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How Do You Avoid Hiv

Can I Get Hiv From Kissing

5 Ways to Prevent HIV | Health

It is rare for HIV to transmit to a partner with sores or bleeding gums, but HIV-positive partners can transmit HIV to HIV-negative partners if they have blood from the HIV-positive partner in their bloodstream. A person who has HIV does not transmit the virus through closed-mouth or social kissing. Saliva does not transmit HIV.

Can Using A Lubricant Help Reduce My Hiv Risk

Yes, because lubricants can help prevent condoms from breaking.

Water-based and silicon-based lubricants are safe to use with latex condoms. Oil-based lubricants and products containing oil, such as hand lotion, Vaseline, or Crisco should not be used with latex condoms. It is safe to use any kind of lubricant with nitrile female condoms.

How Is Hiv Recognized

Doctors use laboratory tests to confirm HIV infection. The Elisa and Western Blot analyses identify people who have been exposed to HIV. These tests determine if the blood contains particular antibodies that result from contact with the virus. They do not identify who among a group of infected individuals will develop the disease. The presence of antibodies or HIV markers means the person has been infected with HIV but no one can predict when and if they will get AIDS related symptoms.

Doctors diagnose AIDS by blood tests and the presence of specific illnesses such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or Kaposi’s sarcoma. These diseases overcome the weakened immune system and are responsible for the high death rate among AIDS patients.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv

Within the first 2 to 4 weeks after infection, some people may experience a flu-like illness that can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. However, some people may not feel sick at all during this time. In fact, people with HIV may not show any symptoms for up to 10 years. The only way to know if you are living with HIV is to get yourself tested.

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Harm Reduction And Social Strategies

How can you get HIV/AIDS? Avoid HIV/AIDS!

Harm reduction is defined as “policies, programmes and practices that aim to minimise negative health, social and legal impacts associated with drug use, drug policies and drug laws”. The World Health Organization recognizes that harm reduction is central to the prevention of HIV amongst people who inject drugs and their sexual and drug using partners. Social strategies do not require any drug or object to be effective, but rather require persons to change their behaviors to gain protection from HIV. Some social strategies include:

Each of these strategies has widely differing levels of efficacy, social acceptance, and acceptance in the medical and scientific communities.

Populations who access HIV testing are less likely to engage in behaviors with high risk of contracting HIV, so HIV testing is almost always a part of any strategy to encourage people to change their behaviors to become less likely to contract HIV. Over 60 countries impose some form of travel restriction, either for short or long-term stays, for people infected with HIV.

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How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv

There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:

  • using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
  • in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
  • avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
  • taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
  • asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
  • taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
  • if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.

For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:

Does Spermicide Provide Additional Protection Against Hiv

You should not use additional or separate applications of spermicide for HIV prevention during vaginal or anal sex. Women who use spermicidal cream or jelly for pregnancy prevention should also use a condom to protect against HIV and to provide better protection against pregnancy than spermicide alone.

Spermicides contain the chemical nonoxynol-9 . Although N-9 kills HIV in test tubes, one study showed that N-9 inserted into the vagina may irritate the vagina and actually increase the risk of HIV infection during vaginal sex. N-9 may also irritate the lining of the rectum and should not be used for anal sex.

Some condoms are pre-lubricated with a lubricant containing N-9. These condoms still provide greater protection against HIV than not using a condom. However, a lubricated condom without N-9 may be the best for HIV prevention.

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Is It More Contagious At Certain Times Than Others Why

HIVâs ability to transmit is directly correlated with the amount of virus in the bloodstream. When somebody first contracts HIV, the viral load increases dramatically and the immune system cells decrease, during this time some people may experience flu-like symptoms . At this point, HIV is very contagious as the viral load is high.

After some time, the viral load lowers and stabilizes, and the immune system returns to its previous, normal function. At this point, somebody may present with no symptoms but remain contagious for HIV. If a person living with HIV does not access treatment, the viral load will progressively increase, decreasing immune system function and raising the risk of transmission to others.

So, itâs safe to say that, although HIV is contagious at all of its stages , itâs more contagious when the viral load is higher. Inflammations, sores, tears on the skin, and anything else that can facilitate entrance into the body can also increase the likelihood of HIV transmission.

If I Am Living With Hiv How Can I Prevent Passing It To Others

How can you prevent HIV?

If I am living with HIV, how can I prevent passing it to others? â> Specifically, you can:

You should also encourage your partners who are HIV-negative to get tested for HIV at least once a year so they are sure about their HIV status and can take action to keep them healthy. They may benefit from more frequent testing . . To find a testing site near them, they can call 1-800-CDC-INFO , visit, text their ZIP code to KNOW IT , or use a home testing kit.

