Monday, June 24, 2024

How Is Hiv Transmitted Through Blood

How Long Can Hiv Survive Outside The Body

How is HIV Transmitted? Episode 2

Once outside the body, HIV usually cant survive for very long. Coming into contact with blood or semen that has been outside the body doesnt generally pose a risk for HIV transmission.

Similarly, the risk of passing on HIV to someone else if you have a detectable viral load and cut yourself is also very low. Wash away any blood with soap and hot water and cover the wound with a sticking plaster or dressing.

How Can A Woman Reduce Her Chances Of Contracting Hiv

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids like blood and semen. Using injection drugs, having unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners increases the chances of acquiring HIV. The only way to be absolutely certain you do not become infected with HIV is to not have sex and not use injection drugs. You also can avoid infection by only having one sex partner as long as your partner does not have HIV and has sex only with you. According to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention , using a male or female condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex can greatly lower your risk of infection. Using condoms for oral sex will reduce your risk for other STDs as well. It also is important not to douche, since douching removes some of the normal vaginal bacteria that can protect you from infection.

Implications For Hiv Prevention In Women

It is important for service providers who work with women to understand the biology of HIV transmission in females so that they can communicate this information to women while providing appropriate prevention counselling.;

There are several key messages that can be given to female clients about the risk of HIV transmission through vaginal sex:

  • A healthy female genital tract has protective defences that can fight HIV infection; however, it also has biological vulnerabilities that contribute to a greater risk of HIV infection compared to men.
  • Inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. Inflammation can be caused by STIs, vaginal conditions, friction during sex, and cleansing practices , among other things.
  • STIs and other vaginal conditions may increase risk, even if they are not symptomatic. Women should be tested for STIs regularly and treated if necessary.
  • Women with diverse needs and preferences have prevention options available to them for reducing their risk of getting HIV, including methods they can initiate themselves and those that require greater partner involvement.
  • Women in a serodiscordant relationship who want to conceive have several options for preventing HIV transmission within the relationship, and should seek expert medical advice to review these options.

When counselling women about their risk for HIV transmission through vaginal sex and their prevention options:

Resource list

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What Is The Difference Between Hiv And Aids

The term AIDS refers to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. Most of the conditions affecting people with AIDS are opportunistic infections that generally do not affect healthy people. In people with AIDS, these infections are often severe and sometimes fatal because the immune system is so ravaged by HIV that the body cannot fight off the infection. Symptoms of opportunistic infections common in people with AIDS include:

  • coughing and shortness of breath
  • seizures and lack of coordination
  • difficult or painful swallowing
  • severe headaches
  • coma

People with AIDS also are particularly prone to developing various cancers. These cancers are usually more aggressive and difficult to treat in people with AIDS.

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How Do I Protect Myself From Hiv

HIV Transmission and Prevention Lecture for USMLE/NBDE ...

There are a number of ways you can protect yourself from HIV, including:

  • using a condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex
  • in some countries PrEP is available. This is a course of HIV drugs which if taken consistently as advised by your healthcare professional prevents HIV infection through sex
  • avoiding sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment;
  • taking HIV treatment if you are a new or expectant mother living with HIV, as this will;dramatically reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding
  • asking your healthcare professional if the blood product you are receiving has been tested for HIV
  • taking precautions if you are a healthcare worker, such as wearing protection , washing hands after contact with blood and other bodily fluids, and safely disposing of sharp equipment
  • if you think you have been exposed to HIV you may be able to access PEP, a 4-week course of ARV drugs taken after possible HIV exposure to prevent HIV infection. You must start PEP within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.

For more detailed information on how to prevent HIV infection visit the relevant page from the;listed below:

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What If There Is An Actual Or Suspected Exposure To Hiv

The decision to begin a post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection is based on the judgment of a health care professional and should be a joint decision with the exposed worker. PEP often involves taking a combination of 2 or 3 antiretroviral drugs for about 4 weeks. PEP can help reduce, but not eliminate, a personâs risk of infection. The PEP should begin as soon as possible, as it may be less effective if started more than 72 hours after exposure.

Occupational Groups Risking Exposure to the AIDS Virus

The occupational groups listed below risk exposure to HIV in the workplace. The table that follows suggests preventive measures for these groups. For many situations, using all protective barriers listed in the table is not necessary, but workplaces should always make them available in case of emergency response scenarios.

Surgeons, Nurses and Nurses Aides

Surgeons, nurses and nurses’ aides should take precautions to avoid needlestick injuries, cuts with sharp instruments and exposure through skin lesions to potentially infectious blood and body fluids.

Physicians and Laboratory Workers

These people continuously handle infectious samples. Doctors, in diagnosing HIV patients, carry out physical examinations and collect blood samples. Laboratory technicians analyze potentially infected samples.

