Ways Hiv Is Not Spread
Get the true facts about HIV transmission.
Most people know that the virus is commonly spread through sexual contact and intravenous drug use. But what other behaviors are and are not risk factors?
You May Like: When Will Cure For Hiv Be Found
How Can I Know If I Have Hiv
The only way to know if you have HIV is to take an HIV test. Many medical groups recommend routine voluntary HIV screening of all patients aged 18 to 75 years of age as a normal part of medical care. The reason for this is that nearly one out of seven people infected with HIV are not aware that they have the infection.
Can I Transmit Hiv To My Baby During Pregnancy Or Breastfeeding
An HIV-infected pregnant woman can pass the virus on to her unborn baby either before or during birth. HIV can also be passed on during breastfeeding. If a woman knows that she is infected with HIV, there are drugs she can take to greatly reduce the chances of her child becoming infected. Other ways to lower the risk include choosing to have a caesarean section delivery and not breastfeeding.
Recommended Reading: Can Saliva Transmit Hiv Virus
Procedures For Homes And Home
People who live or work in homes and home-like settings should practice good hygiene techniques in preparing food, handling body fluids, and medical equipment. Cuts, accidents, or other circumstances can result in spills of blood/OPIM. These spills may be deposited upon carpeting, vinyl flooring, clothing, a persons skin, or other surfaces. It is important that everyone, even young children, have a basic understanding that they should not put their bare hands in, or on, another persons blood. Safe practices for some commonly encountered situations can help minimize the risk of HIV exposure and infection.
Gloves are available in latex, nitrile, or vinyl. Some people have allergies to latex.
- Gloves should be worn when caretakers anticipate direct contact with any body substances or non-intact skin.
- When you are through, carefully pull the gloves off, inside-out, one at a time, so that the contaminated surfaces are inside and you avoid contact with any potentially infectious material.
- Gloves should be changed and hands washed as soon as possible between children, patients, and others.
- Never rub the eyes, mouth or face while wearing gloves. Latex gloves should never be washed and reused.
Correct handwashing is extremely important. The steps to follow for good handwashing technique include:
Precautions with Personal Hygiene Items
Cleaning Body Fluid Spills on Vinyl Floors
Cleaning Body Fluid Spills on Carpeting
Reservoirs And Transmission Routes Of Waterborne Pathogens And Infection Prevention Strategies Against Waterborne Outbreaks In Healthcare Settings
All water with the exception of sterile water and filtered water is contaminated with microbes . In healthy persons, contact or ingestion of such water rarely leads to infection. However, contact or ingestion of such water may cause infection in immunocompromised persons or when applied to nonintact skin. Water-related reservoirs in healthcare settings during 19972015 were as follows: bathing and tub immersion, decorative water fountains, deionized water, dialysis water, electronic faucets, faucets, heater-cooler units, hospital wastewater systems, hospital water systems, ice and ice machines, ice baths, potable water, showers, sinks, tap water, toilets, wash basins, water baths, water birth, water-damaged plaster, and water-saving devices . Transmission routes were primarily direct contact with contaminated water and water-related devices/activities or inhalation via aerosols generated from the contaminated water . Waterborne healthcare-associated outbreaks and infections continue to occur and were mostly associated with well-recognized water reservoirs as previously described . Moreover, recent studies document electronic faucets , decorative water wall fountains , and heater-cooler devices used for cardiac surgery as water reservoirs. Infection prevention and control measures by each reservoir category are summarized in Table . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published recommendations of infection prevention and management for hospital water .
Also Check: Does Hiv Make You Lose Weight
How To Minimize The Risk Of Infection
In order to minimize the risk of infection, the law states that special decontamination and sterilization procedures must be carried out for autoclaves in all medical establishments. The process involves both the instruments used and the workplace itself. The aim is to keep to a minimum the risk of infection for medical staff and consequently also for patients. Every dental practice has a special piece of equipment called a dental autoclave, which is responsible for the microbial inactivation of any residual pathogenic agents.
There is always a danger that dental instruments could transmit very serious infections such as HIV, but of course all of the measures taken aim to prevent any chance of this happening.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus , which is highly infectious and contagious, especially through direct contact with blood.HIV may be transmitted in dental practices if they fail to comply with the sterilization guidelines established by Italian Legislative Decree 81/2008 regarding the protection of medical establishments and staff from pathogenic biological agents. Therefore, it is fundamental and indispensable to closely follow the rules laid down by the regulations.
This means that it is crucial to ensure that the instruments and workplace are sterile not only for the patients but also for the medical staff who handle potentially contaminated instruments and for the dentists themselves.
If I Have Sex With A Commercial Sex Worker Will I Get Hiv
Unprotected sex places you at a high risk of contracting the virus whether it is with a commercial sex worker or anybody else. Statistics from the Caribbean and several other parts of the world have shown that there is a higher prevalence or occurrence of HIV in commercial sex workers . Therefore by having unprotected sex with a commercial sex worker the risk of contracting HIV is high.
