Interpreting The Numberswhat Additional Information Needs To Be Provided
Some clients may see these numbers and think their risk of HIV transmission is low. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting them. If these numbers are provided to clients, they should be accompanied by information that helps shed light on why the risk may be higher than it seems.
Transmission can occur after one exposure.
It is important to emphasize that a person could become infected from having unprotected sex once or a person could have unprotected sex many times and not become infected, regardless of how low or high the risk per exposure is.
A risk of 1% would mean that an average of one infection would occur if 100 HIV-negative people were exposed to HIV through a certain type of sex. It does not mean that a person needs to be exposed 100 times for HIV infection to occur.
These are estimates of average risk in the absence of biological factors that increase risk.
The numbers in the table above are rough estimates. They are averages and do not represent the risk from all exposures to HIV through a certain type of sex.
The risk of HIV transmission may be much higher than these averages if biological risk factors are present. For example, research shows that STIs and some vaginal conditions, such as bacterial vaginosis, can increase the risk of HIV transmission by up to 8 times.6,7,8 As a result, the risk of an HIV-negative woman becoming infected through unprotected receptive vaginal sex could be closer to 1% if she has a vaginal STI.
General Information And Distribution Of Sexual Roles
The average age of the 601 MSMs was 28.2 ± 6.6years Among them, 473 had a college degree or above 174 had a monthly income of more than 4000RMB 499 were unmarried and 376 were self-identified as gays . Among them, 164 identified themselves as tops, 92 as bottoms, and 345 as versatiles. The bottoms were generally younger, with lower monthly income and self-identified as homosexuals. The tops were older, with higher monthly income, more were married, and self-identified as heterosexuals .
Hiv Treatment As Prevention
People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.
ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.
The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.
Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of fewer than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:
- using a condom or other barrier method during sex
- reducing the number of sexual partners
- getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
- avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
- if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
- following all workplace safety protocols
People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.
Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.
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What Are My Chances Of Contracting Hiv
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What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making an individual more vulnerable to serious illness. Untreated HIV can lead to AIDS, which occurs when the immune system is so weak it becomes susceptible to serious infections and some cancers.
Theres an epidemic of HIV in the United States and around the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , more than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and 1 in 7 of them arent aware of it. An estimated 39,782 people in the country were diagnosed with HIV in 2016 alone.
HIV transmission occurs in many different ways, including through condomless sex and by sharing needles. Risk of transmission varies depending on several factors including:
- sexual practices and the HIV status of sexual partners
- sharing needles for drug use or tattoos
- use of PrEP, PEP, condoms, or having an undetectable viral load
Its important to understand the risk level based on actual factors in preventing the transmission of HIV.
How Can To Help Stop The Spread Of Hiv
To lower the risk of getting HIV and other STIs:
- Those who are HIV-negative should consider PrEP. If a possible HIV exposure occurs, PEP may provide emergency protection.
- Get tested and treated for STIs and follow healthcare providers recommended screening schedule.
- Before having sex with someone, ask them to get tested for HIV and STIs.
- Those who inject drugs should get clean needles from a needle exchange.
- Avoid sharing needles for drugs and tattoos.
Talk to a healthcare provider about PrEP if a sexual partner has HIV with a detectable viral load or theres another known risk of contracting the virus. Heres a search tool for finding healthcare providers who prescribe PrEP.
Anyone who thinks they might have contracted HIV needs to get tested immediately. Early treatment can help manage the symptoms, lower the risk of complications, lower the risk of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner, and help people to live a long and healthy life.
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Hiv And Maternal Transmission
HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.
If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .
A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.
How Can I Prevent Passing Hiv To My Partner
If you take HIV medicine and your viral load is not detectable in your blood, your chances of passing HIV to your sexual partner is lower. You should always use a latex condom or dental dam with sex. Your HIV-negative partner also can take medicine to keep from getting HIV.
Learn more about how to prevent passing HIV to your partner.
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To Really Understand Hiv Though You Have To Know Exactly How The Virus Gets Into The Bloodstream And The Easiest Ways To Get Hiv Arent Always Comfortable To Talk About
Thats because the easiest way has to do with stuff we do not like to talk about: our sex organs, our sex habits, and the fluids our bodies produce during sex.
Mucous membranes do a wonderful job of providing fluids that make sex feel really good, but they do terrible job of protecting the body from HIV.
Unfortunately, the cells in the mucous membrane are very loosely packed, so HIV can pass right through to the bloodstream, almost like air through a screen door.
Now, lets say you dont use a condom or the condom breaks and HIV sneaks into your body.
Your body is not fooled. It notices the invader and sounds the alarm to the immune system to get rid of it, but it cant, because, unfortunately, theres no cure for HIV.
Heres the messed up part: HIV wants the immune system to spring into action, because it reproduces by invading white blood cells called CD4, or t-cells, that our bodies depend on to fight diseases.
Theres more to know about HIV transmission, but these are the main points. If youre HIV-positive, the best thing you can do is learn all you can about HIV.
Positive Peers is made possible through a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau Special Projects of National Significance Grant to The MetroHealth System. for more information about the SPNS grant initiative.
Positive Peers is a private app for young people living with HIV. Learn how you can earn rewards for your participation.
How Do I Get Prep
PrEP can only be prescribed by a doctor, so you will need to talk to a physician about taking it. Your doctor may ask you some questions to determine your risk factors for HIV transmission and then discuss your options.
