What Are The Different Types Of Hpv
There are over 100 different strains of HPV. Most strains are harmless, which explains why so many people have HPV, yet are unaware that they carry the virus. Some types of HPV can cause genital warts, but these are usually treatable. Types 6, 11, 16, and 18 are the strains of HPV that are known for causing cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, and anus. Types 16 and 18 alone are responsible for around 70% of cervical cancers and types 6 and 11 account for 90% of genital warts among HPV infections.
Some Stds Are More Closely Linked To Hiv Than Others
In the United States, both syphilis and HIV are highly concentrated epidemics among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men .7, 8 In 2019, MSM only and men who have sex with both men and women accounted for 47% of all primary and secondary syphilis cases among males in which sex of sex partner was known.9 In Florida, in 2010, among all persons diagnosed with infectious syphilis 42% were also HIV infected.10 Men who get syphilis are at very high risk of being diagnosed with HIV in the future among HIV-uninfected men who got syphilis in Florida in 2003, 22% were newly diagnosed with HIV by 2011.2 HIV is more closely linked to gonorrhea than chlamydia .11 Herpes is also commonly associated with HIV a meta-analysis found persons infected with HSV-2 are at 3-fold increased risk for acquiring HIV infection.12-14
Using Estimates To Inform Prevention Efforts
These estimates are useful for understanding the potential magnitude of the contribution of HSV-2 infection to HIV incidence, which can help stimulate development of new interventions and guide where future prevention efforts would be best targeted for optimal effect.
Although a number of limitations and caveats surround these data, the estimates nevertheless highlight the important link between HSV-2 and HIV infections and suggest that the global contribution of HSV-2 infection to HIV acquisition could be substantial. Addressing HSV-2 infections not only has the potential to reduce the number of people suffering from genital herpes, but could also make an important contribution to HIV prevention.
In settings or populations with high HIV incidence, people with symptoms suggestive of HSV-2 infection could benefit from HIV testing and more focused HIV prevention efforts, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. In addition, further investment is needed in development of new interventions against HSV-2 infection, such as vaccines, new antivirals, or microbicides.
The authors recognise that no single intervention will likely be sufficient to achieve global HIV prevention goals, and combination measures are needed. These estimates suggest that HSV-2 prevention measures could be an important additional tool in the fight against HIV.
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How Do You Get Herpes
Herpes is easily spread from skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the virus. You can get it when your genitals and/or mouth touch their genitals and/or mouth usually during oral, anal, and vaginal sex.
Herpes can be passed even if the penis or tongue doesnt go all the way in the vagina, anus, or mouth. You dont have to cum to spread herpes. All it takes is some quick skin-to-skin touching. You can also get herpes from kissing someone who has oral herpes.
The skin on your genitals, mouth, and eyes can be infected easily. Other areas of skin may get infected if theres a way for the herpes virus to get in, like through a cut, burn, rash, or other sores. You dont have to have sex to get herpes. Sometimes herpes can be passed in non-sexual ways, like if a parent with a cold sore gives you a peck on the lips. Most people with oral herpes got it when they were kids. A mother can pass genital herpes to a baby during vaginal childbirth, but thats pretty rare.
You can spread herpes to other parts of your body if you touch a herpes sore and then touch your mouth, genitals, or eyes without washing your hands first. You can also pass herpes to someone else this way.
Herpes is most contagious when sores are open and wet, because fluid from herpes blisters easily spreads the virus. But herpes can also shed and get passed to others when there are no sores and your skin looks totally normal.
Will Treating Someone For Stds Prevent Them From Getting Hiv
No. Its not enough. Screening for STDs can help assess a persons risk for getting HIV. Treatment of STDs is important to prevent the complications of those infections, and to prevent transmission to partners, but it should not be expected to prevent spread of HIV.
If someone is HIV-positive and is diagnosed with an STD, they should receive counseling about risk reduction and how to protect their sex partner from getting re-infected with the same STD or getting HIV.
Health care providers with STD consultation requests can contact the STD Clinical Consultation Network . This service is provided by the National Network of STD Clinical Prevention Training Centers and operates five days a week. STDCCN is convenient, simple, and free to health care providers and clinicians. More information is available at www.stdccn.orgexternal icon.
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How Can The Covid
It’s important to point out that the study didn’t prove the COVID-19 vaccine causes shingles. Instead, the study found a link, and even the study authors wrote that the association needs to be researched more.
That said, this connection isn’t shocking to doctors. “People with autoimmune disorders that are on immunosuppressant medications are at higher risk of having shingles,”infectious disease expert Amesh A. Adalja, MD, senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in Maryland, tells Health. Vaccines can also impact the immune system, and “there have been reports of vaccines causing shingles in the past,” Dr. Adalja says.
