Stis And Blood Hiv Burden
A related question is the effects of STIs on blood viral burden. As noted above, genital ulcers significantly increase the amount of viral RNA shed in both the male and female genital tracts . Buchaz et al. reported increased HIV in blood in people with primary and secondary syphilis . Dyer et al. found an increase in blood viral burden in men with genital ulcers and urethritis. Celum et al. found a modest reduction of HIV in blood from treatment of HSV-2 with acyclovir. Lingappa et al. reported that acyclovir could reduce progression of HIV disease in people dually infected with HIV and HSV-2. These results suggest a systemic effect of HSV-2 infection.
Antiretroviral therapy is highly effective at suppressing HIV-1 replication in the blood, including in people with STIs. In a meta-analysis of 14 studies looking at the effects of STI infection on HIV-1 blood viral load, Champredon and colleagues concluded that co-infection with an STI correlates with a 0.11 log10 increase in HIV-1 viral load suggesting that when an individual is suppressed on ART, STIs have little effect on blood viral load .
Spreading Hiv And Stds
HIV and STDs are both contracted by having unprotected sexual contact of any kind. This includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
But sexual contact isnt the only way to contract an STD or HIV. Pathogens like HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C can also be spread by sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia.
Birthing parents can also pass HIV and some STDs on to babies while pregnant, during delivery, or through breastfeeding. For example, chlamydia and gonorrhea are two types of pathogens that can be passed to a baby during delivery.
Challenge To Noble: Prove ‘hiv’ Is Sexually Transmitted
I recently wrote to Mr. Noble regarding my hypothesis thatrecreational drug-use can make the non-specific HIV test run positivewith the following:
My evidence is covertly inferred in thousands ofscientific papers that make reference to recreational drug-use and ‘HIV’positivity. If you deconstruct these texts you will see that ‘HIV’positivity is merely a marker for recreational drug-use and/or Malaria,TB,and disease conditions relating to malnutrition and poverty.
Mr. Noble responded with his usual sarcasm and obfuscation:
Unfortunately my Magic Denialist Decoder Ring seems to have beenlost in the mail along with the pair of Magic Denialist Spectacles .
There has never been an EM of HIV in the vicinity or anywhere else.Mr. Noble goes on off the tracks again:
What Alexander Russell really means is that the association of HIVwith AIDS is not proof of causation but that the association of drug usewith HIV infection and AIDS is proof..
I do not mean that because there is no such thing as HIV infection.Mr. Noble rants on:
Deconstruction of the literature then can be seen to mean: I willignore all evidence that conflicts with my hypothesis and will jump on allevidence no matter how tenuous that can be made to support it.
Below is deconstructive evidence for the hypothesis that HIV isnot a sexually transmitted retrovirus. I challenge Mr. Noble, afterreading the following, to prove that HIV is a sexually transmittedretrovirus.
BBC News : reported:
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Vaccines And Other Biomedical Interventions
Safe and highly effective vaccines are available for 2 STIs: hepatitis B and HPV. These vaccines have represented major advances in STI prevention. The vaccine against hepatitis B is included in infant immunization programmes in 95% of countries and prevents millions of deaths from chronic liver disease and cancer annually.
As of October 2018, the HPV vaccine is available as part of routine immunization programmes in 85 countries, most of them high- and middle-income. HPV vaccination could prevent the deaths of millions of women over the next decade in low- and middle-income countries, where most cases of cervical cancer occur, if high vaccination coverage of young women can be achieved.
Research to develop vaccines against herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine candidates in early clinical development. Research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis is in earlier stages of development.
Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult male circumcision and microbicides.
- Male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men by approximately 60% and provides some protection against other STIs, such as herpes and HPV.
- Tenofovir gel, when used as a vaginal microbicide, has had mixed results in terms of the ability to prevent HIV acquisition, but has shown some effectiveness against HSV-2.
If I Already Have Hiv And Then I Get An Std Does That Put My Sex Partner At An Increased Risk For Getting Hiv
It can. If you already have HIV, and then get another STD, it can put your HIV-negative partners at greater risk of getting HIV from you.