You May Like: Can You Get Hiv Without Ejaculation
Is It Possible To Transmit Hiv Through Saliva
It is only possible to transmit HIV through saliva if there are co-factors such as bleeding gums, throat or urethral infections or a high viral load. Saliva does carry the HIV virus but in such low quantities that it is not possible to pass on the infection through kissing or spitting as long as there are no open sores or bleeding gums which result in the exchange of blood. Even cases involving the transference of HIV through saliva with co-factors are extremely rare. However, infection is possible through oral sex but to a much lower degree than anal or vaginal sex.
High concentrations of HIV are present in blood, vaginal fluid, semen, breast milk and any other body fluids which contain blood. Any exchange of these fluids between an infected and a non-infected person is highly risky. There are very low quantities of HIV in saliva so it is not possible to transmit HIV through saliva alone as, to become infected with the virus, there has to be a sufficient quantity of the virus transferred. There is no transmission risk from kissing unless both partners have severely bleeding gums or large open sores in their mouth. There is no risk from sharing glasses, spitting or sneezing as the virus cannot spread or maintain infectiousness in the open air.
Tips To Avoid Hiv Transmission
To prevent the spread of HIV, follow these guidelines:
- Use condoms during sexual intercourse
- Never share needles and syringes
- Avoid multiple sexual partners
- Use lubricant during sexual intercourse to reduce friction and dryness which can cause vaginal tears and broken condoms.
- Speak to your doctor about PrEP , if you believe you are at high risk of exposure. PrEP is a daily medication used to help prevent HIV.
- Speak to your doctor about taking post-exposure prophylaxis if you think youve just been exposed to the virus. PEP is a type of antiretroviral medication that help prevent HIV if started within 72 hours after you might have been exposed to the virus.
Also Check: Are Hiv And Aids The Same
Sharing Food Drink Or Utensils
Speaking of mouths: Everything I just mentioned when explaining why kissing is not an HIV-transmission risk also applies to eating and drinking. That includes every type of normal food- or drink-sharing scenario you can think of, including splitting a plate of nachos, drinking from the same water bottle, and using the same fork when sharing a piece of cake.
The only documented cases of HIV transmission through food are extremely specific: They involve food that a person with HIV pre-chewed and then fed to an infant.
Needless to say, this is an extraordinarily rare eventonly a few cases have ever been recordedand they most likely involved blood entering the food due to the adult having poor oral hygiene.
So unless youre making like a mama bird and its chick, you can enjoy a meal or a drink with a person whos living with HIV and have zero concern that youre putting yourself at risk.
Dont Miss: Can I Get Hiv From Spit
How Is Hiv Spread Through Blood
You can become infected if you have contact with the blood of someone who has HIV. Blood-borne infection with HIV can occur through:
- sharing injection equipment when using drugs
- getting tattoos or body piercings with unsterilized needles
- accidental needle sticks
- splashing blood in your eyes
HIV is NOT spread by blood passed through insect bites.
If you inject drugs, the best thing to do is to use new or sterilized injection equipment every time. You can also take a daily medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis to lower your risk of HIV. Learn more about PrEP.
Read Also: How Does One Get Hiv
Selected References And Additional Resources
Bond WW, Petersen NJ, Favero MS, et al. Transmission of type B viral hepatitis via eye inoculation of a chimpanzee. J Clin Microbiol 1982 15:533534.
Cole EC, Cook CE. Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies. Am J Infect Control 1998 26:453464.
Favero MS, Bolyard EA. Microbiologic considerations. Disinfection and sterilization strategies and the potential for airborne transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Surg Clin North Am 1995 75:10711089.
Heinsohn P, Jewett DL. Exposure to blood-containing aerosols in the operating room: a preliminary study. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1993 54:446453.
Johnson GK, Robinson WS. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the vapors of surgical power instruments. J Med Virol 1991 33:4750.
Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR, the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 199external icon. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999 20:247280.
Miller RL. Characteristics of blood-containing aerosols generated by common powered dental instruments. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1995 56:670676.
Petersen NM, Bond WW, Favero MS. Air sampling for hepatitis B surface antigen in a dental operatory. JADA 1979 99:465467.Petersen NJ. An assessment of the airborne route in hepatitis B transmission. Ann NY Acad Sci 1980 353:157166.
Hiv And Maternal Transmission
HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.
If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .
A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.
Also Check: What Are The Current Treatments For Hiv
Read Also: What Is The Best Hiv Early Detection Test
What Conditions Are Considered To Be Opportunistic
Some of the most common of these OIs/cancers among HIV-positive people include:
Cancer: The types of cancers that are you are more likely to get if you have AIDs include lymphoma, Kaposis sarcoma, invasive cervical cancer, anal cancer, liver cancer, and cancers of the mouth, throat and lungs.
Candidiasis : This condition is caused by Candida fungus. It can happen in the skin, nails and mucous membranes throughout the body, such as the mouth or the vagina. The cases can be troublesome, but thrush is especially dangerous when it affects the esophagus or parts of the respiratory system .
