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How Does Hiv Get Passed From One Person To Another

Hiv Is Detected With A Blood Test

How do you get HIV?

Blood tests are the most common and reliable tests for HIV. The virus is detected by taking a sample of your blood either with a conventional blood test or a rapid test .There is a short period of time between exposure to HIV and the ability for tests to detect HIV or its antibodies. This is often referred to as the ‘window period’ between 2 and 12 weeks.

Most tests used in Australia can detect HIV as early as 2 to 4 weeks after infection.

If your blood test shows that HIV or its antibodies are present, you are HIV-positive.

If you have no antibodies in your blood you are HIV-negative. Sometimes negative results might also mean you are in the window period, so you might need a follow-up blood test to make sure.

Can I Get Hiv From Tattooing Piercing Acupuncture Electrolysis Or Shaving

Any procedure in which a needle or razor is used on more than one person involves a theoretical risk of HIV transmission because of the possibility of infected blood on the instrument. However, the risk can be reduced or eliminated through routine sterilization procedures. There have been no documented cases in the United States of someone becoming infected through tattooing or piercing.

Tattoo artists, piercers, hairdressers and barbers, massage therapists, manicurists and pedicurists, and acupuncturists are all defined by the Centers for Disease Control as “personal service workers” . The CDC has established universal precautions for PSWs, similar to those for health care workers, which are designed to protect both the workers and their customers from HIV and other blood-borne illnesses such as hepatitis B and C. The guidelines state that any instruments designed to penetrate the skin such as tattoo or acupuncture needles either should be used only once and discarded, or should be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized after each use.

If you are worried about the risks of such procedures, you should discuss infection control precautions with the provider. In the case of tattoos and acupuncture, you may also provide your own fresh needles to ensure sterility.

In California, establishments that provide personal services may be regulated locally, so anyone who has further concerns about the procedures in an establishment should call the local department of public health.

Strategies To Reduce Risk

As with any other mode of HIV transmission, prevention requires a combination of strategies to more effectively:

  • Reduce the infectivity of the HIV-positive partner
  • Reduce the susceptibility of the HIV-negative partner

Current evidence has shown that the consistent use of antiretroviral therapy in the HIV-infected partner completely eliminates the risk of HIV transmission when viral activity is suppressed to undetectable levels.

The effectiveness of the strategy known as Treatment as Prevention , is evidenced by the PARTNER1 and PARTNER2 studies in which not a single HIV infection occurred among 1,770 gay and heterosexual mixed-status couples despite engaging condomless anal or vaginal sex.

The studies, which ran from 2010 to 2018, showed unequivocally that undetectable equals untransmittable in a real-world setting.

The use of pre-exposure prophylaxis , whereby the uninfected partner is prescribed a daily dose of the HIV drug Truvada, can also reduce risk. Studies have shown that when taken daily, PrEP reduces the risk of getting HIV from sex by about 99%.

Although these figures may suggest that condoms are no longer needed, neither TasP nor PrEP can prevent other sexually transmitted diseases.

Moreover, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , only 59.8% of Americans with HIV are able to achieve an undetectable viral load. Without complete viral suppression, TasP is rendered useless, placing the uninfected partner at risk.

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Factors That Increase The Risk Of Sexual Transmission

Not every act of unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person results in HIV transmission. But other factors can make HIV transmission more likely.

If the HIV-negative person has an untreated sexually transmitted infection , the risk is greater.

Just as HIV treatment and an undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission, a high viral load makes it more likely. Viral load refers to the quantity of HIV in a persons body fluids. It is extremely high in the first few weeks after a person is first infected with HIV. It may also be high if a person does not take HIV treatment and has advanced disease. People who have HIV without realising it cannot take HIV treatment, so there is a strong possibility that they have a high viral load.

What Happens If I Test Positive For Hiv

HIV and AIDS

If your initial test is positive for HIV antibodies, then additional testing is required to confirm that the first one was accurate. Sometimes this involves a second blood test.

When you are first diagnosed you will probably experience strong emotions. During this time, do not try to cope on your own. Seek support by speaking with your doctor, or contact your local community organisation. They have trained peer workers available to help you through the initial stages of a positive diagnosis, but also through your journey of living well with HIV.

Part of testing best practice includes pre- and post-test counselling. Post-test counselling is important, regardless of the outcome. If you test positive, counselling can provide emotional support, further information about living with HIV, and referrals to support services.

If the test is negative, counselling can provide education about HIV and how to reduce your HIV risk in the future. are community organisations that provide support and advocacy for people with HIV. Peer workers are also available to help you navigate living with HIV.

