Wednesday, September 28, 2022

How Common Is Hiv In The World

Fact: There Is No Vaccine To Prevent Hiv

How coronavirus disrupted the fight against HIV/Aids | COVID-19 Special

Right now we do not have a vaccine to prevent HIV. Vaccines are the best way to prevent diseases you can get from other people, like the measles, mumps, or polio. Researchers have been working for more than 20 years to develop a safe and effective vaccine against HIV.

HIV is a complicated virus that changes over time. This makes vaccine research difficult, and it takes a long time to do the research. Researchers are closer to developing a vaccine to prevent HIV and a vaccine to treat HIV and AIDS.5

Fewer And Fewer Children Affected By Hiv

The HIV virus may be transmitted sexually, by blood, or bymother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, birth, orbreast-feeding. In ten years the number of new infections amongchildren under 15 has been halved thanks to antiretroviraltreatment of HIV-positive pregnant women, which considerablyreduces mother-to-child HIV transmission. It is estimated that atthe end of 2012 approximately 63% of HIV-positive pregnant womenworldwide were receiving preventive treatment. A new strategy hasbeen implemented in some high-prevalence countries: providingsimple, lifelong antiretroviral treatment to all pregnant women whotest positive for HIV, regardless of the stage of their disease. Inaddition to preventing transmission to the child during thatpregnancy and any later ones, this strategy protects the mothershealth and reduces transmission to HIV-negative partners, thereforecontributing to containing the epidemic. However, the effectivenessof this strategy depends on several factors, namely the ability ofthe health systems to implement and maintain the treatmentprogramme over the long term and the ability of the HIV-positivewomen to continue the treatment throughout their lives.

List Of Countries By Hiv/aids Adult Prevalence Rate

This article needs to be . Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

The human immunodeficiency virus , which causes AIDS, varies in prevalence from nation to nation. Listed here are the prevalence rates among adults in various countries, based on data from various sources, largely the CIA World Factbook.

As of 2018, 38 million people are estimated infected with HIV globally.

The HIV pandemic is most severe in Southern Africa. Over 10% of all people infected with HIV/AIDS reside within the region. Adult HIV prevalence exceeds 15% in Eswatini, Botswana, and Lesotho, while an additional six countries report adult HIV prevalence of at least 10%. Outside Africa, the highest prevalence rate is found in the Bahamas .

In absolute numbers, South Africa , followed by Mozambique , India and Nigeria had the highest HIV/AIDS number of cases by the end of 2019. While South Africa’s large population of HIV-positive people is attributable to its high disease prevalence , Nigeria’s is lower at 1.3%, with India’s prevalence rate at 0.2%. However, countries such as Nigeria with high HIV rates above 1% are classified as having Generalized HIV Epidemics by UNAIDS, while India’s prevalence is well below this threshold, with a prevalence lower than the US’s and about the same as Spain.

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Around 95000 Children Under 15 Died From Aids And Its Complications In 2019

HIV/AIDS statistics remark that in 2019, approximately 1.8 million children were living with HIV. The same year, around 68% of adults aged 15 and older who had HIV had access to treatment. However, that was the case for only about 53% of children, based on HIV trends. That said, around 950,000 children up to 14 years old got treatment in 2019, which was more than double the number in 2010, but still far from the target.

Generalised And Concentrated Epidemics: One Type Of Epidemic May Conceal Another

World Diseases (Africa)

For UNAIDS, an epidemic is “generalized” when HIV prevalence exceeds 1% of the general adult population . For situations where HIV prevalence in this population is under 1% but exceeds 5% in “vulnerable” sub-populations , UNAIDS uses the term “concentrated” epidemic. Since 2006, the term “hyper-endemic” has been applied to the epidemic in southern Africa, where prevalence exceeds 15%. According to these definitions, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have generalized epidemics with coexisting “concentrated” epidemics.

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Although Strides Have Been Made In The Hiv Response Children Are Still Affected By The Epidemic

Of the estimated 38.4 million people living with HIV worldwide in 2021, 2.73 million were children aged 019. Each day in 2021, approximately 850 children became infected with HIV and approximately 301 children died from AIDS related causes, mostly because of inadequate access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services.

As of 2021, roughly 14.9 million children under the age of 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS-related causes. Millions more have been affected by the epidemic, through a heightened risk of poverty, homelessness, school dropout, discrimination and loss of opportunities, as well as COVID-19. These hardships include prolonged illness and death. Of the estimated 650,000 people who died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2021, 110,000 of them were children under 20 years of age.