Pneumonia: This respiratory condition is most commonly caused by _Pneumocystis jirovecii and the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae._
Salmonella: This infection is spread through contaminated food and water. It causes diarrhea, vomiting and nausea.
Toxoplasmosis: This disease is caused by a parasites that live in cats and rodents and other warm-blooded animals. The infection is spread through the feces. Toxoplasmosis can cause severe problems in the lungs, heart, brain and other organs. If you have a cat, wear gloves to change the litter and be thorough in washing your hands.
Can You Get Hiv Through Oral Sex
The risk of HIV from oral sex is very small unless you or your partner have large open sores on the genital area or bleeding gums/sores in your mouth.
There is only a slightly increased risk if a woman being given oral sex is HIV-positive and is menstruating. However, you can always use a dental dam to eliminate these risks.
Dont Miss: How Do You Find Out You Have Hiv
Don’t Miss: Can You Get Hiv Through Kissing
How Viral Load Affects Transmission
For people who have HIV, your viral load is the amount of the virus that can be found in your blood.
Once a virus enters your body, it uses your cells to reproduce. When it reproduces you get a high amount of the virus in your body. The viral load is how you describe the amount of virus you have in your body. The higher your viral load is, the more infectious you are, Safo says.
Your viral load is at its highest at the beginning and end-stage of the virus. During these times, you are highly infectious and can easily transmit the virus to another person.
HIV medication is designed to lower your viral load to levels by which it becomes difficult to transmit. In some cases, your load might become so low while on medication that a test wont be able to detect the virus.
If your viral load is undetectable then you cant transmit the virus to another person. However, not everyone on HIV medication can achieve or maintain undetectable viral loads, which is why its advisable to continue to practice safe sex.
How Is Hiv Not Passed From One Person To Another
You may have just read the section above and thought to yourself: Wait, that seems like a really short list of ways HIV gets transmitted. What about mosquitoes? Blowjobs? Kissing? Sharing food or utensils?
As weve previously discussed in this guide, there are a lot of myths and misconceptions about HIV transmission. At some point, people without HIV may worry they have been exposed to the virus. And when people get freaked out about their health, they tend to start scouring the internet for answers.
At TheBody, weve spent the past 25 years fielding questions about HIV exposure fears and talking with experts about the realities of HIV risk. So we know an awful lot about the HIV transmission concerns people tend to have in common.
These are the top five recurring fears about HIV transmission that are way, way more than theyre cracked up to be:
- oral sex
You May Like: What Does Hiv Do To The Human Body
Recommended Reading: How Does Hiv Aids Spread
Review Of Science Related To Dental Infection Control
Personnel Health Elements of an Infection-Control Program
A protective health component for DHCP is an integral part of a dental practice infection-control program. The objectives are to educate DHCP regarding the principles of infection control, identify work-related infection risks, institute preventive measures, and ensure prompt exposure management and medical follow-up. Coordination between the dental practice’s infection-control coordinator and other qualified health-care professionals is necessary to provide DHCP with appropriate services. Dental programs in institutional settings, can coordinate with departments that provide personnel health services. However, the majority of dental practices are in ambulatory, private settings that do not have licensed medical staff and facilities to provide complete on-site health service programs. In such settings, the infection-control coordinator should establish programs that arrange for site-specific infection-control services from external health-care facilities and providers before DHCP are placed at risk for exposure. Referral arrangements can be made with qualified health-care professionals in an occupational health program of a hospital, with educational institutions, or with health-care facilities that offer personnel health services.
Education and Training
Exposure Prevention and Postexposure Management
Medical Conditions, Work-Related Illness, and Work Restrictions
Hepatitis B Virus
How To Protect Yourself
Since there is still a chance that you could get infected with HIV through oral sex, you should always take precautions. Here is what you can do to lower your risk:
Do not let a male partner ejaculate in your mouth. You can do this if you remove your mouth from their penis before they ejaculate, or if you use a condom.
Use a condom or dental dam. A dental dam is a thin square piece of latex or silicone that you place over the vagina or anal area during oral sex. You can also cut a latex condom lengthwise and use it the same way.
Both of these barriers also lower the risk of infection from other STDs such as gonorrhea of the throat or hepatitis. Use a new one every time you have oral sex. Check the expiration date on the package, and make sure there are no tears or defects.
Dont use oil-based products like baby oil, lotion, petroleum jelly, or cooking oil on condoms or dental dams because that can cause them to break. If you need lubrication, use a water-based or silicone-based product instead. Always use a condom or dental dam during your period since the virus can be present in menstrual blood.
Dont brush your teeth just before oral sex. If you do, your mouth or gums may bleed, which raises chances of infection.
Skip oral sex during risky times. This includes a time when you have sores around your mouth, genitals, or anus , gum damage, a throat infection, or after dental work.
You May Like: Which Is The Main Goal Of Hiv Treatment Brainly