Mother To Child Transmission
Having HIV does not mean a woman cant have a healthy baby. The key is to work with a doctor to take all the necessary precautions.
Aside from blood and sexual secretions, HIV can also be transmitted during pregnancy or through breast milk while breastfeeding. Mother to child transmissions can also occur at any point during pregnancy, as well as during delivery.
All pregnant women should be screened for HIV. Antiretroviral therapy is strongly recommended for pregnant women with HIV to achieve viral suppression. This will subsequently reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby during pregnancy and labor. Sometimes a caesarean delivery is recommended to reduce transmission during delivery if the infection is not suppressed.
Its also important to protect the baby after birth. Breastfeeding might not be recommended in some cases, though consistent viral suppression may reduce the transmission of HIV through breast milk. A doctor may also recommend that the baby take antiretroviral therapy for up to six weeks after birth.
Overall, great strides have been made in decreasing HIV transmission between mothers and infants due to improved screening and use of anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy.
In the United States, the
Exploring Hiv Transmission Rates
World Health Organization , about 36.7 million people worldwide lived with HIV as of 2016. Still, thanks to antiretroviral therapy , people with HIV are leading longer, better quality lives. Many of these strides have been made in the United States.
To help reduce the risk of transmission, its important to understand how the virus is spread. HIV is only transmitted through bodily fluids, such as:
- breast milk
Learn which type of exposure is most likely to transmit the virus and how antiretroviral drugs are making a difference.
, direct blood transfusion is the route of exposure that poses the highest risk of transmission. While uncommon, receiving a blood transfusion from a donor with HIV may increase the risk.
The CDC also discusses HIV transmission risk in terms of how many times the virus is likely to be transmitted per 10,000 exposures. For example, for every 10,000 blood transfusions from a donor with HIV, the virus is likely to be transmitted 9,250 times.
Since 1985, however, blood banks have adopted stricter screening measures to identify blood with HIV. Now all blood donations are carefully tested for HIV. If they test positive, theyre discarded. As a result, the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion is very low.
Perceived Vs Documented Risk
A perceived risk is one that is based on belief rather than fact and persists despite the unlikeliness of the event ever occurring. By contrast, a documented risk is based on statistical evidence of something actually occurring. Where a perceived risk is about theory, a documented risk is about the fact.
With regards to HIV, the potential to infect does not translate into an actual risk unless the exposure satisfies four specific conditions:
- There must be body fluids in which HIV can thrive. This includes semen, blood, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. HIV cannot thrive in parts of the body that have high acidity .
- There must be a route by which HIV can enter the body. This includes sexual intercourse, shared needles, occupational exposure, or transmission from mother to child.
- The virus must be able to reach vulnerable cells inside the body. This requires the rupture or deep penetration of the skin and/or the absorption of the virus through the mucosal tissues of the vagina or anus. Scrapes, abrasions, and skin prick do not offer the deep penetration needed for an infection to occur. HIV cannot pass through intact skin.
- There must be sufficient quantities of virus in the body fluids. Saliva, sweat, and tears all either contain enzymes the inhibit HIV or have a pH hostile to HIV.
Unless all of these conditions are satisfied, an HIV infection simply cannot occur.
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What is AIDS?
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and it is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus . AIDS symptoms may not show for years after a person is infected with HIV, but once it does, the immune system of the body is destroyed. This means that even a mild cold or flu can kill someone with AIDS because the body cannot fight back.
How HIV is Spread
HIV cannot be caught like a cold. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk. Tears and saliva cannot transmit HIV since the virus is at too low of a concentration. Common sources of HIV spread include sexual contact with those infected and sharing needles. A baby can acquire the virus from an infected mother during birth or from breast-feeding.
The HIV Virus Outside of the Body
Viruses are delicate and without a host, they will quickly die. HIV can only last for a few hours at the most outside of a host. Laboratory studies by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found that even super-concentrated amounts of HIV will die within hours on a surface.
How Long Can Viruses Live Outside The Body
Cold viruses have been shown to survive on indoor surfaces for approximately seven days. Flu viruses, however, are active for only 24 hours. All viruses have the potential to live on hard surfaces, such as metal and plastic, longer than on fabrics and other soft surfaces.
