Thursday, June 16, 2022

How Many Hiv Positive In Usa

Stigma In The Early Years

CAN HIV POSITIVE NURSE WORK IN USA?

When the first few cases of AIDS emerged, people believed the disease was only contracted by men who had sex with men. The CDC called this infection GRIDS, or gay-related immunodeficiency syndrome. Shortly after, the CDC published a case definition calling the disease AIDS.

Public response was negative in the early years of the epidemic. In 1983, a doctor in New York was threatened with eviction, leading to the first AIDS discrimination lawsuit.

Bathhouses across the country closed due to high-risk sexual activity. Some schools also barred children with HIV from attending.

In 1987, the United States placed a travel ban on visitors and immigrants with HIV. President Obama lifted this ban in 2010.

The United States government resisted funding needle exchange programs due to the war on drugs. NEPs were shown to be effective at reducing HIV transmission. Some believe that this resistance accounts for 4,400 to 9,700 avoidable transmissions.

A Timeline Of Hiv And Aids

    The HIV.gov Timeline reflects the history of the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic from the first reported cases in 1981 to the presentwhere advances in HIV prevention, care, and treatment offer hope for a long, healthy life to people who are living with, or at risk for, HIV and AIDS.

    View a timeline of the current Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Please visit HIVHistory.org for a timeline of the global and domestic response to the HIV epidemic.

    People With Diagnosed Hiv In The Us And Dependent Areas By Region Of Residence 2019*

    *Rates per 100,000 people.

    a American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.b In the 50 states and the District of Columbia.c The term male-to-male sexual contact is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality.d Includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use .

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    The Future Of Hiv In The Usa

    The United States will become a place where new HIV infections are rare, and when they do occur, every person, regardless of age, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, or socio-economic circumstance, will have unfettered access to high quality, life-extending care, free from stigma and discrimination.

    – The US National HIV/AIDS Strategys mission statement144

    In order to break the cycle of transmission among key affected populations, increasing the impact of targeted HIV prevention and treatment campaigns towards people in these groups is vital. Expanding access and uptake to HIV testing, and increasing the number of people who are aware of their status and who are using condoms, will also go a long way to controlling the epidemic in the USA.

    However, unless the complex set of economic and socio-economic factors that drive these groups risks to HIV are addressed including discrimination, stigma and poverty it is likely that HIV will continue to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men, African Americans/black people, Latino/Hispanic men, transgender women, prisoners and people who use drugs.

    In addition, the rollback of certain LGBTI rights and inadequate sex education may support HIV-related stigma, already so damaging to Americas HIV response, grow and thrive.

    Impact Across The Country

    New Infograph Reveals Shocking HIV Statistics
    • Although HIV has been reported in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. dependencies, the impact of the epidemic is not uniformly distributed.
    • Ten states accounted for about two-thirds of HIV diagnoses among adults and adolescents in 2019 .31 Regionally, the South accounted for more than half of HIV diagnoses in 2019.32
    • Rates of HIV diagnoses per 100,000 provide a different measure of the epidemic√Ęs impact, since they reflect the concentration of diagnoses after accounting for differences in population size across states. The District of Columbia has the highest rate in the nation, compared to states, nearly 3 times the national rate and Georgia was the state with highest rate , twice that of the national rate.33,34 Nine of the top 10 states by rate are in the South.35
    • New HIV diagnoses are concentrated primarily in large U.S. metropolitan areas , with Miami, Orlando, and Atlanta topping the list of the areas most heavily burdened.36
    Table 1: Top Ten States/Areas by Number and Rate of New HIV Diagnoses , 2019
    State
    U.S. Rate13.2
    CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019 vol. 32. May 2021.

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    Civil Societys Role In The Usa

    Freedom of expression in the USA has allowed political activism has been a key part of the countrys HIV response since the very beginning.

    In the early days of the response, HIV activism was closely associated with gay communities in the USA . To some extent, grassroots activism in many parts of the USA declined as antiretroviral treatment became more available in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. During the early 1990s, activists shifted their focus more into providing HIV prevention and treatment programmes for people most affected by HIV.117 However, concerns over the rollback of sexual and reproductive health rights, and rights for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex under President Trump has seen a resurgence of activism in recent years.118

    There is a systematic and sinister erasing of LGBTQ protections and policies happening at the hands of this Administration. Now more than ever, its vital LGBTQ Americans and marginalised communities raise their voices and tell their stories. The LGBTQ community will not go into hiding, and we will not be silenced.

