Thursday, May 19, 2022

Is Hiv Already In Your Body

Cancers Common In People With Hiv Infection

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Kaposi sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is a skin cancer that causes multiple flat pink, red, or purple patches or bumps on the skin. It is caused by human herpesvirus type 8 infection. One or a few spots may appear… read more , a cancer caused by a sexually transmitted herpesvirus, appears as painless, red to purple, raised patches on the skin. It occurs mainly in men who have sex with men.

Cancers of the immune system . Often, lymph nodes in the neck, under the arms, or in the groin enlarge rapidly and painlessly… read more ) may develop, sometimes first appearing in the brain. When the brain is affected, these cancers can cause weakness of an arm or a leg, headache, confusion, or personality changes.

Having AIDS increases the risk of other cancers. They include cancer of the cervix, anus, testes, and lungs as well as melanoma and other skin cancers. Men who have sex with men are prone to developing cancer of the rectum due to the same human papillomaviruses Human Papillomavirus Infection Human papillomavirus causes warts. Some types of HPV cause skin warts, and other types cause genital warts . Infection with some HPV… read more that cause cancer of the cervix in women.

How Can I Protect Myself

The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.

If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:

Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.

Through Blood Transfusions Or Organ Transplants

Currently, HIV infection is rarely transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants.

Since 1985 in most developed countries, all blood collected for transfusion is tested for HIV, and when possible, some blood products are treated with heat to eliminate the risk of HIV infection. The current risk of HIV infection from a single blood transfusion is estimated to be less than 1 in about 2 million in the United States. However, in many developing countries, blood and blood products are not screened for HIV or are not screened as stringently. There, the risk remains substantial.

HIV has been transmitted when organs from infected donors were unknowingly used as transplants. HIV transmission is unlikely to occur when corneas or certain specially treated tissues are transplanted.

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Preventive Treatment After Exposure

People who have been exposed to HIV from a blood splash, needlestick, or sexual contact may reduce the chance of infection by taking antiretroviral drugs for 4 weeks. These drugs are more effective when they are started as soon as possible after the exposure. Taking two or more drugs is currently recommended.

Doctors and the person who was exposed typically decide together whether to use these preventive drugs. They base the decision on the estimated risk of infection and the possible side effects of the drugs. If they do not know whether the source is infected with HIV, they consider how likely the source is to be infected. However, even when the source of the exposure is known to be infected with HIV, the risk of infection after exposure varies, depending on the type of exposure. For example, risk from a blood splash is less than that from a needlestick.

Immediately after exposure to HIV infection, what is done depends on the type of exposure:

  • If skin is exposed, it is cleaned with soap and water.

  • Puncture wounds are cleaned with antiseptic.

  • If mucous membranes are exposed, they are flushed with large amounts of water.

French Discoverer Of Hiv Virus Luc Montagnier Dies At 89

HIV/AIDS Facts, Worksheets, Transimission &  Stages For Kids

    PARIS French researcher Luc Montagnier, who won a Nobel Prize in 2008 for discovering the HIV virus and more recently spread false claims about the coronavirus, has died at age 89, local government officials in France said.

    Montagnier died Tuesday at the American Hospital of Paris in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a western suburb of the capital, the area’s city hall said. No other details have been released.

    Montagnier, a virologist, led the team that in 1983 identified the human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS, leading him to share the 2008 Nobel Prize in medicine with colleague Francoise Barré-Sinoussi.

    The French Minister for Higher Education and Research, Frédérique Vidal, praised Montagniers work on HIV in a written statement Thursday and expressed her condolences to his family.

    Montagnier was born in 1932 in the village of Chabris in central France.

    According to his autobiography on the Nobel Prize website, Montagnier studied medicine in Poitiers and Paris. He said recent scientific discoveries in 1957 inspired him to become a virologist in the rapidly advancing field of molecular biology.

    He joined the National Centre for Scientific Research in 1960 and became head of the Pasteur Institutes virology department in 1972.

    My involvement in AIDS began in 1982, when the information circulated that a transmissible agent possibly a virus could be at the origin of this new mysterious disease, Montagnier said in his autobiography.

    The Associated Press

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    How Often Do You Need To Get Tested For Hiv

    How often you should get tested depends on your personal practices, risk behaviours, and how often you engage in them.

    For most people, it is important to have a full sexual health test at least once each year. This testing includes:

    • HIV

    Even if you always use condoms, it is recommended you get tested annually as condoms dont provide 100% protection against HIV and STIs.