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Human Tissue Explant Models
An extensive body of literature describes human tissue explant models and their application to the analysis of HIV-1 and SIV transmission. Much of this has been summarized in recent reviews . Although increasing attention in recent years has been paid to penile and gastrointestinal explant models, most information , can be correlated with in situ studies of primate infection by SIV . in a cervicovaginal explant model also observed that CCR5+ CD4+ T cells with the effector memory phenotype are a primary target for infection. Human cervicovaginal tissue ex vivo was found to preferentially support productive infection by R5 HIV-1 rather than by X4 HIV-1 despite ample expression of CXCR4. Productive infection by R5 HIV-1 occurred preferentially in activated CD38+ CD4+ T cells in association with activation of HIV-1uninfected CD4+ T cells that may amplify viral infection. That CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 replicated only in the few tissues that were enriched in CD27+ CD28+ effector memory CD4+ T cells, if translatable to tissue in vivo, could in part explain the selection of R5 viruses during transmission. Still other human cervical explant studies were conducted by Shattock and colleagues . This work characterized cellular factors involved in HIV-1 entry and identified potential therapeutic agents that block infection . In this model, blockade of CD4 or CCR5/CXCR4 prevented localized mucosal infection and trafficking by dendritic cells.
A Population Bottleneck To Hiv
The stimulus to a more focused examination of the genotype and phenotypic properties of the viruses that initiate new HIV-1 infections was prompted by a report by
HIV-1 transmission model. HIV-1 virions that breach the mucosa may have different fates. Empirical measurements of virus replication and diversification, together with a mathematical model of random virus evolution, allow for a precise molecular identification of transmitted/founder viruses that are responsible for productive clinical infection . R0 is the reproductive ratio. R0> 1 leads to productive clinical infection, whereas R0< 1 results in an extinguished infection.
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How Long Does The Hiv Virus Live On A Razor Blade
Once exposed to air, any blood left behind on a razor blade dries out. This breaks down the environment that HIV may have been contained in. The traces of blood that might be left behind on a blade are small, accelerating the drying process.
It’s also important to know is that whereas scientists have found blood on razor blades to pose a risk for hepatitis transmission, it has never been an issue in relation to HIV. For hepatitis C, there have been cases where people living in the same household have shared razor blades and have passed on hepatitis in this way. This has never happened with HIV.
As there are other bacterial and viral infections, including hepatitis, which can occasionally be transmitted through sharing razors, it may be prudent to avoid doing so — but out of a general concern for hygiene, rather than a specific concern about HIV.
How Hiv Can Spread
The most common ways people contract HIV in the United States are through sharing equipment when injecting drugs and having anal or vaginal sex without barrier contraceptives. Anal sex poses a higher risk than vaginal sex, as there is a greater chance of tissue damage.
Although it is less common, HIV may pass to an infant during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
In extremely rare cases, HIV may spread if blood comes into contact with an open wound. There is a chance of this occurring if partners engage in open-mouth kissing, and both have bleeding gums or open sores within the mouth.
However, saliva that does not contain blood cannot transmit HIV. People cannot get HIV from closed-mouth or cheek kissing.
People can reduce or eliminate the chance of contracting HIV by using barrier contraceptives or taking preventive HIV therapy, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis .
PrEP is a pill that a person can take once a day to minimize the chance of contracting HIV. It may be helpful for those who:
- have a partner with HIV
- have a partner with an unknown HIV status
- have multiple partners
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How Long Can Hiv Virus Survive On A Razor Blade
HIV basically cannot survive outside the human body for long. The main transmission risk is from direct contact with infectious fluids. Drying of fluids dramatically decreases the infectivity. In laboratory studies with high concentrations of HIV, the amount of live virus was reduced to 90-99% after a few hours.
If I Get Infected Fluid From An Hiv
No, HIV is not always passed on from someone living with HIV. There are lots of reasons why this is the case. For example, if the HIV-positive person is on effective treatment it will reduce the amount of HIV in their body. If a doctor confirms that the virus has reached undetectable levels it means there is no risk of passing it on.
If youre concerned that youve been exposed to HIV you may be eligible to take post-exposure prophylaxis , which stops the virus from becoming an infection. However its not available everywhere and has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
Its really important to;take a HIV test;every time;you think you have been at risk of HIV.
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How Do You Get Hiv From Semen Or Vaginal Fluid
Body fluids including semen and vaginal secretions can contain HIV. If a person has HIV and a detectable viral load, HIV can passed on to someone if their semen or vaginal secretions get into the body of a sexual partner during vaginal or anal sex.
If a man has HIV and a detectable viral load, one of his body fluids where the virus is found is his semen.
If he has a detectable viral load and his semen gets into the body of his sexual partner during sex, then HIV can get into the other persons bloodstream.
Pre-cum also contains HIV ;this is why there is a risk of infection even if a man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates.
If a woman has HIV and she has a detectable viral load, one of her body fluids where the virus is found is in her vaginal secretions.
If these come into contact with a penis during sex, then HIV could be transmitted. The virus in her secretions can enter through the delicate skin of the penis or foreskin.
