Sunday, December 4, 2022

How To Prevent Hiv After Sleeping With An Infected Person

Why Do We Need To Sleep

PrEP protects you non-stop from HIV infection

On average we spend about a third of our life asleep . A disruption in the amount or quality of sleep we get takes a toll on mood, energy levels, and concentration. Sleep also plays an important role in the state of our immune system, with chronic insomnia and sleep depletion often correlating to a poorer immune response.

A typical night’s sleep is comprised of many stages ranging in length from five minutes to a couple of hours. Each stage starts with light sleep, a stage where you can be awakened quite easily. From there, as your brain waves slow and you gradually progress to what is known as REM sleep, your body movement slows and you are able to achieve deep, restful sleep needed to feel fresh and clear-minded.

Prolonged or regular interruptions of these cycles only take away any gains you may make from having a proper, good night’s sleep.

Pros And Cons Of Taking Pep

Benefits:

  • Taking PEP may prevent you from becoming HIV positive.
  • You only need to take PEP for a month . If you become HIV positive you may have to take anti-HIV treatments for a lifetime.

Disadvantages:

  • Some people may experience some side-effects such as nausea and headaches, though some people will experience no side-effects.
  • You have to remember to take PEP at regular times of the day for a month.

Is It True That There Is A Medication That Can Actually Prevent Someone From Getting Hiv

Yes. PrEP involves working with a healthcare provider to make an individualized plan to take medication to prevent HIV. Clinical trials have shown that PrEP is 99% effective at reducing sexual transmission of HIV. As of January 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two medications as PrEP for HIV: Truvada , and Descovy . Note: Descovy is not approved for use by cis-gender women.

Key Points About PrEP:

  • PrEP medication is prescribed by a healthcare provider. People interested in PrEP can work with a healthcare provider to determine how PrEP can be tailored to their individual needs and circumstances.
  • PrEP is only for people who are not living with HIV. HIV testing should be conducted before starting PrEP and repeated every three months to make sure the person is not living with HIV. Testing may be done by the healthcare provider or at a conveniently located community-based organization , healthcare facility or lab.
  • Some people benefit from counseling and support for taking the medication regularly. If this is needed, the person can talk with the healthcare provider, a trusted CBO, a peer worker, or other provider.
  • People at risk for HIV are also at risk for sexually transmitted infections . Counseling about using condoms to prevent STIs and periodic screening for STIs is important and may be provided by the healthcare provider, a trusted CBO, or other provider.

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How Do People Become Infected With Hiv

HIV is in the blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk of an infected person. It can be spread by exposure to these body fluids by:

  • unprotected anal or vaginal sex without a condom
  • sharing drug injecting equipment
  • tattooing, piercing and other procedures with unsterile needles or equipment
  • transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding
  • oral sex, although this is rare
  • sharps injuries

It is important to remember that HIV is not spread through activities such as kissing, sharing cups and cutlery, normal social contact, toilet seats or mosquitoes.

You are at higher risk of HIV infection if:

  • you are a man, a transgender woman or a person who identifies as gender diverse who has sex with men
  • you have sex or share needles with someone else at risk of HIV
  • you share sex toys
  • you have sex with people from countries with a high rate of HIV infection
  • you inject drugs
  • you have had tattoos or other piercings overseas using unsterile equipment
  • you have a sexually transmitted infection . People can be infected with several different STIs at the same time. Having an STI can make it easier to become infected with HIV and pass it on to sexual partners
  • you have had a blood transfusion in a country where the blood supply is not safe

Some people are at a higher risk of HIV infection because they are exposed to more people with HIV infection and/or engage in more high-risk behaviour. These include:

When I First Start Taking The Medication How Many Days Do I Have To Take The Medication In Order For It To Protect Me From An Hiv Exposure

HIV &  AIDS Symptoms, Treatment, Testing

The PrEP medication must reach and maintain a certain level in the blood and the bodys mucus membranes to provide protection. The amount of time it takes may vary from person to person. For people taking daily PrEP who engage in anal intercourse, the medication must be taken each day for 7 days to reach the level needed for full protection. Cis-gender MSM who are taking on-demand PrEP, must take two pills, 2-24 hours before having sex. For the receptive partner in vaginal intercourse, it takes approximately 20 days of taking the medication consistently to reach the level of full protection in the female genital tract. This is why cis-gender women and transgender men who have receptive vaginal intercourse should not take on-demand PrEP. People of transgender experience should talk with their healthcare provider about their specific sexual practices to best determine the length of time it will take to be fully protected.

