What About Blood Or Breast Milk
HIV is sometimes passed on from mother to child during pregnancy. It can also happen during birth or when breastfeeding. However, the risk of this can be reduced, providing that the mother has received a diagnosis. Pregnant women who take HIV medication can reduce the risk of infecting their child. They may also have a C-section instead of a natural birth. HIV medication is also given to babies for several weeks after birth. In countries where safe drinking water is accessible, formula milk is recommended.
There are also other ways HIV could be contracted through contact with positive blood. These include health workers accidentally being exposed to infected fluids and blood transfusions. However, both of these are very unlikely, especially in developed countries. There are some countries where the risk of infection from a blood transfusion is higher for example, some countries in Africa or the former Soviet Union.
No 5 Having Vaginal Sex : 1 In 2500
A woman who is HIV positive can transmit the virus to her male partner through vaginal fluid and blood, which may pass through the urethra , the foreskin , or any open sores on the penis.
- Reduce the risk. Using a condom and water- or silicone-based lubricants, which can help lessen the chance that condoms will break or slip can help reduce a mans risk of getting HIV from an HIV-positive partner. Female condoms, which are made of a synthetic latex called nitrile and fit into the vagina during sex, are as protective as male condoms.
Is There A Cure For Hiv
There is no cure for HIV, but there are medications that are highly effective at controlling it. If you are diagnosed with HIV it is vital to get treatment as soon as you can. Recent studies show starting treatment soon after diagnoses can reduce the risk of HIV related health complications by up to 50%.
Most people only take one or two pills a day which is a simple treatment regime compared to many illnesses. While there are still side effects, these can usually be managed with support from an HIV specialist doctor.
If left untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS, which is a life threatening syndrome.
Also Check: Does Hiv Cause Hair Loss
How Is Hiv Diagnosed
A doctor may suspect HIV if symptoms last and no other cause can be found.
If a test on urine or saliva shows that you are infected with HIV, you will probably have a blood test to confirm the results.
Most doctors use a blood test to diagnose HIV infection. If the test is positive , a test to detect HIV DNA or RNA will be done to be sure.
HIV antibodies may show up in the blood as early as 2 to 4 weeks after contact but can also take as long as 3 to 6 months to show up in the blood. If you think you have been exposed to HIV but you test negative for it:
- Get tested again. A repeat test can be done after a few weeks to be sure you are not infected.
- Meanwhile, take steps to prevent the spread of the virus, in case you do have it.
You can get HIV testing in most doctors offices, public health units, hospitals, and HIV care clinics.
Also Check: When Did Hiv Drugs Come Out
What Is The Risk If The Hiv Positive Person Is On Treatment
HIV treatment dramatically reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
If the HIV positive person has an undetectable viral load on treatment this becomes zero.
The reported ZERO HIV transmission after more than 58,000 times when HIV positive people with undetectable viral load had sex WITHOUT using condoms. The reported ZERO transmission in gay couples after approximately 77,000 times that gay couple had sex without condoms.
You May Like: Does Nba Youngboy Have An Std
Male Vs Female Partners
When having vaginal sex without a condom with a partner who has a penis, the vaginal membranes are more likely to tear than the partners penis.
In condomless anal sex with a partner who has a penis, the rectal membranes are also more likely to tear than the partners penis. Microscopic tears create an easier path for HIV and other STIs to enter the body when exposed.
Its possible for a partner with a penis to contract HIV during vaginal and anal sex. If a female partner is living with HIV with a detectable viral load, it can be carried in her vaginal secretions. If her partner has open sores on their mouth or penis, they can create a gateway for vaginal secretions or other bodily fluids with HIV to enter the body.
Uncircumcised men are at higher risk of contracting HIV from condomless sex than circumcised men. The delicate membranes of foreskin can tear during sex, creating a pathway for HIV to enter the body.
Saliva Sweat Tears Urine Or Feces
HIV cannot be spread by sharing drinking glasses or by casual kissing. The risk of spreading the virus through “deep” kissing in which large amounts of saliva are exchanged is extremely low. Only one unproven case has ever been reported.
No cases of HIV spread have ever been reported after a person has come in contact with the sweat, tears, urine, or feces of an HIV-infected person.
Don’t Miss: Atlanta Hiv Statistics 2016
Challenges In Calculating A Number
It isn’t easy for researchers to calculate the risk of transmission from an exposure to HIV through sex. To do this effectively, a group of HIV-negative individuals need to be followed over time and their exposures to HIV — both the number of times they are exposed and the types of exposure — need to be tracked.