Ambulance Workers

Dental Workers

Embalmers

Embalming the bodies of persons with a HIV infection presents a risk because HIV can live for hours in a deceased body.

Cleaners

Bites That Break The Skin

A bite that opens the skin and causes bleeding can lead to the transmission of HIV. However, according to the

goes up with increasing viral load.

Viral load is highest both during the early phase of HIV and without treatment with antiretroviral medications. Taking antiretroviral medications every day can reduce a persons viral load to very low levels that cant be detected through testing.

In this way, antiretroviral medications arent only a treatment, but an important tool for prevention. When HIV cant be detected in the blood, a person living with HIV cant sexually transmit the virus to a partner without HIV.

This principle is called Undetectable = Untransmittable and has been supported by

up to 6 months of taking antiretroviral medications each day to achieve an undetectable viral load.

A persons viral load is said to be durably undetectable when all test results are undetectable for at least 6 months after the first undetectable result.

Theres no need to be afraid of having casual contact with someone who is living with HIV. The virus doesnt live on the skin and cant live very long outside of the body.

Additionally, bodily fluids like saliva, tears, and sweat dont transmit HIV either.

Therefore, casual contact, such as holding hands, hugging, or sitting next to someone who has HIV, wont transmit the virus. Closed-mouth kissing isnt a threat either.

These include:

  • syphilis
  • gonorrhea
  • herpes

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How Is Hiv Passed Through Sex

HIV can be passed during sex in a sexual fluid or blood, if present. For transmission to occur, one of these fluids, containing enough HIV, must come in contact with a mucous membrane of an HIV-negative person, such as the opening of the penis, the foreskin, the vagina, the cervix or the rectum. When this happens, the virus must overcome the bodys natural defences before it can establish a permanent infection.

There are many natural defences that can stop HIV transmission from occurring. The mucous membranes are made up of epithelial cells that are tightly joined together, providing a partially protective barrier against HIV and other germs. This epithelial cell layer can be a single layer or it can be multiple layers thick . The more epithelial cell layers there are, the more difficult it is for HIV to cross into the body. HIV can pass through the cell layer on its own, but damage to the mucous membrane can make it easier for HIV to enter the body. Additionally, mucus that covers and moistens the mucous membrane can trap HIV and help prevent it from crossing the epithelial cell layer. Finally, if HIV crosses the epithelial cell layer, the body’s immune cells will fight the virus and try to clear it from the body.

Its important to note that when a highly effective HIV prevention strategy is used consistently and correctly, the risk for sexual HIV transmission ranges from zero to very low.

Means And Requirements For Hiv Transmission

Is it possible to transmit HIV through saliva?

People may become infected with HIV if they engage in specific risk behaviors or if they are exposed through needlestick injuries . Other blood contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin provides a possible, but not probable, chance of transmission.

HIV is transmitted through:

  • Unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse
  • Sharing needles or other injection equipment
  • A mother passing the virus to her baby either before or during birth
  • An infected woman breastfeeding her infant
  • Accidental needlestick injuries, or infected body fluid coming into contact with the broken skin or mucous membranes of another person
  • A transfusion prior to 1986 of HIV-infected blood or blood products

In extremely rare cases, HIV can be transmitted by sharing razors or toothbrushes, if infected blood from one person was deposited on the toothbrush or razor and the blood entered the bloodstream of another person.

The transmission of HIV depends upon:

  • The availability of the infectious agent in sufficient quantity
  • The viability of the infectious agent
  • The virulence of the infectious agent
  • The ability of the infectious agent to reach the bloodstream, mucous membranes, or broken skin of a potential host

One of the predictors of the infectious level of an HIV-positive person is viral load, which is how much HIV is present in the bloodstream. Studies show a clear connection between higher viral load in the blood and increased transmissibility of HIV.

Test Your Learning

Answer: d

Blood Transfusions

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How To Be Safe When Coming Into Contact With Infected Blood

A condom will act as a barrier against any contact with blood during sex.;

As well as sex, sharing equipment for injecting drugs is a way blood can get into someones body. This can be avoided by using fresh needles and not sharing needles, syringes and other equipment.;

If a woman has HIV, her menstrual blood also carries a risk of transmission if she has a detectable viral load.;

If youre HIV negative and taking pre-exposure prophylaxis youll be protected against getting HIV if you come into contact with infectious blood.

Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv

Yes.;Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.

HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.

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A Little Bit About Hiv Itself

The human immunodeficiency virus was recognized at the end of the 20th century , when at the same time the virus was discovered in two scientific laboratories. One of them was located in France , the other – in the USA . A year earlier, his current name was acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , which, as it turned out, is the final phase of HIV infection.

When a new unknown retrovirus was isolated and given the name HTLV-III, it was also suggested that this particular virus could be the cause of such a terrible disease as AIDS. Further studies have confirmed this hypothesis, and humanity has learned of a new danger that can be killed without weapons.

