Rate Of New Infections
According to UNAIDS, around 38 million people are living with HIV around the world. in 2020, approximately 1.7 million were newly diagnosed.
These remain sobering figures, in part because infection rates are not declining at the pace needed to end the pandemic. While the rate of new infections dropped by around 23% between 2010 and 2019, a number of hotspots around the globe experienced an increase.
In Russia and parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the rate of new infections has increased due in part to the lack of access to HIV-specific care and treatment. Also, unlike in the United States and Europe, injecting drug use is one of the primary causes of infection.
Meanwhile, in countries like South Africa, which accounts for 7.5 million of the worlds HIV cases, over 200,000 new infections were reported in 2019 despite significant declines in the previous decade.
There are several reasons for this. Infection rates remain among women 15 to 24 in many African countries due to gender inequality, poverty, rape, and other factors. HIV testing among younger Africans is also lower, translating to higher rates of HIV-related deaths.
With declining economic support from richer nations , public health experts worry that infection and death rates may once again take an upswing in many developing countries.
Mental Health: A Major Issue Affecting Hiv In Lgbtq Communities
LGBTQ people are disproportionately at risk for a variety of mental health issues, including major depression, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. These issues can lead to detrimental outcomes, like drug use, suicideand, of course, HIV.
Poor LGBTQ mental health comes from a myriad of factors. Some are societal, including the stigma and shame associated in some communities with having a queer or transgender identity. Others are interpersonal, like the need to stay in the closet or the fear of being outed. Often, queer and transgender children are told that they are not good at performing their assigned gender, which can lead them to internalize a sense of failure early in their lives.
Most of the research studying LGBTQ people and mental health centers around gay and bisexual men. Researchers tend to consider mental illness and HIV to be a syndemic in gay and bisexual men, meaning they intertwine with one anothereach epidemic perpetuates the other. Depression, trauma, and substance use are all linked to HIV acquisition risk in different ways.
In addition, as with so many other health disparities in the U.S., racism worsens the impact of mental health issues on people living with HIV.
Preventing The Transmission Of Hiv
Its important for people especially those who have a high risk of contracting HIV to be tested frequently. Starting HIV treatment early is important for best outcomes. Approximately 44 percent of people ages 18 to 64 in the United States have reported receiving an HIV test. HIV education is mandatory in 34 states and in Washington, D.C.
From a public health perspective, preventing transmission of HIV is as important as treating those who have it. There has been remarkable progress in that regard. For example, modern-day antiretroviral therapy can reduce the chances of an HIV-positive person transmitting the virus by 100 percent, if the therapy is taken consistently to reduce virus to an undetectable level in the blood.
There has been a sharp decline in transmission rates in the United States since the mid-1980s. While men who have sex with men represent only 4 percent of the male population in this country, they comprise around 70 percent of those who newly contracted HIV.
Condom use remains an inexpensive, cost-effective first line of defense against HIV. A pill known as Truvada, or pre-exposure prophylaxis , also offers protection. A person without HIV can protect themselves from contracting the virus by taking this once-a-day pill. When taken properly, PrEP can reduce the risk of transmission by more than
Of that amount, $6.6 billion is for aid abroad. This expenditure represents less than 1 percent of the federal budget.
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Tuberculosis Among People Living With Hiv
Tuberculosis is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV. Death due to tuberculosis still remains high among people living with HIV, however the number of deaths is decreasing. Most of the global mortality due to TB among those with HIV is from cases in Sub-Saharan Africa.
In the charts here we see the number of tuberculosis patients who tested positive for HIV the number receiving antiretroviral therapy and the number of TB-related deaths among those living with HIV.
People who use ART are living longer
ART not only saves lives but also gives a chance for people living with HIV/AIDS to live long lives. Without ART very few infected people survive beyond ten years.3
Today, a person living in a high-income country who started ART in their twenties can expect to live for another 46 years that is well into their 60s.4
ART prevents new HIV infections
There is considerable evidence to show that people who use ART are less likely to transmit HIV to another person.7 ART reduces the number of viral particles present in an HIV-positive individual and therefore, the likelihood of passing the virus to another person decreases.
We need to increase ART coverage
Hiv By The Numbers: Facts Statistics And You
Centers for Disease Control reported the first five known cases of complications from HIV in Los Angeles in June 1981. The previously healthy men had contracted pneumonia, and two died. Today, more than a million Americans have the virus.
Being diagnosed with HIV was once a death sentence. Now, a 20-year-old with HIV who begins treatment early can expect to live to their
of people ages 13 and older with HIV dont know they have it.