Your sex partners are less likely to get HIV from you if you
- Get on and stay on treatment called antiretroviral therapy . Taking HIV medicine as prescribed can make your viral load very low by reducing the amount of virus in your blood and body fluids. HIV medicine can make your viral load so low that a test cant detect it . If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to HIV-negative partners, even if you have other STDs.
- Choose less risky sex activities.
- Use a new condom, consistently and correctly, for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act .
The risk of getting HIV also may be reduced if your partner takes PrEP medications, as prescribed, after discussing this option with his or her healthcare provider and determining whether it is appropriate. When taken as prescribed, PrEP medications are highly effective for preventing HIV from sex. PrEP is much less effective if it is not taken consistently. Since PrEP does not protect against other STDs, use condoms the right way every time you have sex.
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What Can I Do To Prevent Getting Stds And Hiv
The only 100% effective way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting STDs and HIV:
- Choose less risky sex activities
- Use a new condom, consistently and correctly, for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act
- Reduce the number of people with whom you have sex
- Limit or eliminate drug and alcohol use before and during sex
- Have an honest and open talk with your healthcare provider and ask whether you should be tested for STDs and HIV
- Talk to your healthcare provider and find out if either pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, or post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is a good option for you to prevent HIV infection.
How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv
You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:
- Semen and pre-seminal fluid
- Rectal fluids
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.
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Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV and AIDS are not the same thing. And people with HIV do not always have AIDS.
HIV is the virus thats passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system that helps protect you from infections. When you dont have enough of these CD4 cells, your body cant fight off infections the way it normally can.
AIDS is the disease caused by the damage that HIV does to your immune system. You have AIDS when you get dangerous infections or have a super low number of CD4 cells. AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV, and it leads to death over time.
Without treatment, it usually takes about 10 years for someone with HIV to develop AIDS. Treatment slows down the damage the virus causes and can help people stay healthy for several decades.
Why Does Having An Std Put Me More At Risk For Getting Hiv
If you get an STD, you are more likely to get HIV than someone who is STD-free. This is because the same behaviors and circumstances that may put you at risk for getting an STD also can put you at greater risk for getting HIV. In addition, having a sore or break in the skin from an STD may allow HIV to more easily enter your body. If you are sexually active, get tested for STDs and HIV regularly, even if you dont have symptoms.
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People With Hiv And Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually transmitted infections are very common among people who are sexually active. Anyone who has sex is at risk, including people with HIV. STIs are also commonly referred to as sexually transmitted diseases .
STIs are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual activity, including anal, vaginal, or oral sex. HIV is an STI. Other types of STIs include:
- Human papillomavirus
STIs in the United States have increased in the past 5 years and are a public health crisis. Many STIs do not have symptoms, but when left undetected and untreated they can lead to serious health consequences. If you have HIV, it can be harder to treat STIs, especially if you have a low CD4 count. Thats why STI testing and treatment should be part of your regular HIV care if youre sexually active.
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also be transmitted through sexual contact and pose health risks to people with HIV. Read more about these viruses.
Std Statistics In The Us
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly 20 million new STD infections occur every year, accounting for almost $16 billion in healthcare costs. In 2017, the bulk of infections were primarily constrained to three diseases:
- Chlamydia: 1,708,569 infections at a rate of 529 per 100,000
- Gonorrhea: 555,608 infections at a rate of 172 per 100,000
- Syphilis : 30,644 infections at a rate of 9 per 100,000
The rate of STD infections is particularly high among gay and bisexual men who, not surprisingly, account for the highest rate of HIV infections in the U.S.
Gay and bisexual men account for almost all primary and secondary syphilis cases.
To this end, If you are a sexually active gay or bisexual man, you should be tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV at least once a year. More frequent STD testing, between every three to six months, is recommended for gay or bisexual men at high risk, especially those who have multiple sex partners, use recreational drugs, or practice condomless sex.
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British Columbia Specific Information
A sexually transmitted infection affects both men and women, and is passed from one person to another during sex or intimate contact. There are numerous ways you can protect yourself against STIs, see HealthLinkBC File #08o Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections .
To learn about the different STIs, symptoms, and treatment, see the HealthLinkBC Files – Sexually Transmitted Infection Series. Further information is also available from SmartSex Resource, BC Centre for Disease Control and BC Centre for Excellence in HIV / AIDS.
