Wednesday, June 15, 2022

How Is Hiv And Aids Diagnosed

Some Practices Dont Reduce Your Risk Of Hiv

Diagnosis of HIV AIDS

Some people use unreliable methods to reduce their risk of HIV. These include:

  • Serosorting choosing your sexual partner based upon them having the same HIV status as you.
  • Strategic positioning where an HIV-negative partner penetrates an HIV-positive partner.
  • Withdrawal when the insertive partner pulls out before ejaculating .

None of these strategies are reliable, so you are at risk of HIV transmission.Having sex only with people who have the same HIV status can be very risky. For example, a person may think they are HIV-negative, but may have been exposed to HIV since their last test, or may never have been tested at all.

Using a combination of proven, reliable strategies like condoms, PrEP, and undetectable viral load is the best way to prevent HIV transmission.

Where To Get Tested For Hiv

Getting an HIV test is easy. Tests for HIV and other STIs are confidential and available from your local doctor , or a sexual and reproductive health clinic.

It is a good idea to have some pre-test counselling. Before the test, talk with your doctor, nurse, or peer tester about any concerns, your level of risk, whether you are likely to be HIV-positive and what a positive result may mean.

How Is Hiv Spread From Person To Person

HIV can only be spread through specific activities. In the United States, the most common ways are:

  • Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex.
  • Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV.

Less common ways are:

HIV is spread only in extremely rare cases by:

  • Having oral sex. But in general, the chance that an HIV-negative person will get HIV from oral sex with an HIV-positive partner is extremely low.

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Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv

Yes. Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.

HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.

Who Should Be Tested For Hiv And How Frequently

Who Should Get Tested?

It is recommended that the consideration of HIV testing be made a component of routine care. In general, care providers should take an active approach to HIV testing, offering HIV testing to clients whether or not clients have asked for a test. In the provision of routine medical care, and in discussion with the client, care providers should consider whether there is a benefit to an HIV test.

HIV testing is associated with several advantages:

  • a negative test result is an opportunity for clients to take an active role in remaining HIV negative
  • the early detection of HIV, especially at the acute stage, can improve outcomes for individuals and prevent further transmission of HIV
  • detection at any stage of the disease, prior to wasting and dementia, is an opportunity to initiate lifesaving treatment and other related healthcare services
  • opportunities arise for conversations with clients about risk-reduction strategies

2.1.1 Testing recommendations

An in-depth comprehensive HIV behavioural risk assessment is not a requirement for offering an HIV test. An assessment that the client understands how HIV is transmitted, the implications of testing , and how to interpret the test results is sufficient.

For occasions when clients may not be able to accurately estimate their risk, the guide includes more detailed guidance in Appendix B for conducting rapid risk assessments and a more detailed technical review of HIV transmission risks can be found in Appendix C.

2.1.2 Couples testing

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Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations

  • MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.

  • DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.

  • Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.

  • Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.

  • VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.

  • A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus. Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.

Always consult with your child’s doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.

Who Should Be Tested For Hiv

The CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of their routine healthcare regimen. However, people who are at increased risk for HIV should be tested at least once a year, if not more often. These risk factors include:

  • Being a man who has sex with men
  • Having vaginal or anal sex with an HIV-positive partner
  • Having had more than one sexual partner since your last HIV test
  • Injecting drugs
  • Sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia
  • Exchanging sex for drugs or money
  • Having been diagnosed with another sexually transmitted infection
  • Being diagnosed with hepatitis or tuberculosis
  • Having sex with anyone who has one of the above risk factors

Pregnant people also should be tested for HIV at least once during pregnancy. This is because HIV treatment during pregnancy is a highly effective way of preventing transmission to the infant.

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Diagnosis Of Hiv Infection

Tests used for the diagnosis of HIV infection in a particular person require a high degree of both sensitivity and specificity. In the United States, this is achieved using an algorithm combining two tests for HIV antibodies. If antibodies are detected by an initial test based on the ELISA method, then a second test using the Western blot procedure determines the size of the antigens in the test kit binding to the antibodies. The combination of these two methods is highly accurate

Treatment And Life Expectancy

What An HIV Diagnosis Means Today

If HIV develops into stage 3 HIV, life expectancy drops significantly. Its difficult to repair damage to the immune system at this point. Infections and other conditions, such as certain cancers, resulting from severe immune system impairment are common. However, with successful antiretroviral therapy and some immune system recovery, many people with stage 3 HIV live long lives.