An estimated 39,782 Americans were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2016. In that same year, 18,160 individuals living with HIV developed stage 3 HIV, or AIDS. This is in striking contrast to the early days of HIV.
According to the American Federation of AIDS Research, by the end of 1992, 250,000 Americans had developed AIDS, and 200,000 of these had died. By 2004, the number of cases of AIDS reported in the United States closed in on 1 million, with deaths totaling more than 500,000.
diagnosed in the United States in 2016, 2,049 men and 7,529 women contracted the virus. Overall, new diagnoses decreased.
When it comes to , 17,528 of those diagnosed in the United States in 2016 were black, 10,345 were white, and 9,766 were Latino.
Americans in the
- New York
AIDS.gov reports that 36.7 million people worldwide are living with HIV, and 35 million have died since 1981. Additionally, the majority of people with HIV live in developing and moderate-income nations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Incidence And Prevalence Of Hiv/aids In The United States
In August 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the first national HIV incidence estimates using new methodology that more directly measures the number of new HIV infections in the United States . On the basis of a biological marker of recent HIV infection, the CDC used a stratified extrapolation approach to estimate the HIV incidence among persons aged 13 years in 22 states in 2006. The total was extrapolated to all 50 states and the District of Columbia by applying the HIV-incidence-to-AIDS ratio in the 22 states to the number of AIDS cases in the non-incidence areas. Based on the stratified extrapolation approach, the estimated incidence of HIV in the United States for 2006 was 56,300 new infections, with a 95% confidence interval of 48,20064,500. This number is 40% higher than the CDCs previous estimate of 40,000 new infections per year, which was based on less precise methods.
Estimated number of new human immunodeficiency virus infections, extended back-calculation model, 19772006. Estimates are for 2-year intervals during 19801987, 3-year intervals during 19771979 and 19882002, and a 4-year interval for 20032006 .
New Hiv Infection Rates
New HIV infection rates have dropped over the years. The world has seen a 52% reduction in new HIV infections since the epidemic peaked in 1997. In 1997, 3 million people reported new HIV infections, compared with only 2.1 million in 2010 and 1.5 million in 2020.
This is because people in resource-poor countries now have significantly improved access to HIV treatments. Preventing vertical transmission of HIV, which refers to when the infection passes from a birthing parent to their fetus, has also contributed to lowering transmission rates. Additionally, the medical community has added new HIV prevention tools and methods.
However, the unequal distribution of HIV treatment and prevention strategies still leaves many vulnerable populations behind. Important barriers to improving access to care include stigma, discrimination, social inequities, and exclusion.
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, many people with HIV or at risk of HIV still did not have access to prevention, care, and treatment. The pandemic caused a greater disturbance in the distribution of health services in many countries. Some countries report a 75% disruption of HIV services.
According to UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the benefits of providing HIV services outweigh the risk of dying from COVID-19.
HIV spreads through contact with bodily fluids from people who have the virus. Bodily fluids that carry HIV include:
It is not possible to contract HIV through:
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Pop Culture Opens Up Conversations
In 1985, actor Rock Hudson became the first major public figure to announce he had AIDS. Before he died that same year, he donated $250,000 to help establish the organization later known as amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. Friend and actress Elizabeth Taylor was the national chairperson until her death in 2011.
In 1987, Princess Diana also made international headlines after she shook hands with an HIV-positive man.
Pop culture icon Freddie Mercury, singer for the band Queen, passed away from AIDS-related illness in 1991. Since then, many other public figures have revealed that theyre HIV-positive, including:
- tennis star Arthur Ashe
- former basketball star and entrepreneur Magic Johnson
- Pedro Zamora, a cast member on MTVs The Real World: San Francisco
- actor Charlie Sheen, who announced his status on national television in 2015
- hairstylist and television personality Jonathan Van Ness
- actor and singer Billy Porter
How Have Deaths From Hiv/aids Changed Over Time
Global deaths from HIV/AIDS halved within a decade
The world has made significant progress against HIV/AIDS. Global deaths from AIDS have halved over the past decade.
In the visualization we see the global number of deaths from HIV/AIDS in recent decades this is shown by age group. In the early 2000s 2004 to 2005 global deaths reached their peak at almost 2 million per year.
Driven mostly by the development and availability of antiretroviral therapy , global deaths have halved since then. In 2017, just under one million died from the disease.
You can explore this change for any country or region using the change country toggle on the interactive chart.