“This can happen with the flu vaccine and others,” Richard Watkins, MD, an infectious disease specialist and a professor of internal medicine at the Northeast Ohio Medical University, tells Health. And if someone already has an autoimmune condition, they may be at greater risk of shingles, Dr. Adalja adds.
Dr. Adalja calls the study “well done” and says it simply shows that “this phenomenon can occur after the COVID-19 vaccine as it has with others.”
Monitoring Of Response To Therapy And Adverse Events
Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are occasionally associated with nausea or headache. No laboratory monitoring is needed for patients receiving episodic or suppressive HSV therapy unless they have advanced renal impairment. However, for patients receiving high-dose IV acyclovir, monitoring of renal function, and dose adjustment as necessary, are recommended at initiation of treatment and once or twice weekly for the duration of treatment.
HSV-2 shedding and GUD can increase in the first 6 months after initiation of ART, particularly in those with low CD4 counts.34,35 Mucocutaneous lesions that are atypical and occasionally recalcitrant to therapy have been reported in individuals initiating ART and have been attributed to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome .36
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Can Herpes Be Prevented
It is difficult to prevent the spread of HSV. Partly this is because most infected people don’t know that they carry HSV and can spread it. Even people who know they are infected with HSV may not realize they can transmit the infection even without an open herpes sore.
Condoms can reduce the rate of HSV transmission. However, they cannot prevent it. HSV infections can be transmitted to and from a larger genital area, such as that area covered by “boxer shorts” — and also around the mouth. If people with herpes take valacyclovir every day, they can reduce the risk of transmitting herpes to others. Once-daily valacyclovir is approved for persons without HIV who have up to 9 outbreaks a year. However, once-daily therapy is less effective in people with HIV and others with very frequent episodes.
Drug companies are working on vaccines to prevent HSV. One vaccine showed good results against HSV2 in women, but not in men. No vaccines have been approved yet to prevent HSV infection, but research is ongoing in this area.
What Is The Difference Between Hsv
Herpes creates annoying and painful sores regardless of the strain, and both kinds can cause these sores to show up anywhere. The main difference between the two strains is that HSV-1 usually causes sores on or around your mouth, while HSV-2 generally causes sores on your genitals. Because of this, HSV-1 is often called oral herpes, while HSV-2 is referred to as genital herpes.
Oral herpes is much more common than genital herpes the World Health Organization said in a recent report that 2 out of 3 people under the age of 50 have it. The percentage of the population that has genital herpes is less but is still a sizable 16%. Aside from the location of the sores, the difference between the two is otherwise negligible.
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How Is Hsv Transmitted
HSV infections are passed from person to person by direct contact with an infected area. You don’t have to have an open HSV sore to spread the infection!
Also, most people with HSV don’t know that they are infected and aren’t aware that they could be spreading it. In fact, in the US only about 9% of people with HSV2 infection knew that they had it.
Prevention Of Hsv Infections
It is important to advise patient on the use of barrier contraceptives and the knowledge that shedding of virus is often subclinical. Sex should be abstained when there are recognisable recurrences. The use of condom reduces but does not eliminate the risk of infection as some genital lesions may not be covered by the condom. The use of daily suppressive therapy in frequent relapsers is beneficial not only to reduce the frequency of relapses but also reduce virus shedding, minimising transmission of both HSV and HIV. Both acyclovir and valacyclovir can be considered. Breakthrough recurrences do not necessarily reflect drug resistance, and higher doses of suppressive therapy may be attempted. However, this approach may involve a long period of antiviral treatment and the decision needs to be individualised. The frequency of recurrent genital herpes diminishes over time in many patients, and the patient’s psychological adjustment to the disease might change. Therefore, periodically during suppressive treatment , providers should discuss the need to continue therapy with the patient. An alternative approach is to treat each recurrent episode to ameliorate the symptoms.
It has also been shown that while HAART does reduce the incidence of symptomatic genital herpes and its severity, it has a modest and not statistically significant effect on subclinical HSV-2 reactivation. Therefore HSV-2 shedding is still possible even when the immune system is reconstituted.
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How Do You Get Hiv/aids
HIV is carried in semen , vaginal fluids, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes . You can get HIV from:
- having vaginal or anal sex
- sharing needles or syringes for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.
- getting stuck with a needle that has HIV-infected blood on it
- getting HIV-infected blood, semen , or vaginal fluids into open cuts or sores on your body
In the U.S., HIV is usually spread through having unprotected sex. Using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex and not sharing needles can help protect you and your partners from HIV.
HIV can also be passed to babies during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A pregnant woman with HIV can take medicine to greatly reduce the chance that her baby will get HIV.
HIV isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get HIV from kissing, sharing food or drinks, or using the same fork or spoon. HIV is also not spread through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And you cant get HIV from a toilet seat.