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I Have Sex Partners Who Are Living With Hiv And Have An Undetectable Viral Load Because They Are On Hiv Treatment Do I Still Need To Take Prep

Individuals living with HIV who are taking HIV treatment consistently and have an undetectable viral load for at least 6 months cannot transmit the virus to an HIV-negative partner through sexual activity. In sero-discordant or magnetic couples , PrEP may be used by the HIV-negative partner for additional protection.

All Exposures Are Not Equal

The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a higher risk of HIV transmission than others. Below are estimates from meta-analyses that have combined the results of studies conducted in high-income countries. For types of sex where meta-analysis estimates do not exist, numbers from individual studies are provided.

Anal sex

A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in 2010.1 The analysis, based on the results of four studies, estimated the risk through receptive anal sex to be 1.4%. This risk was similar regardless of whether the receptive partner was a man or woman.

No meta-analysis estimates currently exist for insertive anal sex but two individual studies were conducted to calculate this risk. The first, published in 1999, calculated the risk to be 0.06% .2 However, due to the design of the study, this number likely underestimated the risk of HIV transmission. The second study, published in 2010, was better designed and estimated the risk to be 0.11% for circumcised men and 0.62% for uncircumcised men.3

Vaginal sex

A meta-analysis of 10 studies exploring the risk of transmission through vaginal sex was published in 2009.4 It is estimated the risk of HIV transmission through receptive vaginal sex to be 0.08% .

A meta-analysis of three studies exploring the risk from insertive vaginal sex was estimated to be 0.04% .4

Oral sex

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Who Should Consider Taking Prep

PrEP is for people without HIV who are at very high risk for getting it. This includes:

Gay/bisexual men who

  • Have an HIV-positive partner
  • Have multiple partners, a partner with multiple partners, or a partner whose HIV status is unknown and
  • Have anal sex without a condom OR
  • Have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease in the last 6 months

Heterosexual men and women who

  • Have an HIV-positive partner
  • Have multiple partners, a partner with multiple partners, or a partner whose HIV status is unknown and
  • Don’t always use a condom when having sex with people who inject drugs OR
  • Don’t always use a condom when having sex with bisexual men

People who inject drugs and

  • Share needles or other equipment to inject drugs OR
  • Are at risk for getting HIV from sex

If you have a partner who is HIV-positive and are considering getting pregnant, talk to your health care provider about PrEP. Taking it may help protect you and your baby from getting HIV infection while you try to get pregnant, during pregnancy, or while breastfeeding.

I Think I’ve Been Exposed To Hiv Can I Still Prevent Hiv Infection

Seven Ways to Prevent HIV

There may be times when you have a high-risk exposure to HIV and you cannot or did not protect yourself. For example:

  • The condom slipped or broke during use.
  • Your partner has HIV and you usually use condoms, but didn’t the last time you had sex.
  • Rape or a sexual assault.
  • You shared a needle to shoot drugs with someone and you are not sure if he or she has HIV.
  • You know that the person with whom you shared needles or had unprotected sex has HIV.
  • Go to a hospital emergency room or health care setting right away so that you can get all of the care you need. Women can also get emergency birth control to prevent pregnancy. Medicaid and Medicare pay for PEP for rape and sexual assault survivors. The Crime Victims Board may also pay for PEP, call 1-800-247-8035. TTY: 1-888-289-9747, Monday – Friday 9:00AM – 5:00PM.If you have been raped or sexually assaulted, call the NYS Coalition Against Sexual Assault at 1-800-942-6906. TTY: 1-800-655-1789.

In these cases, if you seek medical care right away, you may be able to take medicines that may help you from getting infected with HIV. This is called

PEP has been used for people who come in contact with HIV by accident – like a nurse getting stuck by a used needle. Now, PEP can be used for more than just on-the-job accidents. Sometimes this is called nPEP. The “n” in nPEP stands for “non-occupational” which means that you did not get exposed to HIV at work. PEP is only for people who were just exposed to HIV and do not already have it.

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Low/no Risk Sexual Practices

There are a number of sexual practices that present no or low risk for HIV transmission that you and a partners can enjoy. These include the following:

NO RISK

Massage and rubbing bodies against each other presents no risk of passing on HIV.

RimmingYou cannot acquire or pass on HIV by rimming . However, hepatitis A and gut infections such as shigella are easily passed on this way.

KissingSaliva does not transmit HIV meaning kissing is completely safe.

WatersportsThe terms watersports and piss-play refer to sexual acts involving urine. HIV is not present in urine so watersports carry no risk of HIV transmission.

LOW RISK

Oral sexOral sex carries a very small risk for HIV transmission. For more detailed information, check out our Oral Sex page.

FingeringPlaying with someones arse or vagina with your fingers is a low risk activity for passing on HIV. However, trimmed fingernails and thorough hand washing is a good idea to help prevent damage to the wall of the anus or vagina and to lessen the risk of passing or acquiring a sexually transmitted infection .