Global trends

In 2021, around 160,000 children aged 09 were newly infected with HIV, bringing the total number of children aged 09 living with HIV to 1.02 million . Nearly 86 per cent of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. One bright spot on the global horizon is the rapid decline of approximately 52 per cent in new HIV infections among children aged 09 since 2010 due to stepped-up efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, the number of new HIV infections among adolescents has declined at a slower rate of about 40 per cent.

Geographic disparity

More Than 15% Of People Who Have Hiv In The Us Are Not Aware They Are Infected

Many people simply dont know they have HIV, and the most likely reason is that the initial HIV symptoms arent usually that severe, or they may seem similar to other issues.

Whats more, the number of newly diagnosed HIV cases exceeds the death count each year, showing that more and more people are living with this condition. In other words, its not the death sentence it once was.

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Where We Are Now: 2000

Since 2000, additional factors have begun contribute to the the global spread of HIV. Heroin addiction in Asia has been on the rise, which brought with it dirty needles and the risk of new infections. India suffered with over 2 million diagnoses alone, in spite of the government’s refusal to admit the epidemic had adversely affected the nation.

The WHO released its comprehensive report examining HIV and AIDS in all of its 25-year history in 2010. This report had good news for developed nations: by 2008, the U.S. domestic HIV infection rate was considered effectively stable, and has remained so to this day. The report also demonstrated that while insistent public awareness campaigns about safe sex and other methods of transmission had slowed the rate of HIV infection in developed countries, there was much to be done elsewhere.

Global Education and Aid Efforts

Under President Bush, the U.S. committed funds to help African countries, but the funds were mismanaged and the spread of HIV continued unabated. Of the 4.1 million cases in sub-Saharan Africa then, only 1% received the available drugs. This led to the WHO’s declaration of the failure to treat the 6 million AIDS patients living in developing nations as a global public health emergency.

HIV Denialism Disrupts Aid

By the time Mbeki was recalled from the presidency in 2008 and one year before the FDA approved its 100th HIV/AIDs drug, an estimated 16.9% of South Africans aged 15-49 were HIV positive.

Are Some Regions Of The United States More Impacted By Hiv Than Others

10 Facts You Have to Know About HIV/AIDS

Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.

*Rates per 100,000 people. Includes adults, adolescents, and children under the age of 13.

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Key Points: Hiv Incidence

  • HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 .
  • , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 1324 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 , followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 .
  • , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons , followed by Hispanic/Latino persons and persons of multiple races .
  • , the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males was 5 times the rate for females .
  • , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact

For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.

The Evolution Of Research And Treatment

In September 1985, President Ronald Reagan called AIDS research a top priority for his administration. This came amidst criticism that government funding was inadequate and not enough had been done to find a treatment or cure. This was Reagans first public statement about AIDS.

Zidovudine, commonly known as AZT, was introduced in 1987 as the first treatment for HIV. Scientists also developed treatments to reduce transmission during pregnancy.

In 1995, President Bill Clinton hosted the first White House Conference on HIV and AIDS, and called for a vaccine research center. This center later opened in 1999.

Throughout the years, the government has continued to fund HIV- and AIDS-related:

  • systems of care
  • treatment
  • studies and research

In 1996, in Vancouver, researchers at the 11th International Conference on AIDS introduced the concept of highly active antiretroviral therapy . This regimen requires people with HIV to take a combination of at least three medications daily. HAART, which is commonly known as antiretroviral therapy, became the new treatment standard in 1997.

Between 1996 and 1997, deaths from HIV in the United States, largely as a result of HAART.

Also in 1997, the FDA approved Combivir. Combivir combines the drugs zidovudine and lamivudine into a single medication, making HIV medications easier to take.

The FDA continues to approve HIV medical products, regulating:

  • product approval

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Hiv Infections By State

In the United States, where you live plays a large part in how likely you are to get HIV. While it is clear that dense urban populations with high prevalence rates contribute to the risk, there are other unique factors that account for a growing disparity between U.S. states.

A prime example is the rate of infection in states that have either adopted or refused Medicaid expansion, intended to expand healthcare to economically disadvantaged people.

According to the CDC, the 13 states that refused Medicaid expansion account for 42% of all new infections. Florida, Texas, Georgia, and North Carolina represent the lion’s share of these infections.

Poverty remains a driving force for HIV infections, particularly in the South where the rates of poverty are highest. Moreover, nearly half of all Americans without health insurance live in the South.

With that being said, the Northeast has a higher prevalence rate overall, centered mainly in dense urban populations like New York City, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.

These dynamics are reflected in the 10 U.S. states with the highest HIV prevalence rates, according to the CDC.