    – Zeke Stokes, Chief Programs Officer at GLAAD.119

    Risk Factors Contributing To The Black Hiv Rate

    This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

    Access to healthcare is very important in preventing and treating HIV/AIDS. It can be affected by health insurance which is available to people through private insurers, Medicare and Medicaid which leaves some people still vulnerable. Historically, African-Americans have faced discrimination when it comes to receiving healthcare.

    Homosexuality is viewed negatively in the African-American Community. “In a qualitative study of 745 racially and ethnic diverse undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university, Calzo and Ward determined that parents of African-American participants discussed homosexuality more frequently than the parents of other respondents. In analyses of the values communicated, Calzo and Ward reported that Black parents offered greater indication that homosexuality is perverse and unnatural”.

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    Clinical Care Of Women With Hiv

    HIV-infected women may be at increased risk for medical problems and metabolic changes. Studies have shown that HIV-positive women were more likely to develop genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and were at increased risk for viral infections . According to one study, HIV-positive women were 80% more likely to be anemic than HIV-positive men . Compared with HIV-negative controls, women with HIV were more likely to have elevated triglycerides and insulin levels and decreased bone mineral density .

    Determining when to initiate antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected women is based on CD4+ T cell count . Because no gender difference exists for initiating or applying antiretroviral drug regimens, the guidelines for treating women are the same as those for treating men. Overall, drug efficacy does not differ by gender in randomized clinical trials.

    For many reasons, women with HIV may avoid HIV testing and care. Often, women may be stigmatized and endure discrimination because of their HIV status. Women are often the primary caregivers for other family members, which may lead to avoiding or delaying testing and care. Economic dependence on a spouse or significant other may also play a role in whether a woman seeks testing and care. Mistrust of the healthcare system may also exist. Depression or domestic violence may also affect a woman√Ęs ability to seek needed care for HIV infection.

    Prisoners Hiv And Aids

    2020 Vision: Addressing AIDS/HIV in America

    KEY POINTS

    • Sharing needles for drug use, the unavailability of condoms and rape are persistent issues within prison environments which increase the risk of HIV transmission.
    • Lack of HIV prevention and harm reduction programmes increase the risk of HIV transmission among prisoners.
    • For prisoners living with HIV, adherence to antiretroviral treatment is often difficult and the everyday stresses of living in a prison can compromise an already weakened immune system, leading to poor health and risk of co-infections.
    • Re-thinking the number of people sent to prison for treatable substance use disorders would reduce HIV transmission and improve lives.

    Explore this page to find out more about why prisoners are at risk of HIV, preventing HIV among prisoners, treatment, care and support and the way forward.

    Every year, around 30 million people are in prisons or other closed settings for a period of time and it is estimated that around 11 million people are incarcerated at any given time.12

    An estimated one in five people who are in prison are there for drug-related offences the vast majority of whom are on possession-only charges.3 In a comprehensive review of global prison trends, Penal Reform International finds over-incarceration and punishment of people who use drugs exists in every region of the world.4

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    How Is The Hiv Care Continuum Being Used

    Federal, state and local health departments, community-based organizations, health care providers, and people with HIV continue to use the HIV care continuum to measure progress toward HIV goals as well as to pinpoint where gaps in services may exist in connecting individuals with HIV to sustained, quality care and treatment. Knowing where drop-offs are most pronounced, and for what populations, helps policymakers, public health officials, and health care providers implement system improvements to support all persons with HIV so they are able to successfully navigate the continuum and achieve and maintain viral suppression.

    Emerging Issues In Hiv

    As the number of people living with HIV increases and more people become aware of their HIV status, prevention strategies that are targeted specifically toward HIV-infected people are becoming more important. Prevention work with people living with HIV focuses on:

    • Linking to and staying in HIV medical care, starting treatment, and getting virally suppressed
    • Increasing the availability of ongoing HIV prevention interventions
    • Providing prevention services for their partners

    It is also important to foster wider availability of comprehensive services for people living with HIV and their partners through partnerships among health departments, community-based organizations, and health care and social service providers.

    Public perception in the United States about the seriousness of HIV has declined in recent years. There is evidence that risky behaviors may be increasing among uninfected people, especially gay and bisexual men. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a way to prevent becoming infected with HIV by taking a pill. When taken consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce acquisition of HIV among people who are at substantial risk by up to 92%.6 Ongoing media campaignsparticularly those emphasizing HIV testingand HIV prevention interventions for uninfected people who engage in risky behaviors are critical. Efforts to diagnose people infected with HIV, get them virally suppressed, and provide prevention and support services are also vital.

