The Future Of Hiv In Eswatini
In recent years Eswatini has made great progress in tackling HIV, particularly around the areas of treatment, PMTCT and reducing HIV incidence overall.
However, the high HIV prevalence among the general population means the government will need to tackle many of the social and cultural problems that hamper the response. These include poverty, gender inequality and risky cultural practices that contribute to a high risk of HIV infection.120
Effective prevention initiatives and a greater focus on improving access to HIV testing facilities are also urgently needed, especially for men, young people and criminalised populations. The epidemic among key affected populations, particularly female sex workers and men who have sex with men, also needs to be addressed.
ART coverage shows adolescent boys and girls and men are lagging behind. Without increased testing and treatment enrolment among these groups, HIV incidence will not decline as quickly as anticipated.121 In addition, the decline in the proportion of pregnant women who are HIV-positive accessing ART must be reversed, or important gains is this area risk being lost.
The government needs to work harder to collect data and understand the complex needs of population groups most affected by HIV in order to develop adequate HIV programming. The dual epidemic of TB and HIV also remains a cause for concern.
Is The World Making Progress In Its Fight Against Hiv/aids
The 1990s saw a substantial increase in the number of people infected with HIV and dying of AIDS.
Between 1996 and 2001 more than 3 million people were infected with HIV ever year. Since then the number of new infections began to decline and in 2017 it was reduced to below 2 million. The lowest number of new infections since 1990.
The number of AIDS-related deaths increased throughout the 1990s and reached a peak in 2005, 2006 when in both years close to 2 million people died. Since then the annual number of deaths from AIDS declined as well and was since halved. 2017 was the first year since the peak in which fewer than 1 million people died from AIDS.
The chart also shows the continuing increase in the number of people living with HIV. The rate of increase has slowed down compared to the 1990s, but the absolute number is at the highest ever with more than 36 million people globally living with HIV.
Antiretroviral Treatment In Eswatini
In 2018, 86% of people;living with HIV in Eswatini were receiving ART. Significantly more women living with HIV were on treatment than HIV positive men .78Coverage is lower among children, with 76% of 0 to 14 year-olds living with HIV on treatment.79
ART has been free in Eswatini since 2003.80 In 2014 the country adopted World Health Organization guidelines recommending that anyone diagnosed with HIV be started on ART regardless of their CD4 count . This approach, known as treat all or test and treat, means thousands more people are eligible for treatment than before.81
Adherence to treatment is generally good, with over 95% of adults and children known to be on ART 12 months after starting it.82 As a result, 94% of adults diagnosed with HIV and on treatment are virally suppressed. Overall, this equates to 81% of all people living with HIV in the country being virally suppressed.83
In 2016, Eswatini conducted an HIV drug resistance survey. This found 10.6% of people who had not previously been on ART were resistant to a common type of antiretrovirals known as non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors . WHO recommends that, if this rate is more than 10%, alternative regimens should be offered. In response, in 2019 the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief began supporting Eswatini to move all those with NNRTI resistance to Dolutegravir-based regimens.84
CASE STUDY: Understanding how stigma affects treatment initiation
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Is Canada Reaching The Global 90
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization have established a global health sector strategy on HIV to help eliminate AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Canada has endorsed this strategy. The strategy can be encapsulated in the phrase 90-90-90 and consists of the following targets for the year 2020:
- 90% of people with HIV know their infection status
- 90% of people diagnosed with HIV receive HIV treatment
- 90% of people taking treatment have an undetectable viral load
Canada is approaching the 90% goal for awareness of HIV status and the 90% goal for treatment and has surpassed the 90% goal for achieving viral suppression. Of the estimated 62,050 people with HIV in Canada in 2018, an estimated:
- 87% were diagnosed and aware they had HIV
- 85% of those who were diagnosed were on treatment
- 94% of those on treatment had achieved viral suppression
This means that 70% of all Canadians with HIV had achieved viral suppression in 2018. If all 90-90-90 measures had been reached, 73% of all Canadians with HIV would have achieved viral suppression.
Statistics Canada’s Canadian Mortality Database
Under a federal/provincial/territorial agreement, all deaths, regardless of cause, must be registered with the provincial and territorial registrars of the offices of vital statistics.Footnote 9 The central registry in each province and territory provides data from death registration forms to the Health Statistics Division of Statistics Canada, which maintains the Canadian Mortality Database, a cumulative record of death statistics. Information on cause of death is coded using the International Classification of Diseases .
The 9th revision is used for deaths that occurred between 1979 and 1999; codes 042-044 include deaths attributed to HIV infection. The 10th revision is used for deaths that occurred from 2000 onward; codes B20-B24 include deaths attributed to HIV infection. Data are not comparable between the two coding systems because of changes in coding definitions.
From 1987 to 1999, data on mortality due to HIV infection were obtained using the Data Extraction and Analysis system . DEXA is a web-enabled SAS-based application that facilitates access to centralized data holdings in PHAC, which include vital statistics from Statistics Canada. Data from 2000 to 2011 were obtained from the Canadian Mortality Database, Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada .
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National Hiv/aids Surveillance System
The National HIV/AIDS Surveillance System is a passive case-based surveillance system that collates data submitted to PHAC voluntarily from all provincial and territorial public health authorities. The provinces and territories provide the data using the national case reporting form or using an electronic dataset transmission.
The data for HIV and AIDS are maintained in two unlinked databases. The HIV surveillance database consists of non-nominal data on people diagnosed with HIV infection including, but not limited to, age, sex, race/ethnicity, country of birth, and risks associated with the transmission of HIV . Cases reported to PHAC must meet the national case definitionFootnote 3 which requires laboratory evidence of HIV infection through a confirmed, repeatedly reactive screening test for HIV antibody in a person over 15 months of age or for cases with history of non-maternal-fetal HIV transmission. The AIDS surveillance database captures non-nominal data on people diagnosed with AIDS and includes, in addition to the information included in the HIV surveillance database, the disease indicative of AIDS and vital status for the AIDS case .
With respect to AIDS reporting, the following changes that affect the completeness of AIDS surveillance data have occurred over time:
Representativeness And Limitations Of Data
HIV infection surveillance data represents confidential reports of HIV infection and AIDS diagnoses, though not all persons with an HIV infection. The distinction here is that HIV diagnosis data represent the earliest date of diagnosis reported to the ODH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program. The earliest date reported may not be the earliest date an individual became aware of their HIV infection. Individuals may have previously tested anonymously or were diagnosed out-of-state prior to being confidentially tested and reported to Ohio. HIV infection surveillance data may underestimate the level of recently infected persons because some infected persons do not know they are infected as they have not sought testing or have sought testing but did not respond to learn their test results. Reporting of behavioral risk information may not be complete as some persons diagnosed with an HIV infection may be reluctant to disclose their sexual and drug use history.
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Number Of Deaths Due To Hiv/aids
Situation and trends: 680 000 people died of HIV-related illnesses worldwide in 2020. Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy and a declining incidence of HIV infections have led to a steep fall globally in the number of adults and children dying from HIV-related causes. The estimated 680 000 people dying from HIV globally in 2020 were 64% fewer than in 2004 and 47% fewer than in 2010 in spite of a period of substantial population growth in many high burden countries.Nevertheless, there is no room for complacency. Countries need to live up to their commitment to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030 — a target included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015.The drop in HIV-related mortality is especially evident in the regions with the greatest burden of HIV infection, including the WHO African Region, home to over 67% of people dying from HIV-related causes in 2020. An estimated 460 000 people died in the African Region from HIV-related causes in 2020, which indicates that mortality has dropped by almost 48% since 2010.
Rate Of New Infections
Per surveillance reports from UNAIDS,;it;is estimated that there were 38 million people living with HIV globally as of the end of 2019. Of these, approximately 1.7 million were newly infected.
These remain sobering figures, in part because infection rates are not declining at the pace needed to effectively end the epidemic. In fact, between 2010 and 2019, new infections around the world have decreased by about 23%, but a number of “hotspots” around the world experienced an increase.
In Russia and parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the rate of new infections are reported to be increasing due in part to the lack of access to HIV-specific care and treatment.
Meanwhile, in countries like South Africa, which accounts for 7.5 million of the world’s HIV cases, an estimated 200,000 new infections occurred in 2019 despite impressive declines in the previous decade.
Even in the United States, the annual incidence of infections remained stagnant for many years until the widespread use of pre-exposure prophylaxis and other preventive measures gradually reduced the rate from 50,000 in the early part of the century to just under 40,000 today.
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In 2019 It Was Estimated That There Are 105200 People Living With Hiv In The Uk
- 94% of these people are diagnosed, and therefore know that they have HIV. This means that around 1 in 16;people living with HIV in the UK do not know that they have the virus.
- 98% of people diagnosed with HIV in the UK are on treatment, and 97% of those on treatment are virally suppressed which means they cant pass the virus on. Of all the people living with HIV in the UK, 89% are virally suppressed.;
Hiv By The Numbers: Facts Statistics And You
Centers for Disease Control reported the first five known cases of complications from HIV in Los Angeles in June 1981. The previously healthy men had contracted pneumonia, and two died. Today, more than a million Americans have the virus.
Being diagnosed with HIV was once a death sentence. Now, a 20-year-old with HIV who begins treatment early can expect to live to their
of people ages 13 and older with HIV dont know they have it.
An estimated 39,782 Americans were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2016. In that same year, 18,160 individuals living with HIV developed stage 3 HIV, or AIDS. This is in striking contrast to the early days of HIV.
According to the American Federation of AIDS Research, by the end of 1992, 250,000 Americans had developed AIDS, and 200,000 of these had died. By 2004, the number of cases of AIDS reported in the United States closed in on 1 million, with deaths totaling more than 500,000.
diagnosed in the United States in 2016, 2,049 men and 7,529 women contracted the virus. Overall, new diagnoses decreased.