State/Area
65 and over 900

Youth also accounts for the highest rate of undiagnosed infections. Today, nearly half of all HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 and 24 are unaware of their status and, as a result, are more likely to infect others. The picture is little improved among adults 25 to 34, where one in three remains undiagnosed.

Fact: People With Hiv Should Start Hiv Medicine Right Away

Resistance to key HIV drug

Even if you’re feeling great and have no symptoms, HIV is hurting your immune system. To protect your immune system, most experts recommend starting HIV medicines as soon as you are diagnosed with HIV. Because these drugs reduce your “viral load,” or the amount of HIV in your blood, they also reduce your chances of passing HIV to others.

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Worldwide Rates And Yearly Shifts

HIV diagnoses and mortality rates have continually decreased over the past decade. This is due to continuing public health efforts in HIV prevention, early recognition, and treatment. However, progress has been unequal among and within countries. Also, the pace of decline has varied widely by age, sex, and religion.

The disease burden of HIV remains entirely too high given the advances made in HIV screening and treatment.

Recent data have shown that there were about 1.7 million new HIV diagnoses in 2019, nearly 5,000 new diagnoses per day. This highlights the need for continued and sustained efforts.

In 2020, 37.7 million people globally were living with HIV, down from 39 million in 2019. HIV is now slightly more common in women than men53% of all people living with HIV worldwide are women and girls.

Black women, both cis and trans, are disproportionately affected by HIV and account for about 60% of all new infections among women. Black women also carry the largest burden of HIV globally.

But the most troubling statistic is the number of preventable deaths caused by HIV/AIDS. In 2020, 680,000 people died from AIDS-related illnessesa number far too high given the prevention and treatment options that exist.

In 2019 The Us Spent Over $348 Billion To Fight Hiv

HIV/AIDS facts affirm that these funds allow for a comprehensive way to address this health problem. Out of these $34.8 billion, $28 billion was for domestic HIV efforts. Whats more, of the domestic epidemic funds, $21.5 billion was allocated for care, $2.6 billion for research, $3.1 billion for cash and housing assistance, and $0.9 billion for prevention.

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How Common Is Hiv In The Uk

The most recent estimate suggests there were 106,890 people living with HIV in the UK in 2019. Of these, around 5,150 are undiagnosed so do not know they are HIV positive.

London continues to have the highest rates of HIV in England: 37% of new diagnoses in 2020 were in London residents. In 2019, 38% of people seen for HIV care were living in London.

Anyone can get HIV but people from some groups or parts of the world are more likely to be affected. In particular, men who have sex with men and black African people are disproportionately affected.

Of the 4,139 people diagnosed with HIV in the UK in 2019, 41% were gay or bisexual men.

Of the 1,559 heterosexual people diagnosed with HIV in 2019, 37% were black African men and women.

In 2017, the overall mortality rate for people aged 15-59 who were diagnosed early was, for the first time, equal to that of the general population for the same age group.

Fact: Women Can Give Hiv To Men

Fact or fiction: The most common myths about HIV and AIDS

It is much harder for men to get HIV from women, but it does happen. HIV can enter a man’s body at the opening of the tip of the penis and through cuts or sores on the shaft that may not be visible.

Plus, if a partner has an untreated sexually transmitted infection like genital herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia, the risk is even higher. These infections can bring more CD4 cells to the area of infection or cause breaks in the skin. These STIs also raise your risk for passing HIV to others.

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Pop Culture Opens Up Conversations

In 1985, actor Rock Hudson became the first major public figure to announce he had AIDS. Before he died that same year, he donated $250,000 to help establish the organization later known as amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. Friend and actress Elizabeth Taylor was the national chairperson until her death in 2011.

In 1987, Princess Diana also made international headlines after she shook hands with an HIV-positive man.

Pop culture icon Freddie Mercury, singer for the band Queen, passed away from AIDS-related illness in 1991. Since then, many other public figures have revealed that theyre HIV-positive, including:

  • tennis star Arthur Ashe
  • former basketball star and entrepreneur Magic Johnson
  • Pedro Zamora, a cast member on MTVs The Real World: San Francisco
  • actor Charlie Sheen, who announced his status on national television in 2015
  • hairstylist and television personality Jonathan Van Ness
  • actor and singer Billy Porter

In 2018 Over 85000 Tuberculosis Cases Were Diagnosed In Thailand

Around 81% of those diagnosed had a known HIV status. Whats more, of them, 10% were HIV positive, according to stats on Thailands HIV rate. Of those who were positive, 80% were receiving antiretroviral treatment.

The same year, 2,900 people with HIV died from TB-related deaths. Also, the World Health Organization puts Thailand in the leading 30 high-burden countries for TB.

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Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease

Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death

HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.

The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.

In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.

According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.

Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.

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