Is There Anything You Can Do To Prevent Other Forms Of Transmission
Blood-to-blood contact between people sharing drug equipment like needles and syringes is the most common nonsexual form of HIV transmission.
If youre injecting drugs recreational or medical always use clean equipment. Dispose of needles and other paraphernalia properly to avoid accidental needle sticks and exposure.
Though the risk is low, its possible to contract HIV from contaminated tattooing and piercing equipment. Avoid home tattoos and piercings and stick with a reputable studio that follows proper sterilization practices.
Potential exposure to HIV can be stressful for all involved. Finding someone to talk with about your concerns and getting support can help.
Talk with your doctor or another healthcare professional if you or your partner needs help with:
- HIV and other STI testing
- treatment and prevention drugs
No 1 Sharing A Needle: 1 In 159
About 6 percent of the HIV diagnoses in 2015 can be attributed to the use of injection drugs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The reason is that needles, syringes, and other equipment can contain blood, and therefore HIV, which can then be directly transmitted into the bloodstream. Under the right environmental circumstances, the virus can survive in a used needle for up to 42 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, using drugs can lower peoples inhibitions, making them less likely to use a condom during sex or to take preventive HIV medications, further increasing their risk.
- Reduce the risk. Although the number of HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs has declined by 48 percent from 2008 to 2014, according to the CDC, experts worry that the rising opioid epidemic is putting new people at risk for getting the virus. To find substance abuse help, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations national helpline at 1-800-662-HELP or visit its website, findtreatment.samhsa.gov, for a list of treatment facilities near you.
- Reduce the risk. People who inject drugs can help lower their risk of exposure to HIV by using a sterile needle and syringe for each injection sterile needles can be obtained without a prescription at pharmacies and through syringe services programs at state or local health departments.
Ways Hiv Can Be Transmitted
How is HIV passed from one person to another?
Most people who get HIV get it through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment . But there are powerful tools that can help prevent HIV transmission.
Can I get HIV from anal sex?
You can get HIV if you have anal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .
- Anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV.
- Being the receptive partner is riskier for getting HIV than being the insertive partner .
- The bottoms risk of getting HIV is very high because the rectums lining is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex.
- The top is also at risk because HIV can enter the body through the opening at the tip of the penis , the foreskin if the penis isnt circumcised, or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis.
Can I get HIV from vaginal sex?
You can get HIV if you have vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .
Can HIV be transmitted from a mother to her baby?
HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, it is less common because of advances in HIV prevention and treatment.
Can I get HIV from sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment?
You are at high risk for getting HIV if you with someone who has HIV. Never share needles or other equipment to inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone.
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The End Of The Battle
There can only be one of 2 outcomes. Either all the HIV viruses get killed by your bodys defences or it manages to reach the T-cells. Once the HIV viruses reaches a T-cell, it enters the cell and combines with the cells DNA. From there, is can force the cell to make billions more HIV viruses which will go on to infect many other T-cells. This forms what is known as the infection reservoir. Our current treatment has no way of killing HIV viruses hiding in this reservoir. So the infection remains incurable.
Fortunately, more often then not, all the HIV viruses get killed before they manage to reach the T-cells. This also explains why the risk of getting infected with HIV is small even if you had a direct sexual exposure to a HIV +ve person.
NB: This is a massive over-simplification of a very complex subject with great and detailed basic science studies done by many renown scientist. This article is in no way intended to simplify their work but more to put it in a way that can be more easily appreciated by the layman.
How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv
There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:
- using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
- in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
- avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment
- taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
- asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
- taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
- if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the listed below:
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Hiv Treatment As Prevention
People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.
ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.
The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.
Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of less than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:
- using a condom or other barrier method during sex
- reducing the number of sexual partners
- getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
- avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
- if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
- following all workplace safety protocols
People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.
Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.
A Condom Or Barrier Was Used
Breathe. As long as the barrier was used properly and didnt rip or slip off during sex, youre probably good.
Barrier methods like condoms are one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections , making it highly unlikely that your tip-dip or even full-on pound-fest would result in infection.
