Is Hiv/aids Different In Older Adults
A growing number of older people are living with HIV/AIDS. One reason is because improved treatments are helping people with the disease live longer. Nearly half of people living with HIV in the United States are age 50 and older. Many of them were diagnosed with HIV in their younger years. However, thousands of older people get HIV every year.
Older people are less likely than younger people to get tested, so they may not know they have HIV. Signs of HIV/AIDS can be mistaken for the aches and pains of normal aging. Older adults might be coping with other diseases and the aches and pains of normal aging, which can mask the signs of HIV/AIDS.
Some older people may feel ashamed or afraid of being tested. Plus, doctors do not always think to test older people for HIV. Some people may not have access to high-quality health facilities and services, which can limit their treatment options. By the time the older person is diagnosed, the virus may be in the late stages and more likely to progress to AIDS.
Remember, if you are at risk, get tested regularly for HIV.
For people who have HIV, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible after diagnosis. Treatment can help reduce the level of HIV in the blood to undetectable levels. When treatment makes HIV undetectable, the possibility of spreading the virus to a sexual partner becomes very low. This is known as treatment as prevention .
People Living With Hiv
San Francisco has one of the largest populations of people living with HIV in the United States with an estimated 15,811 people living with HIV .
Of the total number of San Franciscans living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2020, 8,950 were living with HIV ever classified as AIDS. AIDS is a late-stage HIV disease defined by a low count of CD4 cells or an opportunistic infection .
As of December 2020, 71% of people living with HIV in San Francisco were over age 50 .
Key Points: Hiv Incidence
HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 .
, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 1324 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 , followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 .
, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons , followed by Hispanic/Latino persons and persons of multiple races .
, the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males was 5 times the rate for females .
, the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact
For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.
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Are Women More Likely To Get Hiv
Yes. Biologically speaking, a woman is more vulnerable to heterosexual transmission of the disease because the genitalia are easily exposed to seminal fluids.
Gender inequality has great influence on the spread of HIV/AIDS among women. In some cultures, many women and girls are often put in situations where they engage in non-consensual sex or have sex for money.
In the U.S., minority communities have been hit the hardest by HIV. African American and Hispanic women together represent less than 25% of all U.S. women, yet they account for more than 78% of AIDS cases reported among women in the country.
Impact Across The Country
- Although HIV has been reported in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. dependencies, the impact of the epidemic is not uniformly distributed.
- Ten states accounted for about two-thirds of HIV diagnoses among adults and adolescents in 2019 .31 Regionally, the South accounted for more than half of HIV diagnoses in 2019.32
- Rates of HIV diagnoses per 100,000 provide a different measure of the epidemicâs impact, since they reflect the concentration of diagnoses after accounting for differences in population size across states. The District of Columbia has the highest rate in the nation, compared to states, nearly 3 times the national rate and Georgia was the state with highest rate , twice that of the national rate.33,34 Nine of the top 10 states by rate are in the South.35
- New HIV diagnoses are concentrated primarily in large U.S. metropolitan areas , with Miami, Orlando, and Atlanta topping the list of the areas most heavily burdened.36
|Table 1: Top Ten States/Areas by Number and Rate of New HIV Diagnoses , 2019|
|CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019 vol. 32. May 2021.|
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Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease
Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death
HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.
The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.
In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.
According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.
Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.
Causes And Risk Factors Of Hiv/aids
HIV is spread by direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:
- Semen and preseminal fluid
- Rectal fluids
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
In the United States, HIV is mostly spread through sex, particularly anal and vaginal intercourse. People can also transmit HIV by sharing used injection equipment, such as syringes and other paraphernalia.
Mothers can spread HIV to babies during pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding.
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What Is Hiv What Is Aids
HIV is a virus that damages and weakens the body’s immune system the system your body uses to fight off infection and disease. Having HIV puts a person in danger of experiencing other life-threatening infections and certain cancers.
When the body cannot fight off infections and some other diseases anymore, HIV can lead to a serious illness called AIDS. When someone has AIDS, they are more likely to get infections, and more vulnerable to unusual forms of cancers and other serious diseases. But, with early and uninterrupted treatment, it is possible that a person with HIV will never develop AIDS.
If you think you may have HIV, you should get tested. Everyone age 13 to 64 should be tested at least once for HIV. If you are over 64 and are at risk for HIV, talk with your doctor. Your doctor can help determine how often you should be tested and help find ways to reduce your risk.
There are drugs that, when taken consistently, can help suppress the amount of HIV in your blood to undetectable levels, improving your health overall and making it harder to pass HIV on to your sexual partners. To get the best results, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. If you are unsure about your HIV status, get tested. Always protect yourself and your partners when having sex or using needles.
Priority Jurisdictions & Phases
For the first five years , the EHE initiative will focus on 57 priority jurisdictions, including 48 counties, Washington, DC, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, where more than 50 percent of new HIV diagnoses occurred in 2016 and 2017, and also seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas. In Phase II, efforts will expand more widely across the nation to reduce new infections by 90 percent by 2030. In Phase III, intensive case management will be implemented to maintain the number of new infections at fewer than 3,000 per year.
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Gay Bisexual And Other Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men have been the population most impacted by the epidemic since the beginning.13 MSM of color are even more disproportionately impacted by HIV, as issues of stigma and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation intersect with racism and other social determinants of health. If current rates continue, it is estimated that 1 in 6 MSM will be diagnosed with HIV at some point in their lives.14
- MSM make up an estimated 2% of the US population, but accounted for 66% of new annual HIV infections in 201715
- As of 2019, 56% of people living with HIV in the US contracted it through male-to-male sexual transmission16
- As of 2018, 1 in 6 MSM living with HIV was unaware of their status13
- Analysis of HIV diagnoses between 2010 and 2016 found that new infections among all MSM in the US remained stable, but they increased 65% among young Black American MSM aged 25 to 34 and 68% among Hispanic/Latino American MSM in that same age group15
What Is The Outlook For Someone With Hiv/aids
If you are diagnosed with HIV and you start ART soon after, your immune system will not be as compromised. If you continue to take your medicines every day, your outlook is very good.
