether it be oral, anal or vaginal intercourse. Condoms uses correctly and consistently form very good protection against infection with HIV and most other sexually transmitted diseases.

    When using condoms, check the expiration date. Condoms kept in a cool and dark place can be used for 4 years after the manufacturing date. Never use oils, creams or Vaseline for extra lubrication when using condoms. Use a water or silicon based lubricant such as KY-Jelly or other brand.

    There has been no evidence of spread of HIV infection through saliva. Kissing, including tongue/deep kissing is safe. However, if there are bleeding gum irritations in the mouth deep kissing should be avoided.

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    Where To Get Tested For Hiv

    Getting an HIV test is easy. Tests for HIV and other STIs are confidential and available from your local doctor , or a sexual and reproductive health clinic.

    It is a good idea to have some pre-test counselling. Before the test, talk with your doctor, nurse, or peer tester about any concerns, your level of risk, whether you are likely to be HIV-positive and what a positive result may mean.

    Top Tips For Oral Sex

    It can take a while to work out what makes someone feel good. The best thing to do is to keep communicating with your partner. Ask them to tell you what feels nice and let them know when you are enjoying something.

    If youre happy and comfortable with someone, oral sex can be a great way to get physically closer and learn what turns each other on. If you find you arent enjoying something you can stop at any time you want, and the same is true for your partner.

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    What Is The Risk Of Getting Hiv Hepatitis B Or Hepatitis C

    The risk of getting HIV, hepatitis B or C depends on the amount of virus in the blood or body fluid and the type of contact. For example, a piercing through the skin poses a greater risk than a splash on the skin.

    The emergency department health care provider will tell you whether your exposure puts you at risk of these infections.

    What Is Hiv And Aids

    HIV Testing, Treatment, &  Prevention Statistics Continue ...

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that infects the immune system. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . AIDS is the most advanced stage of the HIV infection and causes the immune system to become vulnerable to other infections. HIV can also be known as the AIDS virus.

    The full name for AIDS describes several of the characteristics of the disease.

    Acquired indicates that it is not an inherited condition.

    Immune Deficiency indicates that the bodys immune system breaks down.

    Syndrome indicates that the disease results in a variety of health problems.

    It takes on average, 5-10 years for the initial HIV infection to progress to AIDS if not treated. While there is presently no cure or vaccine for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be managed and a near-normal lifespan can be expected with early treatment.

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    Do Sex Partners Who Both Have Hiv Need To Use Condoms

    Yes. People who have HIV still need protection from STDs and may want to prevent pregnancy. Condoms also protect against exposure to different types, or strains, of HIV. Re-infection or superinfection with a new strain of HIV may make the disease progress more quickly and may require the use of medicines different from the ones used to treat the original strain.

    Choosing Types Of Sex With A Lower Risk For Hiv

    Some types of sex have a lower risk for HIV than others. Oral sex has little to no chance of passing HIV. Fingering, handjobs, mutual masturbation and using unshared sex toys have no chance of passing HIV. However, STIs can be passed through some of these types of sex. In some situations, you might choose to avoid having vaginal or anal sex and instead choose a type of sex with a lower chance of passing HIV.

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    Does Pep Cause Side Effects

    Some people taking PEP may have side effects, like nausea. The side effects are usually not serious and often get better over time. If you are taking PEP, tell your health care provider if you have a side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

    PEP medicines may also interact with other medicines that a person is taking . So it’s important to tell your health care provider about any other medicines that you take.

    Harm Reduction Initiatives For Amphetamine

    HIV Prevention

    In recent years, there has been a large increase in the use of illicit stimulants including amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine, with , the USA, and Thailand notable examples.52

    Amphetamine-type stimulants cause an elevated sex drive, and there is evidence of an increase in unprotected sex among people taking these drugs. As a result, the risk of HIV transmission from ATS-fuelled unprotected sex is rising in certain countries, the vast majority of which have concentrated HIV epidemics, and so is a particular concern for , and .