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    Antiretroviral Treatment In Eswatini

    In 2018, 86% of people living with HIV in Eswatini were receiving ART. Significantly more women living with HIV were on treatment than HIV positive men .78Coverage is lower among children, with 76% of 0 to 14 year-olds living with HIV on treatment.79

    ART has been free in Eswatini since 2003.80 In 2014 the country adopted World Health Organization guidelines recommending that anyone diagnosed with HIV be started on ART regardless of their CD4 count . This approach, known as treat all or test and treat, means thousands more people are eligible for treatment than before.81

    Adherence to treatment is generally good, with over 95% of adults and children known to be on ART 12 months after starting it.82 As a result, 94% of adults diagnosed with HIV and on treatment are virally suppressed. Overall, this equates to 81% of all people living with HIV in the country being virally suppressed.83

    In 2016, Eswatini conducted an HIV drug resistance survey. This found 10.6% of people who had not previously been on ART were resistant to a common type of antiretrovirals known as non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors . WHO recommends that, if this rate is more than 10%, alternative regimens should be offered. In response, in 2019 the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief began supporting Eswatini to move all those with NNRTI resistance to Dolutegravir-based regimens.84

    CASE STUDY: Understanding how stigma affects treatment initiation

    Access To Care & Treatment

    Insights into a new class of HIV retroviral drugs
    • There are a number of sources of care and treatment for women with and at risk for HIV in the U.S., including government programs such as Medicaid, Medicare, and the Ryan White Program for those who are eligible.
    • Looking across the spectrum of access to care, from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression, reveals missed opportunities for reaching women. Among women living with HIV in the U.S., 9 in 10 were aware of their HIV status however, many were tested late, many years after acquiring HIV, suggesting missed prevention opportunities. Moreover, only 65% have been linked to care and just 51% are retained in regular care and are virally suppressed.57
    • In 2017, among women who are HIV positive, 22% were tested for HIV late in their illness that is, simultaneously diagnosed with HIV and AIDS a similar share as men .58
    • Pre-exposure prophylaxis , a highly effective medication, prevents acquisition of HIV, but uptake has been slow among women in the U.S., suggesting potential barriers to the provision of PrEP for women. In 2016, women accounted for only 4.7% of PrEP users in the U.S.59

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    Hiv And Aids In The United States Of America

    KEY POINTS

    • More than one million people are living with HIV in the United States of America one in seven are unaware of their status.
    • The HIV epidemic is driven by sexual contact and is concentrated among certain key populations, in particular gay men and other men who have sex with men.
    • African Americans are worse affected by HIV across all key population groups.
    • Despite condoms being widely available, use is falling, even among people who are at heightened risk of acquiring HIV.
    • The USA is experiencing a public health emergency in the form of an opioid epidemic which is threatening the gains made on reducing HIV among people who use drugs.
    • Stigma remains a huge barrier to preventing HIV, and is linked to low testing rates, as well as poor adherence to treatment, particularly among young people.

    Explore this page to find out more about the , ,, and the.

    Around 1.1 million people are living with HIV in the United States of America . Nearly one in seven of these people are unaware they have HIV.1 The size of the epidemic is relatively small compared to the overall population but is heavily concentrated among several . In 2017, 66% of annual new HIV infections occurred among gay men and other men who have sex with men 2 among whom African American/black men are most affected, followed by Latino/Hispanic men. Heterosexual African American/black women, young people and transgender women of all ethnicities are also disproportionately affected.

    Key Points: Hiv Diagnoses

    Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men b are the population most affected by HIV in the U.S.:

    • MSM accounted for 69% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States.c
    • From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, Black/African American MSM accounted for more than 36% and White MSM accounted for more than 30% of HIV diagnoses among MSM annually.
    • In 2019, Black/African American MSM accounted for 26% of new HIV diagnoses and 37.9% of diagnoses among all MSM.
    • In 2019, Hispanic/Latinod MSM made up 22% of new HIV diagnoses and 32.5% of diagnosis among all MSM.

    The number of HIV diagnoses decreased among MSM overall, but trends varied by race/ethnicity. From 2015 through 2019:

    • Among MSM aged 1324 years, HIV diagnoses decreased or were stable among all racial/ethnic groups.
    • HIV diagnoses increased among American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander MSM, ages 24 and older.

    Transgender people accounted for approximately 2% of new HIV diagnoses in 2019.

    • From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the number of diagnoses of HIV infection for transgender adults and adolescents increased.
    • In 2019, among transgender adults and adolescents, the largest percentage of diagnoses of HIV infections was for transgender male-to-female people.

    Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinx continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by HIV:

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    Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease

    Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.

    The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.

    In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.

    According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.

    Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.

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