Using Barrier Protection And Prep
Using a method of barrier protection, such as a condom, during every sexual act can drastically reduce the chances of contracting HIV and other STIs.
In their 2019 guidelines, the Preventive Services Task Force advise that doctors only recommend PrEP to people with recent negative HIV tests.
They also approve a PrEP formation: a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine. They advise people who take PrEP to do so once a day.
The have also approved a second combination drug tenofovir alafenamide and emtricitabine as PrEP.
Epidemiology Of Hiv Infection
HIV has spread in epidemiologically distinct patterns:
Men who have sex with men
Contact with infected blood
In most countries, all patterns occur, but the first pattern usually predominates in developed countries the second pattern predominates in Africa, South America, and southern Asia.
In areas where heterosexual transmission is dominant, HIV infection follows routes of trade, transportation, and economic migration to cities and spreads secondarily to rural areas. In Africa, particularly southern Africa, the HIV epidemic has killed tens of millions of young adults, creating millions of orphans. Factors that perpetuate spread include
Poverty and domestic violence
Deficient systems of medical care that do not provide access to HIV testing and antiretroviral drugs
However, through international efforts, as of 2019, an estimated 25.4 million people living with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy, dramatically reducing deaths and transmission in many countries.
Human herpesvirus 8 infection, which causes Kaposi sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is a multicentric vascular tumor caused by herpesvirus type 8. It can occur in classic, AIDS-associated, endemic , and iatrogenic … read more , is common among men who have sex with men but uncommon among other HIV patients in the United States and Europe. Thus, in the United States, > 90% of AIDS patients who have developed Kaposi sarcoma are men who have sex with men.
The Center For Hiv And Infectious Diseases At Jsi And World Education
The Center for HIV & Infectious Diseases mobilizes JSI and World Educations state-of-the-art technical expertise from more than 300 HIV and infectious diseases projects in over 73 countries. From long-term public health priorities including HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, to emerging pandemic threats including coronavirus and Ebola, we design, implement, evaluate and support highly effective public health programs. Our work achieves immediate outcomes while considering social determinants and structural barriers, both in program design as well as during implementation. Drawing on our success in the United States and internationally, our experts strengthen health systems, support effective community-led responses, and promote health care access and engagement.
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Good News: Hiv Is Not A Communicable Disease
September 1, 2012
It is an incontestable fact that the single most significant health condition of the last 30 years has been the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS stimulated a billion dollar industry devoted to its cure and prevention. By some accounts the USA has spent $344 billion on HIV/AIDS since 1981. By raising a number of complex legal and ethical issues, AIDS redirected traditional approaches to informed consent, confidentiality and the clinical testing of experimental drugs.
In the mid-1980s the fear and suspicion surrounding this new condition lead to a believe that the transmission of HIV/AIDS could occur during the routine practice of dentistry. Although this thought was never substantiated, its presence resulted in a revolution in dental infection control recommendations and practices. Recent pronouncements by the USA Centers for Disease Control question the validity of the dramatic changes that have occurred and are continuing to occur in dentistrys approach to the prevention of disease transmission.
Is this an admission by the US government that HIV is not infectious? At present, it is probably impossible to answer that question. However, what is passing strange is the apparent failure of any of the popular media to publicize the final rule. Indeed, it is only recently that it was brought to the attention of the author.
Dr. Hardie was intimately involved in the development of the RCDSO 1996 evidence-based guidelines.
Opinion: Black Women Face Three Pandemics
Lesson #3: Trust in public-health interventions is developed over time, through mutual respect
Communities are wary of outside experts descending on them, dictating what they must do with their health and their bodies, Martin says. Relationships need to be developed over time, not just during a crisis, so people can see the consistent, everyday benefits of public-health measures. Such relationships not only build trust, they also build infrastructure: supply chains, laboratories that sequence viral genomes, communications networks of doctors and nurses who share real-world experience about best practices.
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Immunologic Control Of Hiv
The primary mechanism for immunologic control of HIV appears to be CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. T-cell responses are correlated with the steady-state viral load and hence, the rate of progression. Cellular immunity is apparently responsible for some multiply-exposed, but uninfected individuals.
Although antibodies against HIV can be detected, it is clear that they are not sufficiently neutralizing to assist with immunologic control of the infection.
The role of NK cells may be important in the initial control of HIV. Escape mutations have been detected, implying that immunologic pressure on HIV exists from NK cells.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv/aids
The first signs of HIV infection may be flu-like symptoms:
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Mouth ulcers
These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection.