ART can keep blood levels undetectable but cannot entirely rid the body of the virus . If you do not keep up on your medication, the virus goes back into the blood.
If you have HIV and dont treat it, it can take about 10 years to lead to AIDS. If you have AIDS and dont treat it, the survival rate is about three years.
It is so important to know that people who have HIV and who follow treatment guidelines are able to live full lives for nearly as long as HIV-negative people.
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People Who Inject Drugs
Heroin use is increasing in the USA among men and women in most age groups and across all income levels, rising by 63% between 2002 and 2013 alone. A study published in 2019 estimated that more than 750,000 people in the USA inject drugs and that this number is rising.41
A huge contributing factor to this is misuse of prescription opioids, which has seen an increasing number of people turn to injecting drug use, particularly in non-urban areas where previously, injecting drugs had not been a significant issue. This has created new HIV prevention challenges as it has placed more people at risk of HIV.
Between 2010 and 2016, new infections among people who inject drugs fell by 30% overall.42 However, there are concerns that the level of new infections may have stagnated or reversed in recent years due to increased levels of injecting.4344
Evidence is emerging of increases in hepatitis C infections and new, localised outbreaks of HIV.45 For instance, Scott County in Indiana, with a population of only 23,744, experienced 181 new HIV infections in 2015.46
The impacts of the opioid epidemic are far reaching: the US has experienced the fastest proportional rise of drug-related overdose deaths ever recorded, which rose by 21.4% between 2015-2016 alone.47
Favorite Information On Nutrition For Hiv
If youre living with HIV, nutrition is vital for your long-term health and well-being. The Well Project, a nonprofit that focuses on women with HIV and AIDS, offers resources on how to incorporate the ideal foods for optimal health. Youll find information on how to fight weight and muscle loss, keep your energy levels high, and minimize side effects from HIV medication.
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The Ryan White Hiv/aids Program And Racial And Ethnic Minority Populations
Many federal programs are available to assist people of color who are living with HIV. The Health Resources and Services Administrations Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program provides a comprehensive system of HIV primary medical care, medications, and essential support services for low-income people living with HIV who are uninsured and underserved. More than half the people diagnoses with HIV in the U.S. receive services through RWHAP each year.
The Program serves a diverse population. Of the more than half a million clients served by RWHAP, nearly three-quarters of them are from racial and ethnic minority populations, with 47.1 percent of clients identifying as black/African American and 23.2 percent identifying as Hispanic/Latino.
For information about HIV care outcomes for racial and ethnic clients and other served by the RWHAP program, see these fact sheets:
People With Diagnosed Hiv In 44 States And The District Of Columbia 2019*
* The 44 states are AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, IA, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,NE, NV, NH, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, and WY. Had 2 viral load or CD4 tests at least 3 months apart in a year. Based on most recent viral load test.
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The Future Of Hiv In The Usa
The United States will become a place where new HIV infections are rare, and when they do occur, every person, regardless of age, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, or socio-economic circumstance, will have unfettered access to high quality, life-extending care, free from stigma and discrimination.
– The US National HIV/AIDS Strategys mission statement144
In order to break the cycle of transmission among key affected populations, increasing the impact of targeted HIV prevention and treatment campaigns towards people in these groups is vital. Expanding access and uptake to HIV testing, and increasing the number of people who are aware of their status and who are using condoms, will also go a long way to controlling the epidemic in the USA.
However, unless the complex set of economic and socio-economic factors that drive these groups risks to HIV are addressed including discrimination, stigma and poverty it is likely that HIV will continue to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men, African Americans/black people, Latino/Hispanic men, transgender women, prisoners and people who use drugs.
In addition, the rollback of certain LGBTI rights and inadequate sex education may support HIV-related stigma, already so damaging to Americas HIV response, grow and thrive.
The Global Distribution Of Deaths From Hiv/aids
In some countries HIV/AIDS is the cause of more than a quarter of all deaths
Globally, 1.7% of deaths were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2017.
This share is high, but masks the wide variations in the toll of HIV/AIDS across the world. In some countries, this share was much higher.In the interactive map we see the share of deaths which resulted from HIV/AIDS across the world. Across most regions the share was low: across Europe, for example, it accounted for less than 0.1% of deaths.
But across some countries focused primarily in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa the share is very high. More than 1-in-4 of deaths in South Africa and Botswana were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2017. The share was also very high across Mozambique Namibia Zambia Kenya and Congo .
Death rates are high across Sub-Saharan Africa
The large health burden of HIV/AIDS across Sub-Saharan Africa is also reflected in death rates. Death rates measure the number of deaths from HIV/AIDS per 100,000 individuals in a country or region.
In the interactive map we see the distribution of death rates across the world. Most countries have a rate of less than 10 deaths per 100,000 often much lower, below 5 per 100,000. Across Europe the death rate is less than one per 100,000.
Across Sub-Saharan Africa the rates are much higher. Most countries in the South of the region had rates greater than 100 per 100,000. In South Africa and Mozambique, it was over 200 per 100,000.
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Do Some Parts Of The Country Have More Hiv Than Other Parts
Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
HIV in the United States by Geographic Distribution is a fact sheet that explains the geography of HIV in the United States.