As you can imagine, accurately tracking the number of times a person is exposed to HIV is very difficult. Researchers ask HIV-negative individuals enrolled in these studies to report how many times they have had sex in a given period of time, what type of sex they had, how often they used condoms and the HIV status of their partner. Because a person may have trouble remembering their sexual behaviour or may not want to tell the whole truth, this reporting is often inaccurate.
Furthermore, a person does not always know the HIV status of their partner. For this reason, researchers usually enroll HIV-negative individuals who are in stable relationships with an HIV-positive partner . Researchers can then conclude that any unprotected sex reported by a study participant counts as an exposure to HIV.
I Am Worried About Taking An Hiv Test
It is common to worry whenever you take a test.
If it turns out that you are HIV-positive, then it is better for you to know this as early as possible. You can then access appropriate monitoring and treatment. It will also help protect your sexual partners.
If it turns out that you are HIV-negative, then knowing this for certain will stop you worrying about this aspect of life.
An HIV test will focus you on your sexual health. If it is negative, use this experience to become aware of your sexual health in the futures. If you are sexually active, and take risks in the future, repeat the test every year as part of an annual check up.
Read Also: How To Find Out If Someone Has Hiv Aids
Are Hiv Tests Accurate
Yes. Modern HIV tests are very accurate within the time limits that they are recommended.
A 4th generation HIV test will detect 95% of infections at 28 days after exposure. It will detect 99% of infections at 6 weeks. At 3 months it will detect more than 99.99% of infections.
False negative results are very rare from any blood test. They have been reported with some oral tests if they are not given correctly. If you are worried about this, then a second will confirm whether the result is a test error.
A positive test result always needs to be routinely confirmed using a different type of test. When used as a confirmatory test this is close to 100% accurate.
If you are still worried, for example because of symptoms, then a viral load test will show if HIV is present. If the viral load test is negative, then the symptoms are not related to HIV.
What is the difference between 3rd and 4th generation tests?
- 3rd generation tests look for antibodies to HIV. Rapid tests are 3rd generation. Antibodies take time to be produced. This means that 3rd generation tests tell you about your HIV status 8-12 weeks before you took the test.
- 4th generation tests look for both antibodies and antigens . HIV is detectable before antibodies are produced. This means that 4th generation tests tell you about your HIV status 3-6 weeks before you took the test. It is only at 6 weeks though that 99% of cases will be picked up
Isnt Hiv Only A Risk For Certain Groups Of People
Like most illnesses, HIV doesnt discriminate between types of people and the infection can be passed on to anyone via one of the ways mentioned above.
Some people are more vulnerable to HIV infection if they engage regularly in certain activities that are more likely to transmit the virus. However, its a common misunderstanding that HIV only affects certain groups.
While not everyone has the same level of HIV risk, everyone can reduce their risk of infection.
Also Check: Does Walgreens Do Hiv Testing
How Are Results Given
Your test centre should clearly explain the results of your test.
If you have questions that we not explained, or that still worry you, go back to ask that centre again.
Results are generally given as:
- Negative / non-reactive = HIV-negative = You do not have HIV
- Positive / reactive = HIV-positive = You have HIV infection
- Indeterminate = the test results was unclear and will be checked with another test
Hiv Treatment As Prevention
People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.
ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.
The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.
Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of less than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:
- using a condom or other barrier method during sex
- reducing the number of sexual partners
- getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
- avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
- if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
- following all workplace safety protocols
People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.
Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.
Also Check: How Does Cookie Johnson Not Have Hiv
Multiple Vulnerabilities Increase Risk In Men And Women
Vaginal sex is one of the primary ways a person can become infected with HIV. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, it accounts for about 6,300 new infections among women each year in the U.S. and about 2,800 new infections among heterosexual men.
Globally, the figures are even more dismaying. While the sexual transmission of HIV in the U.S. is highest among gay and bisexual men , heterosexuals are by far the group most affected worldwide.
This is especially true in Africa where most new infections are among heterosexuals. In these populations, vaginal sex is the predominant route of infection.
Putting A Number On It: The Risk From An Exposure To Hiv
This information was provided by CATIE . For more information, contact CATIE at 1-800-263-1638.
Author: James Wilton
Service providers working in HIV prevention are often asked by their patients and clients about the risk of HIV transmission from an exposure to HIV through sex. What do the latest studies tell us about this risk? And how should we interpret and communicate the results?