When it comes to , 17,528 of those diagnosed in the United States in 2016 were black, 10,345 were white, and 9,766 were Latino.
Americans in the
- New York
AIDS.gov reports that 36.7 million people worldwide are living with HIV, and 35 million have died since 1981. Additionally, the majority of people with HIV live in developing and moderate-income nations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Tb Deaths For High Burden Countries
Of all the countries that report their TB statistics to the World Health Organisation , there are 22 countries that are referred to as the TB high burden countries.; These countries have been prioritized at a global level since 2000. In 2015 it was decided by WHO that the lists would be revised but that there would still be three lists. Each list would contain 30 countries. There is more about this on the TB high burden countries;page.
The country with the highest estimated number of deaths is India with an estimated 436,000 deaths in HIV negative adults and 9,500 in HIV positive adults. This does though need to be considered in the context of India’s very large population. There is more about TB in India. South Africa has the highest estimated number of HIV positive deaths. There is more about TB in South Africa. There is also more about TB in Pakistan and TB in Brazil.
The following is the estimated mortality from TB for each of the 30 countries in the main high TB burden list.
People With Diagnosed Hiv In The Us And Dependent Areas By Region Of Residence 2019*
*Rates per 100,000 people.
a;American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.b In the 50 states and the District of Columbia.c The term;male-to-male sexual contact;is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality.d Includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use .
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How Have Deaths From Hiv/aids Changed Over Time
Global deaths from HIV/AIDS halved within a decade
The world has made significant progress against HIV/AIDS. Global deaths from AIDS have halved over the past decade.
In the visualization we see the global number of deaths from HIV/AIDS in recent decades this is shown by age group. In the early 2000s 2004 to 2005 global deaths reached their peak at almost 2 million per year.
Driven mostly by the development and availability of antiretroviral therapy , global deaths have halved since then. In 2017, just under one million died from the disease.
You can explore this change for any country or region using the change country toggle on the interactive chart.
HIV/AIDS once accounted for more than 1-in-3 deaths in some countries, but rates are now falling
Global progress on HIV/AIDS has been driven by large improvements in countries which were most affected by the HIV epidemic.
Today the share of deaths remains high: more than 1-in-4 deaths in some countries are caused by HIV/AIDS. But in the past this share was even higher.In the visualization we see the change in the share of deaths from HIV/AIDS over time. From the 1990s through to the early 2000s, it was the cause of greater than 1-in-3 deaths in several countries. In Zimbabwe, it accounted for more than half of annual deaths in the late 1990s.
We see that over the past decade this share has fallen as antiretoviral treatment has become more widely available.
Children living with HIV
New HIV infections of children
How Does Cdc Know The Number Of People Living With Hiv If Some Of Those People Are Unaware Of Their Status
CDC estimates the number of people living with HIV by using a scientific model. This model helps CDC estimate the number of new HIV infections and how many people are infected but dont know it. HIV prevalence is the number of people living with HIV infection at a given time, such as at the end of a given year. More information on HIV prevalence.
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How Many People Die From Hiv Each Year
People do not die from HIV infection. HIV is the disease thatleads to AIDS. It is the AIDS disease that is a killer. To be evenmore exact you don’t really die from AIDS but rather AIDS relatedillnesses. These are illnesses that your immune system wouldnormally fight off but cannot because AIDS has basically destroyedyour immune system so it cannot function normally.
The number of people that die from AIDS related complicationsevery year is just a bit over 3 million.
I have lived with HIV for over 25 years; no one dies of HIV. Asstated above someone with HIV dies of an underlying cause such aspneumonia, Swine Flu, or cancer.
Hiv Education And Approach To Sex Education
Young people in Eswatini have poor knowledge about how to prevent HIV. Just 49% of young women and 51% of young men demonstrated adequate knowledge on this subject in 2014. 55
This underscores the need to offer comprehensive sexuality education for young people, both in and out of school. A Comprehensive Lifeskills Education Programme is offered in all secondary schools in the country. Through the Ministry of Sports Culture and Youth Affairs and its partners, the CLSE concept has been adapted at community level, leading to greater involvement and reach for young people who are out of school. For example, part of this intervention has seen HIV prevention messages and information about gender-based violence disseminated during traditional events that bring young people before the King .56
The Ministry of Healths Health Promotion Programme also runs radio and television shows about HIV. A 2016 survey found radio is a more effective medium for raising awareness, with 90% of respondents aware of HIV radio programmes but only 21% aware of television programmes, mainly due to a lack of access to television.57
CASE STUDY: Keeping adolescent girls in school to reduce HIV
The trial found that those receiving the interventions were 37% less likely to acquire HIV. In contrast, study participants not in education or training were 190% more likely to acquire HIV during the study period. Overall, the programme reduced HIV incidence among study participants by 21%.61
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