HIV/AIDS once accounted for more than 1-in-3 deaths in some countries, but rates are now falling
Global progress on HIV/AIDS has been driven by large improvements in countries which were most affected by the HIV epidemic.
Today the share of deaths remains high: more than 1-in-4 deaths in some countries are caused by HIV/AIDS. But in the past this share was even higher.In the visualization we see the change in the share of deaths from HIV/AIDS over time. From the 1990s through to the early 2000s, it was the cause of greater than 1-in-3 deaths in several countries. In Zimbabwe, it accounted for more than half of annual deaths in the late 1990s.
We see that over the past decade this share has fallen as antiretoviral treatment has become more widely available.
Children living with HIV
New HIV infections of children
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Hiv Statistics By State 2022
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is a virus that weakens a persons immune system by attacking cells that fight off infection, specifically a persons CD4 cells. HIV is spread through body fluids such as blood. If HIV goes untreated and advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. Unlike most other viruses, when a person contracts HIV, they have it for life because the human body cannot fight off the virus entirely. HIV, however, can be controlled and its progression can be slowed significantly. There are three stages of HIV: acute HIV infection, clinical latency , and AIDS.
Who Benefits From Preexposure Prophylaxis
People who may benefit from preexposure prophylaxis include anyone who:
- is in a relationship with an HIV-positive person who has a detectable viral load
- has sex with men and women
- regularly has sexual partners of unknown HIV status, especially if they inject drugs
- has had anal sex without a condom or barrier method in the past 6 months
- has contracted a sexually transmitted infection in the past 6 months
- has injected drugs, been in drug treatment, or shared needles in the past 6 months
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Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men account for 70% of all new HIV infections in the United States despite only accounting for 2% of the population. According to the 2019 CDC report, around 53% of HIV-associated deaths were are among gay and bisexual men.
Homophobia and stigmatization play a central role in this disparity, discouraging many MSM from seeking HIV testing, treatment, and care. These factors alone translate to a higher death rate.
According to a 2011 study in the American Journal of Public Health, MSM with HIV are 160 times more likely to die from HIV-related complications than men who exclusively engage in vaginal sex.
Prevention: The Best Strategy
Even before CDC was designated in 1986 as the lead federal agency to inform and educate Americans about AIDS, the agency worked with uncommon flexibility with state and local public health agencies and community-based organizations to reach people most at risk. Science-based guidelines were translated into messages for target groups about how to make healthy choices, and how to prevent the spread of the disease. Other campaigns were designed to fight against stigma and fear by informing people about the nature of the disease, teaching tolerance and compassion for those who were HIV positive.
Displayed here are a set of slides from the HIV/AIDS Library and Narrative used by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Human Services in 1989 to train community-based AIDS service organizations. Furthermore, since testing became available in 1985, CDC began providing federal funds to establish an extensive system of alternate testing and counseling sites, leading to the first nationwide HIV- and AIDS-related prevention program. Today, testingknowing ones HIV statusis a key strategy in AIDS prevention.
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Us Response To The Global Epidemic
The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for more than 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2021 and, as of September 30, 2021, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.96 million men, women, and children. PEPFAR also enabled 2.8 million babies to be born HIV-free to parents living with HIV.
In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.
Impact On Gay And Bisexual Men
- While estimates show that gay and bisexual men comprise only about 2% of the U.S. population, male-to-male sexual contact accounts for most new HIV infections and most people living with HIV .58
- Annual new infections among gay and bisexual men declined overall between 2015 and 2019 but remained stable among Black and Latino gay and bisexual men.59
- Blacks gay and bisexual men accounted for the largest number of new diagnoses among this group in 2019, followed by Latino gay and bisexual men .60 Additionally, according to a recent study, Black gay and bisexual men were found to be at a much higher risk of being diagnosed with HIV during their lifetimes compared with Latino and white gay and bisexual men.61 Young Black gay and bisexual men are at particular risk â Black gay and bisexual men ages 20-29 accounted for 51% of new diagnoses among that age group and 13% of all diagnoses.62
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New Hiv Diagnoses In The Us And Dependent Areas For The Most
NOTE: Subpopulations representing 2% or less of all people who received an HIV diagnosis in 2019 are not represented in this chart.* Black refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America. Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.
In 2019, transgender people accounted for 2% of the 36,801 new HIV diagnoses.
- Male-to-female d transgender people accounted for 2% of new HIV diagnoses.
- Female-to-male e transgender people accounted for less than 1% of new HIV diagnoses.