You will first need to be tested to ensure that you do not currently have HIV. This involves a simple blood test and the results will be available in a matter of days.If you have insurance, the cost of HIV should be completely covered or you may have to make a small co-pay. Some or all of your medication costs may also be covered under Medicare or Medicaid. If you do not have insurance, there are some options to help you be able to afford PrEP, including the Cost Assistance program from Gilead.
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The Chance Of Hiv Transmission Through Needles: With Blood Transfusion Needle Sharing And Needle Prick
This table shows the chance of contracting HIV by means other than sex. Please note the much higher likelihood of getting HIV through needle sharing.
|1 transmission per 500 exposures
|1 transmission per 160 exposures
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What Is Hiv And What Is Aids
HIV/AIDS are widely known as incurable sexually transmitted diseases, but you might not know the difference between these acronyms and what they stand for.
For simplicityâs sake, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
If a person takes a blood test and receives a diagnosis of HIV, then they are HIV positiveâif a person does not have HIV, then they are HIV negative. HIV causes havoc in a personâs body by weakening their immune system . HIV progressively destroys the cellular part of the immune systemâparticularly types of white blood cells called CD4 cellsâwhich, over time, makes the person become immunodeficient .
As the HIV infection develops in the body, the person will become more and more immunodeficient until they reach a point where they are classified as having Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome . This is often the end stage of an HIV infection, where a personâs body is so immunodeficient that they develop infections, diseases, or cancers and are no longer able to mount a immune defense and fight them off .
There is no cure for HIV . But, if a person does become infected with HIV there are treatments available which can help keep a person healthy.
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The Chance Of Hiv Transmission With Protection
The likelihood of HIV transmission goes down by 70% when condoms are used. This table summarizes the chance of contracting HIV through one-time contact when protection is used.
|Protected receptive vaginal
|Protected insertive vaginal
|Protected receptive rectal
|Protected insertive rectal
|1 transmission per 4,167 exposures
|1 transmission per 8,334 exposures
|1 transmission per 241 exposures
|1 transmission per 3,030 exposures
The numbers in this table are calculated based on the chance of transmission without protection and the 70% reduction in HIV transmission with condom use.
The Chance Of Hiv Transmission Through One
This table shows the chance of contracting HIV through one-time unprotected rectal sex with a partner who is HIV-positive. As you can see, the chance of the âbottomâ person contracting the disease from an HIV-positive âtopâ is much greater than the other way around.
|1 transmission per 72 exposures
|1 transmission per 909 exposures
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How Is Hiv Transmitted
Not all body fluids can transmit HIV. The following cannot transmit HIV:
- Exchanging saliva, like through closed-mouth kissing or sharing drinks/utensils
- Coming in contact with an HIV positive personâs tears, sneezes, or sweat
- Ordinary physical contact, such as hugging, hand shaking, or touching shared objects like cutlery, cups, or toilet seats .
- Pets and insects cannot carry the virus and infect you, because transmission of HIV is only between humans .
While care needs to be taken in some situationsâlike when having sex or when open injuries are presentâthis certainly does not mean that it is unsafe to be around people with HIV. Think of how you interact with the vast majority of peopleâbodily fluids are not exchanged. Harboring discriminatory thoughts only perpetuates a fearful stigma against someone with HIV, which only hurts the person who has it.
HIV is often transmitted through sexual activity and drug use in adults in the United States . Maternal transmissionâfrom mother to childâis how the infection is spread to infants .
Your Odds Of Getting Hiv
âWhat are my odds of getting an infection?â This is the most common question we hear in our practice.
In this chapter, we summarize HIV statistics to answer that and many other related questions about HIV transmission:
- What is the chance of HIV transmission with one-time sexual contact versus multiple contacts?
- What is the chance of HIV transmission with different type of sexual activities ?
- What is the chance of contracting HIV with and without protection?
Statistics are one of the most important aspects of medicine, and doctors rely heavily on them for early diagnosis and treatment. They tell doctors how common a condition is in general, how easy it is to get a particular infection with one-time sexual contact versus multiple contacts, the likelihood of contracting the infection from different kinds of contact, and other things.
In the first section, we show you tables with important and interesting statistics. The tables are followed by frequently asked questions answered by an expert doctor.
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Sudden Unexplained Weight Loss
National Human Genome Research Institute
Weight loss is common in people living with HIV during the advanced stages of the disease.
The condition is also called HIV wasting syndrome. It’s not as common today as it once was because antiretroviral drugs keep the virus suppressed and allow the immune system to rebuild itself. Wasting is mainly seen in people who have not been treated for HIV.
The exact cause of HIV wasting is unknown, but it is thought that the constant inflammation caused by HIV makes the body burn energy faster and reduces testosterone levels .
Hiv Infections In Gay Men
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 70% of all new HIV infections in 2019 were gay or bisexual men. Over one-third of these were Black men who are gay or bisexual.
In discussing HIV infections in gay men, though, it’s important to remember that not all men who have sex with men are gay. MSM actually refers to any man who has sex with another man, whether he is gay, bisexual, heterosexual, or another sexuality.
Several risk factors unique to MSM can increase the odds of becoming infected, including:
- Social and economic risk factors
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How Can I Prevent Passing Hiv To My Unborn Baby
Today, new medicines mean you can lower your chance of passing HIV to your unborn baby during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth to less than 1%.2 Taking medicine to treat HIV is recommended for everyone who is HIV-positive to lower their viral load and help protect their immune system. Having a viral load that cannot be detected can keep you healthy and also prevent you from passing the virus to your unborn baby. Because HIV can spread in breastmilk, in the United States, you should not breastfeed if you have HIV, even if your viral load cannot be detected.
Learn more about how to prevent passing HIV to your baby.
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