Causes Of Hiv Infection
HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person. This includes semen, vaginal and anal fluids, blood and breast milk.
It’s a fragile virus and does not survive outside the body for long.
HIV cannot be transmitted through sweat, urine or saliva.
The most common way of getting HIV in the UK is through having anal or vaginal sex without a condom.
Other ways of getting HIV include:
- sharing needles, syringes or other injecting equipment
- transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding
The chance of getting HIV through oral sex is very low and will be dependent on many things, such as whether you receive or give oral sex and the oral hygiene of the person giving the oral sex.
Sharing Injection Drug Equipment
- having other types of sexually transmitted infections
How Do You Get Hiv From Semen Or Vaginal Fluid
Body fluids including semen and vaginal secretions can contain HIV. If a person has HIV and a detectable viral load, HIV can passed on to someone if their semen or vaginal secretions get into the body of a sexual partner during vaginal or anal sex.
If a man has HIV and a detectable viral load, one of his body fluids where the virus is found is his semen.
If he has a detectable viral load and his semen gets into the body of his sexual partner during sex, then HIV can get into the other persons bloodstream.
Pre-cum also contains HIV this is why there is a risk of infection even if a man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates.
If a woman has HIV and she has a detectable viral load, one of her body fluids where the virus is found is in her vaginal secretions.
If these come into contact with a penis during sex, then HIV could be transmitted. The virus in her secretions can enter through the delicate skin of the penis or foreskin.
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How Long Can A Virus Live Outside A Body
Asked by: Chaudhary Nikul, India
Viruses can live for a surprisingly long time outside of a body, depending on conditions such as moisture and temperature. They tend to live longer on water-resistant surfaces, such as stainless steel and plastics.
A cold virus can sometimes survive on indoor surfaces for several days, although its ability to cause infection drops dramatically over time.
Flu viruses can survive in the air for several hours, especially at lower temperatures, and on hard surfaces they can survive and remain infectious for 24 hours.
Enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A, can survive for weeks on a surface if conditions are suitable. The norovirus is known for causing sickness outbreaks in schools, cruise ships and hospitals.
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Why Does Sperm Tend Sperm Gets In Your Eye
When youve injected semen into your eye, the most common side effect may be the burning or stinging sensation in your right eye. Depending on semen exposure, however, certain STIs can result in pregnancy or pink eyes. Your partners STI status or discomfort could lead to a referral to a health care provider.
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Can Herbal Medicine Cure Hiv
No. Some people choose to take alternative forms of medicine, such as herbal medicines, as a natural way of treating HIV. However, herbal remedies do not work.
Taking herbal medicines can be dangerous as they will not protect your immune system from infection. They may also interact poorly with antiretrovirals if you are taking them alongside treatment. The only way you can stay healthy when living with HIV is to take antiretroviral treatment as prescribed by your doctor or healthcare professional, and to attend viral load monitoring appointments to make sure your treatment is working.
Semen Vaginal Fluids And Anal Mucus
If an HIV positive person has sex without a condom, and they do not have an undetectable viral load, HIV can get into the other persons blood because it lives in the semen, vaginal fluid and anal mucus. There does need to be a tear or graze in the other person for the HIV to enter into their body. A condom stops any fluid being passed to the other person, and it also stops unwanted pregnancy and getting other sexually transmitted infections.
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Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv
Yes. Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.
How Hiv Can Spread
The most common ways people contract HIV in the United States are through sharing equipment when injecting drugs and having anal or vaginal sex without barrier contraceptives. Anal sex poses a higher risk than vaginal sex, as there is a greater chance of tissue damage.
Although it is less common, HIV may pass to an infant during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
In extremely rare cases, HIV may spread if blood comes into contact with an open wound. There is a chance of this occurring if partners engage in open-mouth kissing, and both have bleeding gums or open sores within the mouth.
However, saliva that does not contain blood cannot transmit HIV. People cannot get HIV from closed-mouth or cheek kissing.
People can reduce or eliminate the chance of contracting HIV by using barrier contraceptives or taking preventive HIV therapy, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis .
PrEP is a pill that a person can take once a day to minimize the chance of contracting HIV. It may be helpful for those who:
- have a partner with HIV
- have a partner with an unknown HIV status
- have multiple partners
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Prevention: Correct & Consistent Condom Use
Used correctly and consistently, a condom will protect you from contracting HIV-infection/AIDS. A condom is the best barrier that is now available to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections during sexual intercourse.