If you have recently been diagnosed with HIV, visit Next Steps for more information.

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Hiv Survival Outside The Body

Generally, when people ask the question, “How long can HIV survive outside the body?” they have come into contact with some body fluid that they think might contain HIV, and are worried about transmission. Almost always these questions are about casual contact, and we know the virus is not transmitted except during unprotected sex, sharing needles, or through significant and direct exposure to infected blood.

The length of time HIV can survive outside the body depends on:

  • the amount of HIV present in the body fluid
  • what conditions the fluid is subjected to

In a laboratory, HIV has been kept viable for up to 15 days, and even after the body fluid containing it had dried. However, these experiments involved an extremely high concentration of the virus which was kept at a stable temperature and humidity. These conditions are very unlikely to exist outside of a laboratory. HIV is very fragile, and many common substances, including hot water, soap, bleach and alcohol, will kill it.

The chances of becoming infected with HIV by handling a body fluid are extremely small, because that fluid will rarely have access to a person’s bloodstream. However, anyone handling blood, semen or vaginal fluids should be careful to avoid touching them with broken skin or getting them into mucous membranes .

Impossible Routes Of Hiv Transmission

HIV transmission through the following activities is biologically implausible and there have been no documented cases.

There is no risk of HIV being passed on through: coughing, sneezing or spitting kissing, hugging or shaking hands sharing cutlery, plates or cups breathing the same air using the same lavatory mosquito or animal bites.

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How Do I Know If I Have Hiv/aids

Dental problems such as sore bleeding gums, herpes sores in the mouth, and fungal and candida infections may be among the first signs of AIDS. However, you should not assume you are infected if you have any of these symptoms, as they occur in the general population. The only way to determine whether you are infected is to get a test for HIV infection. Consult your doctor or another healthcare professional to learn more about HIV/AIDS and getting tested.

A positive HIV test result does not mean that you have AIDS. The latter is a medical diagnosis made by a doctor based on specific criteria. You also cannot rely on symptoms to know whether or not you have HIV. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for many years.

  • Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
  • Profound and unexplained fatigue
  • Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck
  • Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
  • White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or the throat
  • Pneumonia
  • Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
  • Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders

Ways Hiv Cannot Be Spread

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HIV is not spread by:

  • Air or water
  • Mosquitoes, ticks or other insects
  • Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
  • Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
  • Drinking fountains

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How Do I Prevent Hiv/aids

There are many ways to prevent the transmission of HIV. HIV transmission can occur when blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or breast milk from an infected person enters your body. Talk to your doctor to determine if you may be in an at-risk category and a fit for being prescribed pre-exposure prophylaxis . For more information on HIV/AIDS prevention, consult with a physician or other healthcare professional.

Many people worry about the risk of infection through a blood transfusion. Since 1985, all donated blood in the United States has been tested for HIV. The U.S. blood supply is considered to be among the safest in the world.

How Does A Person Get Hiv

HIV can only be passed by these five body fluids:

  • blood
  • vaginal fluid
  • breast milk

HIV can be passed when one of these fluids from a person with HIV gets into the bloodstream of another personthrough broken skin, the opening of the penis or the wet linings of the body, such as the vagina, rectum or foreskin. HIV cannot be passed through healthy, unbroken skin.

The two main ways that HIV can be passed are:

  • through sex
  • by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs

HIV can also be passed:

  • to a fetus or baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding

HIV cannot be passed by:

  • shaking hands, working or eating with someone who has HIV
  • hugs or kisses
  • swimming pools, toilet seats or water fountains
  • insects or animals

Since November 1985, all blood products in Canada are checked for HIV, to ensure that it is safe to get a blood transfusion. And there is no chance of getting HIV from donating blood.

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What Happens Once Hiv Gets Into The Body

Once HIV gets into the body, it needs to infect immune cells and make copies of itself to cause a permanent infection.

HIV cannot replicate on its own it needs to take over cells within the body to replicate. To do this it targets specific immune cells called CD4 T cells as well as other immune cells. HIV enters and takes control of the cell and starts to replicate. New copies of the virus are released into the blood that can then infect more immune cells.

If the virus can replicate for one to three days without being stopped, it can then spread to other parts of the body and establish a permanent infection. The bodys immune system defences are sometimes able to defeat HIV before it spreads and causes a permanent infection. Taking pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis can also stop HIV from replicating and being able to establish a permanent infection.

About two-thirds of people newly infected with HIV experience symptoms of acute infection such as fever, chills, a rash, muscle aches, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, night sweats and mouth ulcers, which may last from a few days to a few weeks.