FistingFisting means inserting your fist in someones arse or vagina. Fists can create serious cuts in the lining of the arse or vagina, which can allow HIV to be passed on if the person being fisted is then fucked without a condom. The person doing the fisting could also get HIV if they have any cuts or scratches. Latex gloves are important for protecting both participants. Surgical gloves are best.

I Am Hiv Positive How Can I Prevent Passing Hiv To Others

Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. ART can’t cure HIV, but it can reduce the amount of HIV in the body . One of the main goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.

Here are some other steps you can take to prevent HIV transmission:

  • Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
  • Talk to your partner about taking PrEP.
  • If you inject drugs, don’t share your needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with your partner.

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Learn About Viral Load

In 2017 the CDC declared that people with HIV who have an undetectable viral loadmeaning levels of HIV in the blood is below the threshold of detectionare unable to transmit HIV to their partners. This is often summarized with the phrase Undetectable = Untransmittable or U = U.

The CDC made the declaration after analyzing the results of three studies that included thousands of couples engaging in sexual acts without condoms, where one partner was HIV-positive with an undetectable viral load, and the other was HIV-negative . Not one of the HIV-negative people in the three studies contracted the virus from a positive person when their viral load was suppressed, the CDC reported.

The way to obtain and maintain an undetectable viral load is through taking a combination of antiretroviral medications. This treatment is referred to as antiretroviral therapy or ART, according to the CDC. HIV researchers, doctors, and activists alike now view having an undetectable viral load as a means of HIV prevention, commonly referred to as Treatment as Prevention .

Risk By Sexual Activity

AIDS

When discussing HIV risk, people often try to ascertain which “type” of sex is riskier vaginal, anal, or oral. From a purely statistical standpoint, anal sex is considered the highest risk activity with an almost 18-fold greater risk of infection compared to vaginal sex.

But this assessment is somewhat misleading, at least from an individual perspective. While vaginal sex may pose a lower risk comparatively, the figures neither take into account the way in which the disease is distributed between men and women nor the vulnerabilities which place some individuals at extremely high risk of infection.

Women are three to four times more likely to get HIV from men than the other way around. A young woman is more likely to get HIV from her first sexual encounter than her male partner.

There are some men who are far more likely to get HIV than others. Studies have shown, for example, that uncircumcised men are more than twice as likely to get HIV after vaginal sex than circumcised men.

Vulnerabilities vary by individual, so assessing the real risk of vaginal sex requires a better understanding of the factors that place some women and men at greater risk than others.

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Sex With Hiv Positive Person On Arvs Is Safe

The early treatment of people with HIV massively reduces their infectiousness and gives the world our first real opportunity to halt the HIV epidemic.

This follows results of a trial released in May which found that sex with an HIV positive person on ARV treatment with an undetectable viral load is as safe as using condoms.

This is the biggest news of the year, according to Dr Francois Venter, head of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society.

No other intervention beyond abstinence shows such a level of protection. Its probably even safer than condoms because things often go wrong with condoms.

The trial has revolutionised HIV policy-making as, for the first time, ARVs are being counted as a weapon to prevent the spread of HIV as well as to treat the virus what the experts are now calling treatment-as-prevention.

The trial involved over 1 700 discordant couples, made up of an HIV positive and negative partner, and it was conducted in South Africa and eight other countries.

All the HIV positive partners had CD4 counts of between 350 and 500, which means that they did not yet need antiretroviral medication.

The couples were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, the HIV positive partners were put onto ARVs immediately. In the second group, ARVs were delayed until the partners with HIV reached a CD4 count of 250 or developed an AIDS-related illness.

Sex Toys Fingering Fisting And Hiv

Sex toys, such as dildos, come into direct contact with rectal/vaginal fluids and mucous membranes. This means sharing an uncleaned dildo or other toy can pass on HIV. Using sex toys on your own has no risk.

There is no direct risk of HIV from fingering or fisting , but be aware of being rough. Damage to anal/vaginal tissues, especially if there is any bleeding, will increase risk of HIV transmission if you then have anal, vaginal or oral sex later.

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How Can You Prevent Getting Or Transmitting Hiv Through Sex

There are several ways to prevent getting or transmitting HIV through anal or vaginal sex.

If you are HIV-negative, you can use HIV prevention medicine known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis to protect yourself. You can also use other HIV prevention methods, below.

If you have HIV, the most important thing you can do to prevent transmission and stay healthy is to take your HIV medicine , every day, exactly as prescribed. People living with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. Read more about Treatment as Prevention. There also are other options to choose from, below.

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