With todays treatments for HIV infection, people can live with HIV and never have AIDS develop. Its also important to note that successful antiretroviral treatment and a sustained undetectable viral load greatly lowers the risk of transmitting the virus to a partner.

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Side Effects Of Hiv Treatment

People on current HIV treatments may experience mild side effects including:

  • tiredness and fatigue
  • skin rashes.

If you are on treatment, see your doctor every 3 to 6 months.

Regular blood tests are necessary to make sure your treatment is working and not causing serious side effects. It is recommended that you also get tested for STIs and talk to your doctor about your sexual health and overall wellbeing. Ensure you are having routine screening for cancers and keeping your vaccinations up to date.

How To Prevent Hiv From Advancing To Aids

AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV. The best way to avoid AIDS is to start antiretroviral therapy as soon as possible. Taken every day as prescribed, these drugs will keep you healthy and make your viral level so low, it canât be detected. Sticking to the right treatment can keep AIDS at bay for years and decades. It also practically eliminates the chances that youâll pass HIV to your sexual partners and others. Many HIV-positive people live normal life spans.

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Questions To Ask Your Doctor

  • Is there any sure way to avoid acquiring HIV?
  • What is the best treatment for me?
  • How can I avoid getting any infections that will make me very sick?
  • How can I find support groups in my community?
  • What diagnostic tests will you run?
  • How often will I need to see my doctor?
  • Will there be any side effects to my treatment?
  • How does this affect my plans for having a family?
  • Is it safe for me to breastfeed my baby?
  • Will using a condom keep my sex partners from acquiring HIV?
  • Should I follow a special diet?

Are Women More Likely To Get Hiv

tests which diagnose hiv aids

Yes. Biologically speaking, a woman is more vulnerable to heterosexual transmission of the disease because the genitalia are easily exposed to seminal fluids.

Gender inequality has great influence on the spread of HIV/AIDS among women. In some cultures, many women and girls are often put in situations where they engage in non-consensual sex or have sex for money.

In the U.S., minority communities have been hit the hardest by HIV. African American and Hispanic women together represent less than 25% of all U.S. women, yet they account for more than 78% of AIDS cases reported among women in the country.

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How Is Hiv Treated

Australians can live well with HIV. Treatments have changed over time, dramatically improving the quality and length of life for someone who is HIV positive.

It is also important to have a strong support network. Evidence suggests that involving others can improve your mental health and wellbeing and help you maintain treatment.

Hiv Is Detected With A Blood Test

Blood tests are the most common and reliable tests for HIV. The virus is detected by taking a sample of your blood either with a conventional blood test or a rapid test .There is a short period of time between exposure to HIV and the ability for tests to detect HIV or its antibodies. This is often referred to as the ‘window period’ between 2 and 12 weeks.

Most tests used in Australia can detect HIV as early as 2 to 4 weeks after infection.

If your blood test shows that HIV or its antibodies are present, you are HIV-positive.

If you have no antibodies in your blood you are HIV-negative. Sometimes negative results might also mean you are in the window period, so you might need a follow-up blood test to make sure.

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Challenges In Hiv Testing

4.3.1 HIV Testing in the “window period”

The window period is the time after acquisition of HIV infection when the individual is highly infectious but tests negative on HIV antibody screening because antibodies are not immediately produced. As shown in Figure 4, the timelines associated with the window period have changed with the evolution of more sensitive antibody screening tests. While 1st generation tests detected HIV antibody an average of 60 days following exposure the 4th generation combination tests permit detection of acute HIV infection during the viremic phase. This reduces the window period to approximately 15 to 20 days. Making the diagnosis as early as possible can help prevent onward transmission of the virus, since the person is most infectious during this period. Some jurisdictions provide NAAT testing for high-risk clients , in an effort to identify very early HIV infection.

4.3.2 Indeterminate results during the window period

4.3.3 Confirmatory Testing

The Western Blot assay is not as sensitive as the 3rd and 4th generation screening tests and may yield indeterminate results during the window period. New algorithms employing NAAT as a confirmatory test are currently being evaluated.