How Do I Get Tested For Hiv

Pin on HIV/AIDS

Most often, a technician or doctor will draw blood from your vein and check it to see if there are antibodies for HIV. You can also test other body fluidsoral fluid or urine — but these aren’t as sensitive or accurate as traditional blood tests. Some rapid screening tests can give results in 20-60 minutes.

Current blood tests can find both antibodies and a part of the virus itself. These could give a positive result as soon as 3 weeks after HIV exposure.

Home testing kits found at drugstores are really home collection kits. You prick your finger with a special device, place drops of blood on a specially treated card, and then mail the card in for testing at a licensed lab.

If any of these screening tests say you’re positive, follow up with a doctor and more testing to confirm it.

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Contaminated Blood Transfusions And Organ/tissue Transplants

If adequate safety practices are not in place, healthcare workers can also be at risk of HIV from cuts made by a needle or sharp object with infected blood on it. However, the risk of occupational exposure, is very low in most countries.

If you think you have been exposed to HIV, the only way to find out if you have HIV is to have an HIV test.

Is Hiv And Aids An Occupational Concern

Where ever there is the possibility of contact with blood in the workplace, workers should take precautions to prevent contact with the skin, eyes or mucous membranes .

Routine Practices are recommended to prevent the spread of HIV in the workplace. Routine practices are based on the principle that all blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes, unless they contain visible blood, may contain transmissible infectious agents. Steps involve using protective clothing such as gloves, gowns or aprons, masks and protective eye wear when dealing with people’s blood and other blood-contaminated body fluids such as semen and vaginal secretions. They also do not apply to saliva except in dentistry where saliva is likely to be contaminated with blood.

Hand washing after contact with blood, blood-contaminated body fluids and soiled items is also recommended to reduce the risk of infection.

The best approach to most diseases is to prevent their occurrence – occupationally-related diseases are no exception. In the case of HIV, prevention is the only cure.

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How Long Does It Take To Develop The Disease

There is no fixed period between the first contact with HIV and the development of the disease. Signs and symptoms resulting from infection with HIV develop in stages. Many infected individuals may have no symptoms for several years. But others may develop symptoms within three years from the time of infection.

Symptoms of HIV infection are fever, swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits, sweating, aches, fatigue, unexplained weight loss and diarrhea.

Within eight years, about 50 percent of all infected people develop specific conditions categorized as AIDS. These conditions include a lung disease called “pneumocystis carinii pneumonia,” skin tumours called “Kaposi’s sarcoma,” fungal and viral infections such as candidiasis and herpes zoster, and severe diarrhea.

Some AIDS patients also suffer from dementia resulting in problems with memory and thinking. AIDS patients are prone to various infections of the brain, just as they suffer from an unusually high number of cancers, bacterial and viral infections of other parts of the body.

Other Types Of Transmission

Transmission of HIV | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

In the past, HIV was spread by transfusion with blood products, such as whole blood or the “factor” used by hemophiliacs. Many people acquired HIV this way. The blood supply is now much more strictly tested and controlled in most countries. The odds of acquiring HIV from receiving blood or blood factor in countries like the US, the UK, and Canada are extremely low. For example, statistics from the US show that a person is more likely to be killed by a lightning strike than they are to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion. However, not every country screens all blood donations for HIV.

It is also possible to get HIV from skin grafts or transplanted organs taken from people living with HIV. Again, the risk is considered very low, as these “body products” must be strictly tested in the same way as blood products. Semen donations collected by sperm banks for artificial insemination are also considered “bodily products” and rigorously tested in high-resource countries. Private semen samples that are not processed by sperm banks or similar organizations may not have been tested. It is important for anyone receiving a private donor’s sperm for artificial insemination to have the donor tested for HIV.

If you are getting breast milk from a milk bank, it is important to ask if the bank tests the milk for HIV. Also, if your baby is getting breast milk from a wet nurse, it is important to make sure that she tests negative for HIV before giving her milk to your baby.

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Can You Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion

Receiving a blood transfusion or other products made from blood is safe in the UK as all blood products have been screened for infections such as HIV since 1985.

In countries that dont have strict checks on the safety of their blood supply, receiving contaminated blood can pass the virus on. This can also happen in countries that dont screen other blood products, organs or sperm.

Giving blood has never been a risk.

How Can I Tell If I Have Hiv Are There Symptoms

Many people who have HIV don’t have any symptoms at all for many years. The only way to know if you’re infected is to get tested.

Don’t wait for symptoms to show up. If you find out you’re infected soon after it happens, you’ll have more options for treatment and care to help prevent you from getting sick.

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