There are male condoms, and female condoms. Both are sold on St. Maarten in many different varieties. Note that lambskin condoms are not safe to use for protection against infection. Only latex and polyurethane condoms are protective.
Most condoms come with lubrication. If you prefer to use additional lubrication, always use so called water-based lubricants like KY-jelly. Never use Vaseline, oil or creams for additional lubrication, because they will weaken the condom and it may break more easily.
Use a new condom for every sex act, from start to finish. 1) Carefully remove condom from package. 2) If needed, rub condom with water or oil-based lubricant. 3) Hold the smallest ring part of the condom and squeeze. 4) Insert the condom as far as it will go. The condom should not be twisted. 5) Guide the penis inside the condom. 6) After sex, remove the condom by squeezing and twisting the outer ring. Pull it out and dispose of it safely.
How Long Does Hiv Blood Live Outside The Body
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If I Get Infected Fluid From An Hiv
No, HIV is not always passed on from someone living with HIV. There are lots of reasons why this is the case. For example, if the HIV-positive person is on effective treatment it will reduce the amount of HIV in their body. If a doctor confirms that the virus has reached undetectable levels it means there is no risk of passing it on.
If youre concerned that youve been exposed to HIV you may be eligible to take post-exposure prophylaxis , which stops the virus from becoming an infection. However its not available everywhere and has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
Its really important to take a HIV test every time you think you have been at risk of HIV.
How Long Does Hiv Survive Outside The Body
In general, the virus doesnât live long once itâs outside of a human body. Studies show that HIV grown in the lab, when placed on a surface, loses most of its ability to infect — 90% to 99% — within several hours. And the level of virus tested was much higher than whatâs found in bodily fluids. So contact with dried blood, semen, or other fluids poses little risk.
One study found HIV can live in used needles for over a month if the temperature and conditions are just right. That means sharing needles or syringes, like during drug use, raises your risk of infection.
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Can I Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion
The blood supply in the United States is one of the safest in the world. Since March 1985, all blood and blood platelets in the U.S. have been screened for HIV using an HIV antibody test. This practice has virtually eliminated the risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion in the U.S. No other blood products are suspected of transmitting HIV.
How Long Can Hiv Survive On Surfaces
Lets look at the evidence available to us.
- HIV is killed by heat. Temperatures of above 60C will kill HIV.
- HIV is NOT killed by cold. In fact, colder temperatures increase the survival time of HIV.
- At 27C to 37C, HIV can survive up to 7 days in syringes
- At room temperature, HIV can survive in dried blood for 5 to 6 days
- At 4C, HIV can survive up to 7 days in dried blood
- At -70C, HIV can survive indefinitely
- HIV can only survive in pH between 7 and 8
- HIV has been found to survive for a few days in sewage
- HIV has been found to survive in organs and corpses for up to 2 weeks
You would notice that all these studies are done on blood. There is really no good evidence to determine how long HIV from semen, vaginal secretions of other body fluids can survive outside the body. One fact is that it is very difficult to culture HIV from semen. This indicates the low viral content and we can assume that the same timelines for blood apply to semen if not less.
In these experiments, the survivability of the HIV virus is determined by its retention of the ability to infect cells in cell culture.
We must be careful not to equate survivability to infection.
In other words:
- HIV infected surface/fluid + broken skin HIV infection
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How Long Can Hiv Live Outside Of The Body
Human immunodeficiency virus has created such an intense fear of infection in some that it extends well beyond the fear of sexual transmission. In fact, some people remain convinced that you can get HIV by coming into contact with an object or surface on which there may be HIV-infected blood or semen.
After all, it would seem reasonable to suggest that the more blood or semen there is, the longer the virus can survive outside of the body. And, in turn, if the virus is able to survive, it surely has the potential to infect, right?
Scientists Discover Hepatitis C Virus Can Remain Infectious Outside Of The Body For Up To 6 Weeks
Dr. Ronald ValdiserriA recent study by researchers from the Yale Schools of Medicine and Public Health revealed that the hepatitis C virus can remain infectious for up to 6 weeks on surfaces at room temperatureresulting in a much longer period for potential transmission than was previously appreciated. Prior to this study, scientists believed that HCV could survive for up to four days on surfaces outside of the body. These findings have implications for the safety of patients and workers in healthcare settings as well as for reducing viral hepatitis transmission associated with drug useboth of which are priority areas outlined in the national Action Plan for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis.