A long time ago, some people got HIV from infected blood transfusions. But now, giving or getting blood in medical centers is totally safe. Doctors, hospitals, and blood donation centers dont use needles more than once, and donated blood is tested for HIV and other infections.
Distinct Cellular Programming Was Induced In Dcs By The Different Hiv And Hsv
Figure 2. Cellular programing of dendritic cells by HIV single and HIV/HSV dual infection. Dendritic cells were exposed to HSV-2 or complement opsonized virus for 2 h then infected with HIV or complement opsonized HIV for 24 h. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed. Analyzes of amount of significantly upregulated or down regulated genes assessing total, two-, four-, and eight-fold changes compared to mock Gene enrichment analysis of genes significantly upregulated three-fold or higher with p 0.05 with focus on inflammatory and antiviral pathways/factors. Gene enrichment analysis of genes significantly upregulated three-fold or higher with p 0.05. GO enrichment analysis was done with PANTHER pathways data set. Terms with statistical significance in any of gene list are shown as stacked bar graph. *p< 0.05, **p< 0.005, ***p< 0.0005. Y-axis = number of listed genes involving in indicated PANTHER pathway. Ref = expected gene number from reference . N = 5.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Herpes Zoster
At first, people with shingles may have a burning, itching, numb, or tingling pain that can be severe, NINDS says. It usually happens on one side of the body. People develop shingles after they’ve had a previous chickenpox exposure. When the virus reactivates, it causes shingles.
After a few days, a rash of fluid-filled blisters will appear in one area on one side of the body, NINDS explains. Shingles most commonly shows up in a band called a dermatome that goes from one side of your midsection around your waistline.
The pain from shingles can varysome people mostly itch Others can have pain from a gentle touch.
Hiv/hsv Exposure Induced Higher Expression Of Several Antiviral Factors Including Ifn
Figure 4. Antiviral factors and pathways were highly activated in HSV/HIV exposed dendritic cells. Dendritic cells were exposed to HSV-2 or complement opsonized virus for 2 h followed by HIV or complement opsonized HIV infection for 22 h. Heat map from RNA seq data of antiviral factors significantly up or down regulated in one or several of the HIV, CHIV, HSV-2/HIV, or CHSV-2/CHIV infection conditions compared to mock treated DCs mRNA expression levels of IFN-, and MXA were accessed by PCR. Data were normalized to mock set as 1. Levels of secreted IFN- were evaluated by ELISA. Level of STAT1 phosphorylation was assessed in lysates from DCs exposed to HSV-2 or CHSV-2 for 2 h followed by HIV or CHIV exposure for 4 h by phosphoprotein bead array. *p< 0.05 **p< 0.005 ***p< 0.0005. N = 58.
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How Do I Know If I Have Genital Herpes
Most people who have genital herpes have no symptoms, or have very mild symptoms. You may not notice mild symptoms or you may mistake them for another skin condition, such as a pimple or ingrown hair. Because of this, most people who have herpes do not know it.
Herpes sores usually appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals, rectum or mouth. The blisters break and leave painful sores that may take a week or more to heal. These symptoms are sometimes called having an outbreak. The first time someone has an outbreak they may also have flu-like symptoms such as fever, body aches, or swollen glands.
People who experience an initial outbreak of herpes can have repeated outbreaks, especially if they are infected with HSV-2. Repeat outbreaks are usually shorter and less severe than the first outbreak. Although the infection stays in the body for the rest of your life, the number of outbreaks may decrease over time.
You should be examined by your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms or if your partner has an STD or symptoms of an STD. STD symptoms can include an unusual sore, a smelly genital discharge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods.
Im Pregnant How Could Genital Herpes Affect My Baby
If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, it is very important for you to go to prenatal care visits. Tell your doctor if you have ever had symptoms of, or have been diagnosed with, genital herpes. Also tell your doctor if you have ever been exposed to genital herpes. There is some research that suggests that genital herpes infection may lead to miscarriage, or could make it more likely for you to deliver your baby too early.
Herpes infection can be passed from you to your unborn child before birth but is more commonly passed to your infant during delivery. This can lead to a potentially deadly infection in your baby . It is important that you avoid getting herpes during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, you may be offered anti-herpes medicine towards the end of your pregnancy. This medicine may reduce your risk of having signs or symptoms of genital herpes at the time of delivery. At the time of delivery, your doctor should carefully examine you for herpes sores. If you have herpes symptoms at delivery, a C-section is usually performed.
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How Do I Get Tested
Thats simple. If you are experiencing symptoms, speak to your doctor or visit your local sexual health centre to test for herpes. The doctor will need to do a swab of the blisters or sores and usually offer a complete STI screen. If your test returns a positive diagnosis it is important to seek treatment immediately.