    Hiv Effects On The Skeletal System

    People who have the virus tend to lose bone faster than people who donât. Your bones may get brittle and can break more easily. Your hips, especially, may hurt and feel weak.

    Things that might cause this include the virus itself, the inflammation it causes, the medicines you take to treat HIV or related illnesses , and an unhealthy lifestyle. It might also be from a vitamin D deficiency, which is common in people who have HIV.

    To help keep your bones in good shape:

    • Make sure you get plenty of calcium and vitamin D.
    • Exercise in ways that put weight on your bones, like walking or lifting weights.
    • Don’t smoke, and limit how much alcohol you drink.
    • Ask your doctor to check your vitamin D level.

    Talk to your doctor about supplements or other medications to help your bones.

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    Reducing Hiv Risks From Chemsex And Drug Use

    Some people use drugs such as ice , GHB, ecstasy , ketamine and cocaine) to enhance their sexual experiences . Chemsex can make you lose your inhibitions and be risky if you:

    • Inject drugs.
    • Forget to take your HIV medications.
    • Are taking PreP it can be less effective if it is mixed with other drugs.

    Can Hiv Be Prevented Or Avoided

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    The best way to prevent HIV is to not have sex with a person who has HIV, or share a needle with a person who has HIV. However, there is also a medicine called PrEP that people can take before coming into contact with HIV that can prevent them from getting an HIV infection.

    PrEP stands for pre-exposure prophylaxis. It is for people who are at long-term risk of getting HIV either through sexual activity or by injecting drugs. If youre taking PrEP and come into contact with HIV, the medicine makes it difficult for HIV to develop inside your body.

    Other ways to prevent HIV include:

    • When you have sex, practice safer sex by using a condom. The best condom is a male latex condom. A female condom is not as effective but does offer some protection.
    • Do not share needles and syringes.
    • Never let someone elses blood, semen, urine, vaginal fluid, or feces get into your anus, vagina, or mouth.

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    Transmission Of Hiv Infection

    The transmission of HIV requires contact with a body fluid that contains the virus or cells infected with the virus. HIV can appear in nearly any body fluid, but transmission occurs mainly through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. Although tears, urine, and saliva may contain low concentrations of HIV, transmission through these fluids is extremely rare, if it occurs at all.

    HIV is not transmitted by casual contact or by close, nonsexual contact at work, school, or home. No case of HIV transmission has been traced to the coughing or sneezing of an infected person or to a mosquito bite. Transmission from an infected doctor or dentist to a patient is extremely rare.

    HIV is usually transmitted in the following ways:

    HIV is more likely to be transmitted if skin or a mucous membrane is torn or damagedeven if minimally.

    In the United States, Europe, and Australia, HIV has been transmitted mainly through men who have sex with men and the sharing of needles among people who inject drugs, but transmission through heterosexual contact accounts for about one fourth of cases. HIV transmission in Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia occurs primarily between heterosexuals, and HIV infection occurs equally among men and women. In the United States, fewer than 25% of adults who have HIV infection are women. Before 1992, most American women with HIV were infected by injecting drugs with contaminated needles, but now most are infected through heterosexual contact.

    The Effects Of Hiv On The Body

    Most people are likely familiar with HIV, but they may not know how it can affect the body.

    HIV destroys CD4 cells , which are critical to the immune system. CD4 cells are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from common diseases and infections.

    As HIV gradually weakens the bodys natural defenses, signs and symptoms will occur.

    Find out what happens when the virus enters the body and interrupts its systems.

    Once HIV enters the body, it launches a direct attack on the immune system.

    How quickly the virus progresses will vary by:

    • a persons age
    • how quickly theyre diagnosed

    The timing of their treatment can make a huge difference as well.

    HIV targets the types of cells that would normally fight off an invader such as HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4 cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells.

    Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving a person at risk for serious illnesses and infections.

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the final stage of HIV. At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater.

    However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier a person receives treatment, the better their outcome will be.

    Early on, HIV symptoms may be mild enough to be dismissed.

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    How Do You Get Hiv

    HIV is carried in semen , vaginal fluids, anal mucus, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes . You can get HIV from:

    • having vaginal or anal sex

    • sharing needles or syringes for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

    • getting stuck with a needle that has HIV-infected blood on it

    • getting HIV-infected blood, semen , or vaginal fluids into open cuts or sores on your body

    HIV is usually spread through having unprotected sex. Using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex and not sharing needles can help protect you and your partners from HIV. If you do have HIV, treatment can lower or even stop the chances of spreading the virus to other people during sex. If you dont have HIV, theres also a daily medicine called PrEP that can protect you from HIV.