Our findings clearly demonstrate that strict infection control practices and universal precautions are needed in the clinical setting to avoid contact with infectious agents such as HCV that can survive on surfaces, noted study co-author Professor Robert Heimer of the Yale School of Public Health in a release announcing the study findings. The implications go beyond the clinic to the risk environment of people who use syringes outside of medical care settings. Unsafe practices, such as sharing of syringes by people who inject drugs or careless handling of human blood during home delivery of intravenous medications, can lead to HCV transmission.
Implications for Preventing Healthcare-Associated HCV Transmission
Dr. Jag H. Khalsa
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Conditions By Which Hiv Can Survive
If HIV were to survive outside of the body for more than a few minutes, it could only do so under these specific environmental conditions:
- Colder temperatures: Temperatures below 39 degrees Fahrenheit are considered ideal for HIV to thrive. By contrast, HIV does not do well at room temperature and continues to decline as it reaches and exceeds body temperature .
- Ideal pH: The ideal pH level for HIV is between 7.0 and 8.0, with an optimal pH of 7.1. Anything above or below these levels is considered unsuitable for survival.
- Dried blood: HIV can survive in dried blood at room temperature for up to six days, although the concentrations of virus in dried blood will invariably be low to negligible.
- No UV exposure: HIV survives longer when is not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. UV light quickly degrades viral DNA as well as the lipids that make up the virus’ shell, rendering it incapable of attaching to and infecting other cells.
Even given these parameters, there has yet to be a documented case of infection by means of a discarded syringe in a public place.
In 2008, the largest retrospective study investigating child needlestick injuries concluded that not one case of HIV occurred following contact with a discarded needle.
Moreover, in 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could only confirm one infection by means of a needlestick injury since 1999, and that case involved a lab researcher who was working with a live HIV culture.
Transmission: Where Does The Hiv Virus Live
The HIV virus is present in body fluids. Body fluids which can contain significant amounts of HIV are not usually of concern to everyday people amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and synovial fluid around bone joints, for example, are of concern only to healthcare workers that are involved in invasive surgical procedures.However, the HIV virus is present in the following body fluids in infectious quantities:
- Blood and blood products
- Vaginal and cervical secretions
- Breast milk.
An HIV-positive person may have HIV in very small amounts in other body fluids such as tears, saliva and blister fluid, but usually not in enough amount to be infectious. Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat has never been shown to result in transmission of HIV.
It is via the exchange of bodily fluids containing HIV virus that person-to-person transmission can occur. The main routes of HIV transmission are through:
- Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person
- Sharing needles with an infected person
- From an infected mother to child during pregnancy, during birth or after birth while breastfeeding.
You are at risk if:
- You have sex without condoms
- You have many sex partners and do not use condoms
- Your sex partner has/have sex with other persons without using condoms
- You share unsterilized needles for intravenous drug use
Nobody is immune to the HIV virus. Anyone engaging in above activities is at risk of infection.
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What Is The Risk From Needlestick Injuries In Healthcare Settings
The risk of transmission from a needlestick involving HIV-containing blood has been estimated at 0.23%, or just over one in 500. However, the reviews of transmission probability upon which this calculation is based date predominantly from the 1980s and 1990s, before the wide-scale introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Due to the effectiveness of HIV treatment, the blood of someone living with HIV in the UK could well have no detectable virus , lowering that risk even further. In UK guidelines, PEP is therefore no longer recommended following occupational exposure to a source with an undetectable viral load.
The greatest risk to healthcare workers of acquiring HIV is following a skin puncture injury involving a hollow needle that has been in the vein or artery of an HIV-positive person who has late-stage disease and a high viral load. The European Union Sharps Directive of 2013 stipulates measures to protect healthcare personnel.
The risks of acquiring other blood-borne viruses from a contaminated needle are considerably higher than for HIV . For this reason, healthcare workers are recommended to have the hepatitis B vaccination, although no vaccine is available for hepatitis C.
Exposure to HIV as a result of work activities. Exposure may include accidental exposure to HIV-infected blood following a needlestick injury or cut from a surgical instrument