Recommended Reading: Does Cookie Johnson Have Hiv
How Hard Is It To Contract Hiv
by LukePublished on December 9, 2016Updated on March 5, 2019
If youre wondering how hard is it to contract HIV, chances are its because of the many misconceptions surrounding HIV. There are lots of myths people fall for, which can be difficult to dispel. Many people dont learn about HIV and AIDS in school. Even those who do learn about it often forget what theyve learned or arent taught much. One of the things many people have misunderstandings about is how HIV is transmitted. Many people believe that it can be transmitted through kissing or touching. Understanding HIV and AIDS and how hard is it to contract HIV is important for a number of reasons. Its essential for people to look after their own sexual health as well as reduce the stigma surrounding how to contract HIV.
Why Hiv Spreads Less Easily In Heterosexual Couples
HIV particles invade a human immune cell. When HIV is transmitted through sex, only the strongest versions of the virus establish long-term infection. Chris Bjornberg/ScienceSourcehide caption
HIV is sexist.
A woman is twice as likely to catch the virus from an infected partner in a heterosexual relationship than a man is.
And homosexual men are at even greater risk. They’re more than 20 times as likely to get infected from an HIV-positive partner than partners in a heterosexual relationship.
Now scientists at Microsoft Research and the Zambia-Emory HIV Project have a clue about why these disparities exist.
Only the strongest, most evolutionary “fit” versions of the virus tend to infect a man when he has sex with an HIV-positive woman, scientist report Thursday in the journal Science.
Recommended Reading: How Long Does It Take For Hiv To Become Aids
If I Get Infected Fluid From An Hiv
No, HIV is not always passed on from someone living with HIV. There are lots of reasons why this is the case. For example, if the HIV-positive person is on effective treatment it will reduce the amount of HIV in their body. If a doctor confirms that the virus has reached undetectable levels it means there is no risk of passing it on.
If youre concerned that youve been exposed to HIV you may be eligible to take post-exposure prophylaxis , which stops the virus from becoming an infection. However its not available everywhere and has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
Its really important to take a HIV test every time you think you have been at risk of HIV.
How Hiv Is Transmitted
HIV is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses.
HIV lives in the blood and in some body fluids. To get HIV, 1 of these fluids from someone with HIV has to get into your blood.
The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are:
- vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
- breast milk
- contact with animals or insects like mosquitoes
Also Check: How Long Can Hiv Lay Dormant
Does This Symptom Related To Hiv
Most people worried about a recent infection mistake common symptoms of other illnesses with HIV. Stress and worry can cause and contribute to these symptoms. Information about .
If you have any symptoms that are worrying you, then seek medical advice from a doctor or other health care worker. The people working at i-Base are not doctors. We cannot diagnose HIV or any other illness.
Which Test Can I Use
In the UK, tests sent to a laboratory should be 4th generation antigen/antibody test. HIV testing is free in the UK and most other countries. UK guidelines recommend waiting six weeks to have a test. If you do this there is then no need to have a second test to check the result.
Rapid HIV tests where you see the result while you wait, are 3rd generation tests. These only tell you your HIV status eight weeks ago. Rapid refers to the results being quick, not that you can use then after a recent risk.
Viral load test are not approved or recommended for diagnosing HIV. They are sometimes used though. For example after a very high risk especially if there are symptoms consistent with seroconversion.
It is not recommended to use viral load to test for HIV. Although some private clinics offer them for this use, they will not give you an accurate answer.
Also Check: Does Cookie Johnson Have Hiv
Treatments That Help Reduce The Risk Of Hiv Transmission
If your partner is HIV positive, talk to your doctor about whether you should start taking a medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. These pills, which help prevent HIV from establishing itself in the body, can reduce a persons risk of permanent infection by up to 92 percent if taken consistently, according to the CDC.
If youre HIV negative and believe you might have been exposed to the virus, you can take an emergency medication called post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, which can lower your odds of being permanently infected with HIV. In order to work as effectively as possible, the medication has to be started within 72 hours of exposure and must be taken consistently once or twice a day for 28 days.
Finally, if your partner is HIV positive, he or she can drastically reduce the odds of passing along the virus by taking antiretroviral therapy, or ART. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body to a level thats undetectable by modern testing. An international study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in July 2016 found that none of the more than 1,000 HIV-positive people whose levels were undetectable passed the virus to their HIV-negative partners during unprotected anal or vaginal sex during an average of two years.