If you have concerns about an STI or want additional information, speak with your health care provider, or call HealthLinkBC at 8-1-1. You can call 8-1-1 and speak to a registered nurse anonymously anytime, every day of the year.
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Other Stds Increase Risk Of Hiv Infection
Persons with STDs other than HIV are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. The presence of an STD ulcer can allow HIV to enter the bloodstream directly, increasing the risk of acquiring HIV infection 10 to 300 times per exposure that is, each time someone has sexual intercourse with an infected person. If a person has a non-ulcerative STD, the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases three to 10 times per exposure.
Among HIV-infected persons, the presence of another STD can make HIV transmission to others more likely. For instance, gonorrhea and chlamydia in an HIV-infected man or woman appear to increase the amount of HIV virus shed in the genital tract, making HIV transmission to a partner more likely.
For these reasons, controlling STDs has become an important strategy for preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS.
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Lessons To Be Learned
So why is it important to understand the association between HIV and other STIs? STIs are a major health concern in the Black community. More than half of reported primary- and secondary-syphilis cases occur among Black Americans. This means that Black Americans are particularly vulnerable to STIs simply because a higher percentage of people in the Black community are already living with STIs. However, it’s important to note that data could be skewed because different states have different reporting requirements for certain STIs. That means private physicians may not have to report specific STIs in some states, whereas public health centers–where many Black Americans get their care–must report data as part of program requirements.
HIV-prevention messages should be targeted toward communities that have high levels of STI rates, conference researchers said. HIV testing can also be increased in such communities because people with other STIs are at an increased risk of acquiring HIV. This makes using condoms even more important for those who don’t know their partner’s HIV status. Treatment for STIs can a person’s likelihood of transmitting HIV.
People living with HIV/AIDS should also be careful not to become infected with other STIs. Some HIV-positive individuals forsake condoms when they have sex with other people with HIV. However, this leaves you vulnerable to other STIs, conference participants said, unless you and your partner have both tested negative for them.
Will Treating Stds Prevent Me From Getting Hiv
No. Its not enough.
If you get treated for an STD, this will help to prevent its complications, and prevent spreading STDs to your sex partners. Treatment for an STD other than HIV does not prevent the spread of HIV.
If you are diagnosed with an STD, talk to your doctor about ways to protect yourself and your partner from getting reinfected with the same STD, or getting HIV.
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Stds Can Increase The Risk Of Spreading Hiv
People with HIV are more likely to shed HIV when they have urethritis or a genital ulcer.4, 5 When a person with HIV gets another STD, such as gonorrhea or syphilis, it suggests that they were having sex without using condoms. If so, they may have spread HIV to their partners. Antiretroviral treatment for HIV can prevent the transmission of HIV even from persons who have other STDs.6
Hiv Is An Infection That Can Lead To Aids
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system . When HIV damages your immune system, its easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.
About 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 38,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV dont have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.
Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. Theres no cure for HIV, but medicines can help you stay healthy. HIV medicine lowers or even stops your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Studies show that using HIV treatment as directed can lower the amount of HIV in your blood so much that it might not even show up on a test when this happens, you cant transmit HIV through sex.Treatment is really important . Without treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS. But with medicine, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives and stop the spread of HIV to others.
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Protecting Your Sexual Partners
If you have HIV, are taking ART, and achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of passing HIV to your sexual partners. This is true even if you have an STI other than HIV. However, having an undetectable viral load will not prevent you from transmitting other STIs to your sexual partners.
If you have HIV and you do not have an undetectable viral load, untreated STIs may make it more likely that you will spread HIV to a sexual partner. But you can protect your partner from HIV by using condoms and choosing less risky sexual behaviors.
And if you have an HIV-negative partner who has another STI, they may have skin ulcers, sores, or inflammation that may increase their risk of getting HIV during sex.
An HIV-negative partner can take medicine to prevent HIV, called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, but PrEP does not protect against other STIs. PrEP is an HIV prevention option for people who dont have HIV but who are at high risk of becoming infected with HIV. PrEP involves taking a specific HIV medicine every day to reduce the risk of HIV infection.