HIV is one of the varieties of viral pathologies, characterized by a sluggish course. The incubation period, lasting from 3 weeks to 3 months, and the latent stage, the duration of which can be 11-12, and sometimes more than years, proceed without any obvious symptoms. However, during this period, almost complete destruction of immunity occurs.

The human immunodeficiency virus itself is considered unstable. It can not exist outside the carrier’s body , however, in each specific case the virus is somewhat modified, which allows it to survive and excludes the possibility of the invention of an effective antiviral vaccine.

The virus is able to nest in any physiological fluids, including saliva and cerebrospinal fluid, but its concentration there is negligible, as, however, and the risk of infection with their participation.

How Do I Know If The Blood Transfusion/transplant Im Receiving Is Safe

HIV & AIDS

In most cases, its fine to assume the blood product you are receiving is safe. But if you are worried, it is your right to ask the healthcare professional whether;it has been tested for HIV or not.

Blood donors are asked a set of standard questions just before donating blood to help determine if they are in good health or if they have been at risk of HIV infection in the past.

Some groups of people who are considered more statistically at risk of HIV infection are not eligible to donate blood products in some countries – either for set time periods or for life. These groups include:

  • Men who have sex with men
  • Sex workers
  • People who inject drugs

If you fall into one of these groups of people, and you want to donate blood, talk to your healthcare professional who can advise you on whether its safe and legal to donate blood or not.

Other activities may also require you to postpone your blood donation, such as having a tattoo or body piercing or if you are living with a certain health condition.

If you want to know more about donor eligibility, check the guidelines in your country as they are different all over the world.

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How Is Hiv Passed During Pregnancy And Childbirth

HIV can be passed from a parent to their child during pregnancy, labour and delivery. Most babies who get HIV through perinatal transmission acquire it during labour and delivery, when they are exposed to blood and vaginal fluid as they pass through the birth canal. Additionally, HIV in the parent’s blood can pass to a fetus through the placenta during pregnancy.

Without HIV treatment, there is a 15% to 30% chance that a baby born to a person living with HIV will acquire HIV during pregnancy or delivery. Taking HIV treatment to maintain an undetectable viral load is the best way to prevent passing HIV to a baby. In fact, research has shown that if a pregnant person starts HIV treatment before pregnancy and maintains an undetectable viral load throughout pregnancy and delivery, they do not transmit HIV to their baby. When treatment is started after conception and taken for the remainder of the pregnancy and delivery there is a low risk of HIV transmission. A short course of HIV medications is also given to the infant immediately after birth to help prevent HIV transmission. Recommendations such as initiation of lifelong HIV treatment as soon as possible after diagnosis for all people living with HIV and the offer of an HIV test during pregnancy have made perinatal transmission extremely uncommon in Canada. ;

What About Breastfeeding

chance that they will pass on the virus to their infant during labor, delivery, or breastfeeding. This is due to contact with relevant body fluids.

Antiretroviral therapy can reduce the chances of transmission to below 5%. The recommend that people with HIV combine exclusive breastfeeding with the use of antiretroviral therapy.

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What Is Hiv And Aids

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that infects the immune system. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . AIDS is the most advanced stage of the HIV infection and causes the immune system to become vulnerable to other infections. HIV can also be known as “the AIDS virus.”

The full name for AIDS describes several of the characteristics of the disease.

Acquired indicates that it is not an inherited condition.

Immune Deficiency indicates that the body’s immune system breaks down.

Syndrome indicates that the disease results in a variety of health problems.

It takes on average, 5-10 years for the initial HIV infection to progress to AIDS if not treated. While there is presently no cure or vaccine for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be managed and a near-normal lifespan can be expected with early treatment.

Is It Possible To Transmit Hiv Through Saliva

How is HIV Transmitted?

It is only possible to transmit HIV through saliva if there are co-factors such as bleeding gums, throat or urethral infections or a high viral load. Saliva does carry the HIV virus but in such low quantities that it is not possible to pass on the infection through kissing or spitting as long as there are no open sores or bleeding gums which result in the exchange of blood. Even cases involving the transference of HIV through saliva with co-factors are extremely rare. However, infection is possible through oral sex but to a much lower degree than anal or vaginal sex.

High concentrations of HIV are present in blood, vaginal fluid, semen, breast milk and any other body fluids which contain blood. Any exchange of these fluids between an infected and a non-infected person is highly risky. There are very low quantities of HIV in saliva so it is not possible to transmit HIV through saliva alone as, to become infected with the virus, there has to be a sufficient quantity of the virus transferred. There is no transmission risk from kissing unless both partners have severely bleeding gums or large open sores in their mouth. There is no risk from sharing glasses, spitting or sneezing as the virus cannot spread or maintain infectiousness in the open air.

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