Figure 5: Antigen/Antibody detection periods

Figure 5 is a detailed diagram showing the days elapsed, from zero to 360, since the start of HIV infection. The diagram is divided into a sliding scale of four time periods:

4.3.4 Genetic diversity of HIV

Stage : Clinical Latency

Advice If You Are Newly Diagnosed With HIV

In this stage, the virus still multiplies, but at very low levels. People in this stage may not feel sick or have any symptoms. This stage is also called chronic HIV infection.

Without HIV treatment, people can stay in this stage for 10 or 15 years, but some move through this stage faster.

If you take HIV medicine every day, exactly as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load, you can protect your health and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to your sexual partner.

But if your viral load is detectable, you can transmit HIV during this stage, even when you have no symptoms. Its important to see your health care provider regularly to get your viral load checked.

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Suspected Or Known Exposure To Hiv But No Symptoms

If you have not been tested for HIV, call your doctor if:

  • You suspect that you have been exposed to HIV.
  • You have engaged in high-risk behaviour and are concerned that you were exposed to HIV.
  • Your sex partner engages in high-risk behaviour.
  • Your sex partner may have been exposed to HIV.
  • Your sex partner has HIV.
  • You have any of the symptoms listed above.

Getting tested for HIV can be scary, but the condition can be managed with treatment. So it is important to get tested if you think you have been exposed.

How To Report A Diagnosis Of Hiv Or Aids

Reporting HIV or AIDS Diagnosis is Mandatory

In 1998 New York State expanded its existing AIDS case reporting laws to include reporting of people with HIV as well as AIDS to the state and local health departments. The newly amended law took effect on June 1, 2000. The law also requires reports of names of sexual or needle-sharing partners known to the medical provider or whom the infected person wishes to notify.

A state reporting form, the Medical Provider Report Form or DOH-4189 revised 09/2016 must be completed for all persons within 14 days of the following diagnoses:

  • Initial/new HIV diagnosis: First report of HIV positive test results, including Acute HIV Infection and persons diagnosed with HIV-2.
  • Previously diagnosed HIV : Reporting required by a medical provider who is seeing the patient for the first time and patient has not met criteria for AIDS.
  • Initial/new diagnosis of AIDS: Including < 200 CD4 cells/µ or one of the 28 opportunistic infections and/or conditions.
  • Previously diagnosed AIDS:Reporting required by a medical provider who is seeing the patient for the first time.
  • Report Electronically:You may also submit PRFs electronically by visiting the provider portal. You can get instructions for accessing the portal here .
  • Why Report Diagnoses of HIV and AIDS?

  • Directs prevention efforts to populations at risk of infection.
  • Assists in allocating resources for caring and treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • It is the right thing to do!
  • Who must report?

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    How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Hiv To Anyone During Sex

    If you find out that you have HIV, try to stay calm. People living with HIV can have normal, healthy relationships and sex lives. But its important to take precautions to help your partner stay HIV-free.

    There are a few ways that you can avoid giving HIV to other people:

    • Always use condoms when you have vaginal and anal sex.

    • Start treatment for HIV as soon as possible, and keep taking your HIV medicine. When you take it correctly, HIV treatment can lower or even stop your chances of spreading the virus to your sexual partners .

    • Theres a daily pill your partner can take to lower the risk of getting HIV, called PrEP.

    • Dont share needles for shooting drugs, piercings, or tattoos.

    • Get tested and treated for other STDs besides HIV regularly. Having other STDs makes it easier for you to spread HIV to others.

    If you test positive for HIV, its important to tell your sexual partners about it so they can be tested, too. Even if youre really careful to not spread HIV, be honest with your future partners about your status so you can both be informed and help each other stay healthy. Read more about talking with your partners about HIV.

    Stage : Acute Hiv Infection

    How is HIV AIDS diagnosed?

    Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, about two-thirds of people will have a flu-like illness. This is the bodys natural response to HIV infection.

    Flu-like symptoms can include:

    • Swollen lymph nodes
    • Mouth ulcers

    These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. But some people do not have any symptoms at all during this early stage of HIV.

    Dont assume you have HIV just because you have any of these symptomsthey can be similar to those caused by other illnesses. But if you think you may have been exposed to HIV, get an HIV test.

    Heres what to do:

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