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No 6 Having Oral Sex: Negligible
The odds of contracting HIV during oral sex are slim to none. Thats because the virus isnt transmitted through saliva, tears, or sweat unless its also mixed with blood. If an HIV-positive man ejaculates in his partners mouth, however and, for example, the partner has an open sore or bleeding gums experts say that it might theoretically be possible to pass along the virus.
- Reduce the risk. Using a condom or dental dam can help lower the risk of transmitting not only HIV but other STDs, including syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. People can also reduce their risk by having their HIV-positive partner ejaculate into a condom or by removing their mouth from the penis before ejaculation.
Hiv Effects On The Digestive System
More than half of people who have AIDS report digestive symptoms as the virus or an opportunistic infection targets the walls of their intestines. Diarrhea is the most common one. Over time, the virus can change how your digestive tract works and even how it looks.
Some HIV medications can damage your liver. Many people with HIV also have a form of inflammation called hepatitis.
Limit how much alcohol you drink, and don’t use recreational drugs. Having diabetes, high cholesterol, or triglycerides and being overweight can lead to fatty liver disease, so keep an eye on the carbs, fats, and calories you eat each day.
Talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. Thereâs no vaccine against hepatitis C, but you should get tested for it.
Get regular blood tests to catch any liver problems early.
Your mouth might be one of the first places where you notice signs of HIV. Things like dry mouth, fungal infections, gum disease, cold sores, and canker sores can make chewing or swallowing painful. If they go on too long, you might not be able to take your HIV medication or get the nutrients you need.
Good dental habits can help prevent these issues, so brush and floss regularly. See your dentist for checkups, and tell them if youâre having problems. Most mouth conditions tied to HIV are treatable.
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How Does Hiv Enter The Body
It is common knowledge that unprotected sex with a HIV +ve person puts you at risk of getting infected with HIV. But have you ever wondered how the HIV virus actually gets into your body?
This article discusses the various ways the sneaky HIV virus dodges and avoids your natural defences to cause an infection. It is a war story. Your mucosal membranes are like the beaches of Omaha lined with fences, trenches, mines and guns. Big guns. But the HIV virus are many, and they are determine to breach the beach. This is how it plays out.
Do I Have An Std Or Uti Symptoms Are Confusing
A UTI is a urinary tract infection, and it is not a sexually transmitted disease. UTIs are caused by bacteria entering the urethra causing infection, whereas STD can be caused due to the spread of bacteria, virus or parasitic elements through sexual activity. Symptoms in some STDs and UTIs is common, which can lead to misdiagnoses and may lead to a wrong or delayed treatment. The cause of confusion between STDs and UTI are its similarities. Lets take a look at the similarities creating confusion to recognize between UTI and an STD.
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Impossible Routes Of Hiv Transmission
HIV transmission through the following activities is biologically implausible and there have been no documented cases.
There is no risk of HIV being passed on through: coughing, sneezing or spitting kissing, hugging or shaking hands sharing cutlery, plates or cups breathing the same air using the same lavatory mosquito or animal bites.
Be Aware Of Potential Symptoms
If you have sex, knowing what symptoms could indicate an STI is a must.
See a healthcare professional if you notice any of the following:
- unusual discharge from the anus, penis, or vagina
- changes in urination, like pain or burning, frequency, or urgency
- sores, warts, or blisters on or around your genitals or anus
- unusual vaginal bleeding, like after sexual activity or between periods
- genital itching
Are certain activities higher risk?
Penis-in-anus sex is the riskiest, especially for the receptive partner because the rectums lining is thin, making it easier for the virus to enter the bloodstream.
Penis-in-vagina sex, though not as risky, is also considered higher risk activity for both parties.
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Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
The study included all PLHIV aged 18 years and above without sign and symptoms of UTI who consented to the study. A total of 311 participants were approached and consented to the study, four of them were exposed to other antibiotics other than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the past 2 weeks before attending our clinic, one was suspected to be pregnant and six males were on medical treatment for benign prostatic enlargement and therefore they were excluded from the study. The remaining 300 participants were interviewed, their files were reviewed for extraction of some of the information necessary for the study and mid stream clean-catch urine was collected from them for analysis.