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How Do You Know If You Have Hiv

HIV often has no symptoms, so the only way to know whether or not you have HIV is to get tested.

If you dont know your HIV status, get an HIV test. If your test is positive, you can begin taking HIV treatment that will help you stay healthy and prevent passing HIV to others. If your test is negative, you have lots of prevention strategies to choose from to help you stay negative.

When you get tested for HIV, you can also get tested for sexually transmitted infections and other infections such as hepatitis C. Talk to a healthcare provider about how often you should test.

You can get an HIV test from your family doctor or find another place to get a test in your area by checking

How Can You Get Hiv

HIV is found in the following bodily fluids of someone living with the virus:

  • blood
  • vaginal fluids
  • breastmilk.

For you to get HIV, these bodily fluids need to get into your blood through a mucous membrane , via shared injecting equipment, or through broken skin .

There is not enough HIV virus in other bodily fluids, like saliva, sweat or urine, to transmit it from one person to another.

Someone living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load, meaning effective treatment has lowered the amount of virus in their blood to levels where it cannot be detected by a normal blood test, cannot pass on HIV.

A person living with HIV with a detectable viral load can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.

HIV is most infectious in the first few weeks after infection. At this time many people are unaware of their status.

The main ways you can get HIV are:

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Can I Take Medicine To Prevent Getting Or Passing Hiv

Yes. Several medicines are available to help lower your risk of getting or passing HIV:

Pre-exposure prophylaxis

PrEP is an HIV prevention method for people who do not have HIV infection but who may be at high risk. PrEP is a pill you take by mouth every day.

Talk to your doctor about PrEP if:

  • You are HIV-negative but your partner is HIV-positive
  • You are not in a monogamous relationship and you do not always use condoms
  • You inject illegal drugs or share needles
  • You have a partner who is HIV-positive, and you want to get pregnant. PrEP may help protect you and your baby.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that PrEP could prevent transmission in as many as 140,000 serodiscordant heterosexual couples.4Learn more about PrEP.

Post-exposure prophylaxis

PEP is an anti-HIV medicine for people who may have been very recently exposed to HIV.5 If you think you have been exposed , or if you were sexually assaulted, talk to your doctor or nurse about taking PEP.

You must take PEP within three days of exposure to help lower your risk for HIV. You then take two to three antiretroviral medicines for 28 days to prevent the virus from copying itself and spreading through your body.

While taking PEP, you still need to take steps to prevent HIV, including using a condom with sex partners. Learn more about PEP.

Antiretroviral medicines

What Is Your Chance Of Getting Hiv


While there is no perfect formula for knowing your exact chance of getting HIV, you can estimate your risk by thinking about:

  • the types of sex you are having
  • if you are sharing drug use equipment
  • the number of people you have sex or use drugs with
  • how often you are having sex or sharing drug use equipment
  • what prevention method you and the people you have sex or take drugs with use and if they are used every time

The highest chance of getting HIV comes from having vaginal or anal sex or sharing injection drug use equipment when no prevention method is used by either partner.

You are most likely to get HIV from someone who has HIV but doesnt know it. This is because when someone doesnt know that they have HIV, they will not be taking treatment to stay healthy and prevent passing HIV to others. The only way for someone to know if they have HIV is to be tested.

If youre at risk of HIV, its important you are prepared to use a prevention method that is right for you!

If youre not sure about your risk of getting HIV, talk to a healthcare worker or someone at your local HIV organization.

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Is It Hard To Take These Drugs

The HIV medicines that currently are recommended are usually very simple and easy to take. Several drug combinations are available that package 3 separate medicines into only 1 pill, taken once a day, with minimal side effects.

For the great majority of people, HIV medicines are tolerable and effective, and let people with HIV live long and healthy lives. For some people, the drugs may be difficult to take every day, and for a small number, they cause serious side effects or dont work well.

Once patients are on medications, they must work with their health care providers to find solutions for side effects and monitor how well the drugs are working.

The good news is that there are many excellent HIV medicines. Finding the right combination of medicines for each person is usually possiblea combination that controls the virus but does not cause side effects.

Know Your Partners Viral Load Count

For ART to be effective, your partner has to take the medication every day, at the same time each day. Skipping doses can cause the virus to replicate unchecked and possibly mutate into a form thats resistant to the medication. If that occurs, your partners viral load count may increase, which means there is a greater likelihood that the virus can be transmitted to you.

Encourage your partner to get their viral load tested at least twice a year, if not more often. If the results demonstrate undetectable levels of HIV, then Its pretty safe , says Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH, associate division chief of the division of HIV, infectious diseases, and global medicine at University of California, San Francisco/San Francisco General Hospital.