If the infection is not treated, it becomes chronic HIV infection. Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not treated, eventually the virus will weaken your body’s immune system. Then the infection will progress to AIDS. This is the late stage of HIV infection. With AIDS, your immune system is badly damaged. You can get more and more severe infections. These are known as opportunistic infections .
Some people may not feel sick during the earlier stages of HIV infection. So the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested.
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Infectious Disease Doctor Sees Similarities Between Covid Hiv Pandemics
As an infectious disease fellow at Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Lewis Musoke, MD 16, is combating two pandemics at onceCOVID-19, which the world has grappled with for nearly two years, and the still prevalent human immunodeficiency virus, better known as HIV.
Growing up in Kenya, Dr. Musoke was all too familiar with HIV. It was not only in the community but in his household and his circle of friends. Thats why he has committed his career to not only caring for patients afflicted with such diseases but making sure that his community is equipped with the information and resources they need to prevent it.
The St. Georges University graduate shared what he sees as similarities between the two pandemics, and the role he thinks the greater community can play to assist in the fight.
SGU: What do you think is the biggest issue in the HIV community?
Dr. Musoke: Theres a lot of stigma when it comes to HIV, and while weve come up with good medications to treat and suppress the virus, we still havent gotten to the point where we can sit down and talk about it the way we talk about diabetes or high blood pressure without feeling ashamed. And if youre not talking about it, then in all likelihood youre not thinking about it.
SGU: What parallels do you see between the HIV/AIDS crisis and the ongoing COVID pandemic?
Strengthening Systems To Improve Health Outcomes
Since the beginning of the epidemic, JSI has been committed to ending HIV and promoting equitable access to prevention and care services. We collaborate with organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs across the care continuum, and to improve health service delivery for people who live with HIV and syndemics, including sexually transmitted infections , viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, and substance misuse. The core of our work is capacity development so that upon completion, our projects leave stronger systems, organizations, and people.
We bring a racial justice and health equity lens to all of our work, as well as a commitment to cultural humility. Our staff includes individuals with lived experience, as well as clinicians and experts in health systems transformation, data and evaluation, quality improvement, policy development, community engagement, workforce development, and program implementation. We are dedicated to the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and to the success of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative.
For more than 30 years, we have fostered respectful and long-term partnerships with federal agencies, health departments, community-based organizations , coalitions, health centers, and hospitals to improve access to health and social services for underserved communities nationwide.
We have the expertise to:
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Should I Get Vaccines If I Have Hiv/aids
Check with your healthcare provider. Certain vaccines are generally recommended, including:
- Influenza vaccine.
- Human papillomavirus vaccine if you are age 26 or younger.
- Meningococcal series of shots.
- Pneumonia vaccine.
- Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine, with a repeat every 10 years of the tetanus/diphtheria vaccine.
You should probably avoid live vaccines, such as the ones for chickenpox and measles, mumps and rubella . This is true especially if your CD4 numbers are 200 or lower. Make sure you discuss vaccine questions with your healthcare provider.
HIV can affect how well the vaccine works. It can also make your viral load increase for a time because your immune system is stimulated by the vaccine.
Where Did Hiv Come From
The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was detected in a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggested that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s.
We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s. From 19791981 rare types of pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses were being reported by doctors in Los Angeles and New York among a number of male patients who had sex with other men. These were conditions not usually found in people with healthy immune systems.
In 1982 public health officials began to use the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” or AIDS, to describe the occurrences of opportunistic infections, Kaposi’s sarcoma , and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in previously healthy people. Formal tracking of AIDS cases began that year in the United States.
In 1983, scientists discovered the virus that causes AIDS. The virus was at first named HTLV-III/LAV by an international scientific committee. This name was later changed to HIV .
For more information on this discovery, visit the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases press release. For information on the theory that HIV originated in polio vaccines, visit the CDC Vaccine Safety site.
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How Is Hiv/aids Diagnosed
Early HIV infection often causes no symptoms, and must be detected by testing a person’s blood for the presence of antibodiesdisease-fighting proteinsagainst HIV. These HIV antibodies generally do not reach levels high enough to detect by standard blood tests until 1 to 3 months following infection, and may take as long as 6 months. People exposed to HIV should be tested for HIV infection as soon as they think they may have been exposed to HIV.
When a person is highly likely to be infected with HIV and yet antibody tests are negative, a test for the presence of HIV itself in the blood is used. Repeat antibody testing at a later date, when antibodies to HIV are more likely to have developed, is often recommended.
How Can I Know If I Have Hiv
The only way to know if you have HIV is to take an HIV test. Many medical groups recommend routine voluntary HIV screening of all patients aged 18 to 75 years of age as a normal part of medical care. The reason for this is that nearly one out of seven people infected with HIV are not aware that they have the infection.