Use Condoms And Other Barrier Methods
If theres any chance youll be putting the tip into any orifice, putting a condom on it significantly reduces the risk of HIV and other infections.
Adding lube to the mix can help, too, and is especially important during anal sex.
Lube helps with dryness and friction and reduces the risk of tears that can allow the virus to enter the bloodstream. It also lowers the chances of the condom breaking.
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Symptoms Specific To Men
It’s important to note that these male-specific symptoms can also be signs of other conditions. If you have any of these, make sure to speak with your doctor.
- Breast tissue growth
Pain or burning while peeing. In most cases, this is a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection like gonorrhea or chlamydia. It may signal swelling of the prostate, a small gland beneath the bladder. This condition is called prostatitis. Itâs sometimes caused by a bacterial infection.
Other symptoms of prostatitis include:
- Pain during ejaculation
- Peeing more often than usual
- Cloudy or bloody pee
- Pain in the bladder, testicles, penis, or the area between the scrotum and rectum
- Lower back, abdomen, or groin pain
If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, see a doctor right away. If itâs been 72 hours or less, you can take something called post-exposure prophylaxis . You take HIV medicine once or twice a day for 28 days that may keep you from getting HIV.
If you have been exposed to HIV, there are other symptoms that aren’t exclusive to men but are important to keep an eye on.
Lowering The Risk Of Sexual Transmission
There are several protective measures which dramatically reduce the risk of HIV transmission during sex. You can find out more about these on other pages.
Undetectable viral load: when people with HIV take effective treatment, the amount of HIV in their body fluids falls drastically, to the point where they cannot pass HIV on to their sexual partners. An extremely low level of HIV in body fluids is referred to as an undetectable viral load. The knowledge that this prevents transmission is often referred to ‘Undetectable equals Untransmittable’ .
PrEP: if the HIV-negative person takes antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis , this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV. The most common form of PrEP is in a tablet, but it can also be provided as a vaginal ring or an injection.
Condoms: if male condoms or female condoms are used, this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV.
Male circumcision: if you are circumcised, this partially lowers your risk of acquiring HIV during vaginal sex.
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Sample Collection And Processing
The structured data questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the study. The questionnaire was pre-tested on five patients and errors noticed were corrected prior to the commencement of the study. These five patients were not included in this study. Social demography together with other variables were obtained from patients files and recorded on the questionnaire.
Two mid-stream clean-catch urine samples from all eligible study participants were collected using two wide mouth screw-capped leak proof sterile containers by taking all precautions to avoid contamination. The two samples were taken to KCMC clinical laboratory within 30 minutes of collection. One specimen in each patient was cultured on blood agar and cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient agar . One-microliter disposable loop was used for nucleation on culture media plates then the plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In case of delay in processing the sample, the samples were kept at 28 °C in a well-monitored refrigerator and cultured within 6 hours.
Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done for commonly prescribed antibiotics in our set up and zones of inhibition were interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guideline of year 2020 .14 However, owing to the challenges in the availability of antibiotic discs, we did not conduct even number of drug sensitivity tests.
Can Hiv Be Transmitted Through Oral Sex
Yes, but the risk is relatively low.
HIV is transmitted through seminal and vaginal fluids, including menstrual fluids. The virus can enter the body through the bloodstream or by passing through delicate mucous membranes, such as inside the vagina, rectum or urethra.
If a person gives fellatio and has bleeding gums, a cut, or an ulcer inside their mouth, HIV could enter their bloodstream through infected fluid. This could also happen if infected fluid from a woman gets into the mouth of her partner during oral sex.
Using a condom during sex, including oral and anal sex, is the best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections , including HIV. Avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or baby oil, because they can weaken the condom and increase the risk of it splitting.
You can use a dental dam to cover the anus or female genitals during oral sex. A dental dam is a latex or polyurethane square, measuring about 15cm by 15cm. It acts as a barrier to help stop STIs passing from one person to another.
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