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Is There A Safe Way To Share Needles

Needle SafetyThe only way to completely avoid potential transmission of blood-borne illnesses when injecting drugs is by not sharing needles. If people do share needles, cleaning the needles and works properly with bleach and water before and after each person uses them will help reduce the risk.

How Do I Clean My Used Needles?

The most effective way to sterilize used syringes is the 3x3x3 method:

  • Fill your syringe with water, shake it, and push out the water. Do it three times.
  • Fill your syringe with bleach, shake it, and push out the bleach. Do it three times.
  • Fill your syringe again with clean water, shake it, and push out the water. Do it three times.
  • If bleach isnt available, you can use soap and clean water, or even just water to clean your works. ANY steps you take to clean syringes before use will reduce your risk of HIV and hepatitis C transmission.

    Where can I get clean needles/syringes?Prior to September 2006 the only way to acquire clean needles in Massachusetts was via a prescription or through a needle exchange programs. As a result of the Pharmacy Access Bill, it is now legal for pharmacies to sell medical syringes over the counter without a prescription. Anyone 18 or older can purchase clean needles at many pharmacies in Massachusetts. They are relatively inexpensive. Although pharmacies are allowed to sell syringes, they are not required to do so. A phone call to the pharmacy in advance can save a trip to the drug store.

    Relying On Word Of Mouth

    How to Avoid HIV and AIDS

    In the London region, 333 people living with HIV have accessed services from Regional HIV/AIDS Connection in the last year. The clinic has also helped about 35 people looking to get a prescription for the PrEP regime.

    Regional HIV/AIDS Connection has been able to offer information about PrEP to Western University’s dentistry and medical programs. The percentage of doctors in the city who can or are willing to prescribe the treatment, or even know what it is, is “quite low,” Owens said.

    Bringing up questions about PrEP can be tricky because it involves conversations about sex, Owens said, and some may not be comfortable doing that, particularly if they’re having queer sex or aren’t out.

    To make PrEP and other preventative strategies more widely available, a special clinic was started in 2017 with Specialty Rx pharmacy on Oxford Street. People can get the drug prescribed there without having to go through their family doctor.

    Devon Thievin has just started trying to access PrEP, but doesn’t have a family doctor and has relied on word on mouth to get himself informed. He learned about the regimen through his older brother, who is gay.

    ” kind of steered me in the direction of where to go,” Thievin said. “They kind of sent me a bunch of links, told me about their experience getting it, stuff like that.

    “I’ve been given links, but I haven’t really spoken to anyone yet.”

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    How To Avoid Hiv

    The main ways to prevent HIV infection are to reduce the risk of exposure by using a condom when you have sex and not share needles and other equipment used for injecting drugs.

    If a person living with HIV is taking antiretroviral medication correctly and the virus is undetectable in their blood, they will be unable to pass HIV to a sexual partner.

    It is important to know your HIV status and that of your partner. If you are at regular risk of potential exposure to HIV you should have a regular HIV test and consider using PrEP .

    When To Get Tested

    It is important to get tested for HIV if you suspect you have been exposed to it or if you engage in behaviors that put you at a high chance of contracting the virus.

    You can get free HIV tests if you are insured, or you can seek out a local clinic that provides free or low-cost testing to anyone uninsured.

    Knowing your HIV status is important for several reasons. If your HIV test result is positive, it can be useful because you can:

    • begin treatment right away

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    Promising Routes To Hiv Prevention

    The report, released here at the XVI International AIDS Conference, surveyed the state of research on six promising approaches for the prevention of HIV: male circumcision cervical barriers such as diaphragms HIV “prevention pills” suppression of herpes, which raises the risk of contracting HIV threefold topical microbicides and HIV vaccines.

    1. Male Circumcision

    A trial of over 3,000 young men showed that those who are circumcised are about 60% less likely to be infected with HIV, compared with those who are not circumcised, says Gita Ramjee, PhD, of the HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South Africa Medical Research Unit.

    And another study predicted that widespread implementation of male circumcision could avert 2 million new infections in sub-Saharan Africa alone.

    But circumcisions must be safely performed by trained health providers — something that is lacking in many developing countries, the report notes.

    2. Microbicides

    Gels and creams applied to the vagina or rectum to reduce HIV transmission, microbicides are a hot area of research, Ramjee says.

    They can combat HIV on a variety of fronts: disabling the virus, interfering with the process by which the virus enters and takes hold in cells, and even strengthening the body’s defenses against infection.

    As of mid-2006, there were over 25 products in various stages of development, with five in late-stage studies of effectiveness. Results could be available by late 2007, Ramjee says.

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