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What You Can Do To Reduce Stigma
You can help reduce stigma by being respectful, compassionate and non-judgemental. Model this behaviour for others when you witness stigmatizing behaviours.
When talking about HIV, certain terms can be stigmatizing. Be thoughtful about the words you use when discussing the topic.
Learn more about the facts of HIV. Treatment can lower the amount of virus in a person’s blood to a level that’s too low to be measured on a standard blood test. This means it’s undetectable.
People living with HIV on treatment who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their sexual partners.
Knowing and sharing these facts widely can help to reduce stigma. Share our Undetectable = Untransmittable infographic to help us raise awareness.
In addition, HIV is not transmitted through:
- healthy, unbroken skin
The Spread And Evolution Of The Virus
In order to understand the spread and evolution of the virus, the research group uses techniques similar to the ones they have developed in their HIV research. Another area that Jan Albert is part of developing together with researchers at the research center SciLifeLab is diagnostics.
Today, doctors order certain tests based on the illness they suspect. But future methodology, so-called metagenomics, will allow us to get all the information from a single test. This increases the possibility of arriving at the right diagnosis, for example in cases where you suspect an infectious disease but are unable to determine which one. Using this new diagnostics, we will have the answer right away, says Jan Albert.
He enjoys doing research closely associated with clinical reality. The fact that Jan Albert is concerned with the patients situation is also clear from his active involvement in the public debate on several important issues surrounding HIV, for example how it is transmitted during sex. Today, there is well-documented evidence that the risk of transmission during effective HIV treatment is non-existent. The awareness that it is safe to have unprotected sex as long as you are taking your medications has emerged gradually, but already in 2011, there was a study showing such unambiguous results in this regard that it had to be prematurely interrupted for ethical reasons.
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Hiv Treatment The Viral Reservoir And Hiv Dna
Antiretroviral therapy stops HIV from replicating , but effective treatment does not completely eliminate the virus from the body. HIV lies dormant inside a small number of cells in the body, resulting in viral reservoirs. If treatment is stopped, these reservoirs can become active and start producing HIV. Learn more about HIV treatment, the viral reservoir, and HIV DNA.
Achieving and maintaining a durably undetectable viral load by taking HIV medications daily as prescribed preserves the health of the person living with HIV and prevents sexual transmission of the virus to others. Learn more about HIV suppression.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
The management of an HIV-positive patient is complex. It should be carried out by an interprofessional health care team that includes nurses, a social worker, a family doctor, an internal medicine specialist, a pharmacist, and an infectious disease specialist. If an opportunistic infection or a mass develops, the patient should be evaluated by an oncologist and/or surgeon. Psychological support must be provided once the diagnosis of HIV is made.
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Why Is The Study Of Hiv/aids A Priority For Niaid
HIV remains a major global public health concern. HIV treatment and prevention begin with knowing ones HIV status. Effective treatments are available to help people with HIV live long, healthy lives and prevent HIV transmission to others. Additional prevention tools are available for those who are HIV-negative. In addition to existing treatment and prevention methods, a safe and effective vaccine is needed to ensure a durable end to the HIV pandemic. As the leading U.S. government institute for biomedical HIV/AIDS research, NIAID is committed to conducting research to prevent new transmissions, end HIV-related deaths and complications, and discover a cure.
When To See A Doctor
See a doctor immediately if you have been exposed to HIV. HIV may be prevented if a certain medicine is taken within 72 hours of exposure.
You cant rely on symptoms to tell you that you have HIV. Only HIV testing will tell you if you have the infection. About 1 in 7 Americans with HIV is not aware they have it. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 gets tested for HIV at least once. People who believe they may have been exposed to HIV or who are at higher risk for HIV should consider getting tested more frequently.
You are at a higher risk for HIV infection and should be tested if you:
- Are a man who has had sex with another man
- Have had anal or vaginal sex with an HIV-infected partner
- Have had more than one sex partner since their last HIV test
- Inject drugs and share needles with others
- Have or had another sexually transmitted disease
- Have or had hepatitis or tuberculosis
- Had sex with someone who could fall into any of these categories or whose sexual history you dont know
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How Is Niaid Addressing This Critical Topic
NIAID researchers and grantee institutions advance understanding of disease mechanisms and cooperate to move novel HIV prevention and treatment strategies from basic research into clinical practice. With the generous help of clinical research volunteers, investigators at NIH and around the world create opportunities for the discovery, development and evaluation of technologies and tools that can play a role in decreasing HIV transmission, improving the health of people with HIV, and ultimately ending the pandemic.