    Linked to this is a growing sub-culture of chem-sex parties among men who have sex with men in Europe, Asia and North America in which ATS and a variety of other substances are used to facilitate, enhance and prolong sexual sessions with multiple partners.53

    Interventions that address harms associated with stimulant use include substitution therapies, drug checking services, psychosocial support, condom, lubricant and drug paraphernalia distribution, services for sexually transmitted infections, income generation and housing support. However, ATS harm reduction programmes tend to be stand-alone projects, many of which go undocumented, meaning evidence as to their impact remains limited.54

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    Treatment For People Living With Hiv

    HIV treatment helps people with HIV to stay healthy, and it also helps prevent passing HIV to others. If a person takes HIV treatment as prescribed, the amount of HIV in their blood can become so low that tests cant detect it. This is called having an undetectable viral load. When someone is on treatment and maintaining an undetectable viral load, they will not pass HIV to you through sex. Successful HIV treatment also lowers the chance of passing HIV from sharing equipment for using drugs, but we dont know exactly how much it reduces the risk.

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    What Prevention Method Are You Most Likely To Use

    As you consider your options, think about which method you will be most likely to use. You can use different methods based on your needs in different situations. You should also consider whether or not you can use a prevention method the right way every time, because a prevention method will only work when you use it correctly.

    The method you decide to use may also depend on the prevention methods your partners are using. If you are going to rely on a method your partner is using then you need to know that they are using it the right way every time.

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    Do Male And Female Condoms Provide The Same Protection Against Hiv

    Yes. Studies show that female condoms are as effective at protecting against HIV as male condoms. Female condoms are made of nitrile, which is an effective barrier to HIV. Male and female condoms should not be used at the same time. Female condoms, like latex male condoms, are available in some drug stores, community health centers, and AIDS service organizations.

    How Is Hiv Spread From Person To Person

    Prevent the spread of HIV

    HIV can only be spread through specific activities. In the United States, the most common ways are:

    • Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex.
    • Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV.

    Less common ways are:

    • From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, the use of HIV medicines and other strategies have helped lower the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to 1% or less in the United States.
    • Getting stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. The risk is very low.

    HIV is spread only in extremely rare cases by:

    • Having oral sex. But in general, the chance that an HIV-negative person will get HIV from oral sex with an HIV-positive partner is extremely low.

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    Can Hiv Live Outside The Body

    The HIV virus does not live for very long outside of the human body. It cannot reproduce outside a human host. HIV is not transmitted by:

    • Air or water
    • Saliva, sweat, tears or closed-mouth kissing
    • Insects or pets
    • Vaginal fluids
    • Breast milk

    HIV in these fluids must enter the body to cause an infection. Body fluids containing HIV can enter through a mucous membrane , damaged tissue like a cut or scrape, or can be injected into your bloodstream .

    Avoid exposure to blood from injuries or nosebleeds where the HIV status of the bleeding person is unknown. Protective clothing, such as gloves, gowns, masks or goggles may be appropriate when caring for people who are injured.

    The risk of HIV infection through blood transfusions or blood products is extremely low in the United States. The blood supply is well screened and is considered safe. Unfortunately, this is not always the case in other countries. If an emergency requires that you receive blood or blood products in another country, get tested for HIV as soon as you return home.

    What Unique Challenges Do Women Face In Preventing Hiv

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some prevention challenges are unique to women:2

    • Women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy and birth and through breastfeeding.
    • A woman’s anatomy makes it easier to get HIV through sex compared with a man’s anatomy.
    • Having a sexually transmitted infection raises a woman’s risk for HIV more than a man’s.
    • Women are more likely to lack control in relationships and fear violence, stigma, or abandonment when trying to prevent HIV exposure.
    • Women are more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. People with a history of sexual abuse are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors like exchanging sex for drugs, having multiple partners, or having sex with a partner who is physically abusive when asked to use a condom.

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