How Long Does Hiv Live On Surfaces
HIV does not live for long enough on surfaces to infect anyone, according to AIDS Vancouver Island, a community-based AIDS service organization. HIV dies fairly quickly when outside of the body and in contact with oxygen, making the disease not transmittable via toilet seats and other public surface where the virus may have contacted.
HIV is transmitted through infected blood or sex fluids entering the bloodstream, according to AIDS Vancouver Island. While HIV can live inside the body in semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk, blood, and brain and spinal cord fluid, it does not live in saliva, sweat, tears, urine, feces or vomit. Even if someone comes in contact with traces of infected blood or sex fluids in the environment, the risk for contraction of HIV is negligible, as the virus cannot survive outside of the body.
HIV is most commonly transmitted through unprotected sex, sharing needles and occupational exposure with an infected person, AIDS Vancouver Island states. Because HIV cannot be transmitted through surface contact, there is no risk in activities such as going to the gym, sharing food and drinks, using public toilets, sharing bedding or clothing, or kissing, hugging or touching a person infected with HIV. HIV can survive outside the body in a vacuum-sealed environment such as inside an injection needle.
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Hiv Is Not Easily Transmitted In The Environment
Scientists and medical authorities agree that HIV does not survive well in the environment, making the possibility of environmental transmission remote. HIV is found in varying concentrations or amounts in blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk, saliva and tears. To obtain data on the survival of HIV, laboratory studies have required the use of artificially high concentrations of laboratory-grown virus. Although these unnatural concentrations of HIV can be kept alive for days or even weeks under precisely controlled and limited laboratory conditions, CDC studies have shown that drying of even these high concentrations of HIV reduces the amount of infectious virus by 90 to 99 percent within several hours.;
Can You Get Hiv Through Oral Sex
The risk of HIV from oral sex is very small unless you or your partner have large open sores on the genital area or bleeding gums/sores in your mouth.
There is only a slightly increased risk if a woman being given oral sex is HIV-positive and is menstruating. However, you can always use a dental dam to eliminate these risks.
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How Long Can Germs Survive On Surfaces
April 29, 2020 by Michael EdwardsLast updated on: April 29, 2020
More specifically, how long do bacteria and viruses live on surfaces at home under normal interior temperatures? Its complicated. Some microbes could survive on household surfaces like telephones, door handles, countertops, and stair railings for centuries if left undisturbed. But most dont.
Humid homes are better hosts to most infectious microbes. Bacteria and viruses cannot live on surfaces with a humidity of less than 10 percent.
Speaking of spores, some types of mold can grow on almost any surface in the home. Mold grows best when there is a lot of moisture, but there is no way to rid your home of all molds. Even if you could, mold spores are practically indestructible, though lower humidity will help keep spores from growing into mold.
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Experts recommend home humidity be less than 60, but we recommend below 40 for a home thats already moldy and potentially causing or exacerbating illness.
Candida albicans;as the most important nosocomial fungal pathogen can survive up to 4 months on surfaces. Persistence of other yeasts, such as;Torulopsis glabrata, was described to be similar or shorter .
Can You Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion
Receiving a blood transfusion or other products made from blood is safe in the UK as all blood products have been screened for infections such as HIV since 1985.
In countries that dont have strict checks on the safety of their blood supply, receiving contaminated blood can pass the virus on. This can also happen in countries that dont screen other blood products, organs or sperm.
Giving blood has never been a risk.
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How Long Does Hiv Survive In Water
;Answered by: ;Dr Anuj Sharma;; |;World Health Organization, Country Office for India, New Delhi
Q:;If HIV-infected blood is mixed with water or some other fluid, then how long does the virus survive?
Human immunodeficiency virus can survive outside the human body for several weeks,with virus survival being influenced by the virus titre , volume of blood, ambient temperature, exposure to sunlight and humidity. HIV-1 viability in blood slowly decays and the reduction in viability is more rapid when there is less blood and a lower titre of virus in the blood and when the temperature is higher. HIV cannot survive outside the body unless it is sealed within a container. Therefore, a pin -prick, even if it were tainted with HIV, would be an extremely inefficient means of transmission of infection. Health care workers who are pricked with needles and medical instruments have a very low rate of infection . Viable HIV-1 can be recovered from blood in syringes even after periods of storage in excess of 1 month.HIV has been isolated from blood, semen and other body fluids from infected individuals as both free virions and from infected cells .There are reports of survival of cell-free HIV in effluent water <12 hours followed by a reduction in titre 1- to 2-log in 24-48 hours.The infectivity of cell-associated HIV reduces rapidly after exposure to distilled water.However, a sub-population of cell-associated HIV may remain infectious for up to 96 hours in distilled water.