    HIV can also be passed to babies during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A pregnant woman with HIV can take medicine to greatly reduce the chance that her baby will get HIV.

    HIV isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get HIV from kissing, sharing food or drinks, or using the same fork or spoon. HIV is also not spread through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And you cant get HIV from a toilet seat.

    How Long Does It Take For Hiv To Progress To Aids

    Know About

    How long does it take for HIV to progress to AIDS? In all but a few rare cases, if left untreated, HIV will progress to a stage of infection called AIDS. This is when the immune defenses have been compromised, and the body is less able to defend itself against potentially life-threatening infections.

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    What Is A Retrovirus

    rather than as DNA DNA Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body. Chromosomes are structures within cells… read more .

    When HIV enters a human cell, it releases its RNA, and an enzyme called reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the HIV RNA. The resulting HIV DNA is integrated into the infected cells DNA. This process is the reverse of that used by human cells, which make an RNA copy of DNA. Thus, HIV is called a retrovirus, referring to the reversed process.

    Other RNA viruses , unlike retroviruses, do not make DNA copies after they invade cells. They simply make RNA copies of their original RNA.

    Each time an HIV-infected cell divides, it makes a new copy of the integrated HIV DNA as well as its own genes. The HIV DNA copy is either

    • Inactive : The virus is present but does no damage.

    • Activated: The virus takes over the functions of the infected cell, causing it to produce and release many new copies of HIV, which then invade other cells.

    HIV-1 originated in Central Africa during the first half of the 20th century when a closely related chimpanzee virus first infected people. The global spread of HIV-1 began in the late 1970s, and AIDS was first recognized in 1981.

    Is There A Cure For Hiv And Aids

    FAST FACTS

    • There is no cure for HIV, although antiretroviral treatment can control the virus, meaning that people with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

    • Most research is looking for a functional cure where HIV is permanently reduced to undetectable and harmless levels in the body, but some residual virus may remain.

    • Other research is looking for a sterilising cure where HIV is removed from the body completely, but this is more complicated and risky.

    • Trials of HIV vaccines are encouraging, but so far only offer partial protection.

    There is no cure for HIV yet. However, antiretroviral treatment can control HIV and allow people to live a long and healthy life.

    For some people, treatment can reduce the level of HIV in their body to such a low amount that they are unable to pass it on . Having an undetectable viral load can keep you healthy, but its not a cure for HIV. To maintain an undetectable viral load a person must keep adhering to their antiretroviral treatment.

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    Could You Catch Sars

    In one small study, the new coronavirus has been detected in semen in a quarter of patients during active infection and in a bit less than 10% of patients who apparently recovered. In this study, viral RNA was what was detected, and it is not yet known if this RNA was from still infectious or dead virus in the semen and if alive whether the virus can be sexually transmitted. So many important questions remain unanswered.

    Ebola is a very different virus from SARS-C0V-2 yet serves as an example of viral persistence in immune-privileged sites. In some individuals, Ebola virus survives in immune-privileged sites for months after resolution of the acute illness. Survivors of Ebola have been documented with persistent infections in the testes, eyes, placenta and central nervous system.

    The WHO recommends for male Ebola survivors that semen be tested for virus every three months. They also suggest that couples abstain from sex for 12 months after recovery or until their semen tests negative for Ebola twice. As noted above, we need to learn more about persistent new coronavirus infections before similar recommendations can be considered.

    Can Hiv Be Prevented

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    To reduce the risk of getting HIV, people who are sexually active should:

    • use a condom every time they have sex
    • get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too
    • reduce their number of sexual partners
    • get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
    • consider taking a medicine every day if they are at very high risk of getting infected

    For everyone:

    • Do not inject drugs or share any kind of needle.
    • Do not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood.
    • Do not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore.

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    What Should I Do Until Theres A Cure For Hiv

    For now, the best thing to do for your health is to test regularly for HIV. Testing is the only way to know for sure if you have the virus.

    If youve already tested and your result is positive, youll be advised to start antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible. Treatment is the only way to manage HIV and prevent it from damaging your immune system. It also reduces the risk of passing HIV on to your sexual partners. With treatment, people living with HIV can have long and healthy lives.

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