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Mode Of Transmission Of Hiv Aids

How To Prevent The Spread Of Hiv

Transmission of HIV | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

People living with HIV can use the following to prevent transmitting it to others:

  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis : This is a daily pill that contains two antivirals called tenofovir and emtricitabine. When a person takes it daily, PrEP can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV through sex by
  • of a recent potential HIV exposure.

Lowering The Risk Of Sexual Transmission

There are several protective measures which dramatically reduce the risk of HIV transmission during sex. You can find out more about these on other pages.

Undetectable viral load: when people with HIV take effective treatment, the amount of HIV in their body fluids falls drastically, to the point where they cannot pass HIV on to their sexual partners. An extremely low level of HIV in body fluids is referred to as an undetectable viral load. The knowledge that this prevents transmission is often referred to ‘Undetectable equals Untransmittable’ .

PrEP: if the HIV-negative person takes antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis , this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV. The most common form of PrEP is in a tablet, but it can also be provided as a vaginal ring or an injection.

Condoms: if male condoms or female condoms are used, this significantly reduces the risk of acquiring HIV.

Male circumcision: if you are circumcised, this partially lowers your risk of acquiring HIV during vaginal sex.

Hiv Symptoms In Men: Is There A Difference

Symptoms of HIV vary from person to person, but theyre similar in men and women. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse.

If a person has been exposed to HIV, they may also have been exposed to other sexually transmitted infections . These include:

While not related to HIV symptoms, another risk for women with HIV is that the virus can be transmitted to a baby during pregnancy. However, antiretroviral therapy is considered safe during pregnancy.

Women who are treated with antiretroviral therapy are at very low risk for transmitting HIV to their baby during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding is also affected in women with HIV. The virus can be transferred to a baby through breast milk.

In the United States and other settings where formula is accessible and safe, its recommended that women with HIV not breastfeed their babies. For these women, use of formula is encouraged.

Options besides formula include pasteurized banked human milk.

For women who may have been exposed to HIV, its important to know what symptoms to look for.

AIDS refers to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With this condition, the immune system is weakened due to HIV thats typically gone untreated for many years.

If HIV is found and treated early with antiretroviral therapy, a person will usually not develop AIDS.

Symptoms of AIDS can include:

  • recurrent fever

HIV does NOT transfer through:

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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor

  • Am I at high risk for HIV?
  • What can I do to reduce my risk of HIV?
  • How can I make sure I take my medications correctly?
  • What can I do to protect myself from other illnesses?
  • How can prevent the spread of HIV?
  • What do my test results mean?
  • What do my blood counts mean?
  • What vaccinations should I get?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Treatments have come a long way since the height of the AIDS epidemic. You have the best chance of living a long life if youre diagnosed early and are able to get on and stick with ART medications. People living with HIV today are able to work, have active social lives and families, and pursue fulfilling relationships. In fact, this can have a positive impact on your well-being.

While weve come a long way with treatments, unfortunately, social stigmas around HIV still persist. In addition to the feelings of fear and uncertainty a new diagnosis can bring, you may wonder how those around you will respond. If youre hesitant to get tested or get treatment, or if you just arent sure what your next steps are, you can reach out to a community organization that specializes in HIV. Remember that you are deserving of support, compassion and high-quality healthcare.

What Can I Expect If I Have Hiv

HIV Resources &  FAQ

If youre diagnosed with HIV, its important to know that those living with HIV who follow treatment guidelines can live full lives for nearly as long as those without HIV.

If you have a high CD4 count and an undetectable viral load within a year of starting treatment, research suggests youll have the best outcomes, as long as you continue your treatment plan.

You can improve your outlook by:

  • Getting tested as part of routine healthcare or if you think youve been exposed.
  • Starting ART soon after being diagnosed.
  • Taking your medicine every day.
  • Keeping your appointments with your healthcare team.

ART can keep blood levels undetectable but cant entirely rid your body of the virus . If you dont take your medication every day, the virus can start multiplying again and mutate, which may cause your medications to stop working.

Left untreated, it can take about 10 years for HIV to advance to AIDS. If you progress to AIDS and it goes untreated, you can expect to live about three years more.

For those on treatment, if you have a high CD4 count and undetectable viral load within a year of starting treatment, you can expect to live about as long as someone without HIV. If you have a low CD4 count or a detectable viral load within a year of starting treatment, you may live 10 to 20 years less than someone without HIV.

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How Is Hiv Treated

HIV is treated with a combination of medicines taken by mouth every day. This combination of pills is called antiretroviral therapy .

Taking a combination of types of pills, rather than just one, is the most effective way to keep HIV from multiplying and destroying your cells. There are also combination pills that have several medications in a single pill. Your healthcare provider will carefully select a combination specifically for you.

The goal of ART is to reduce HIV in the blood to an amount thats not detectable by an HIV test and to slow HIVs weakening of your immune system.

Medications used to treat HIV

Each type of pill used in ART has a different way of keeping HIV from making more copies of itself or from infecting your cells. There can be many different brand names of the same type of ART drug.

Types of ART medications include:

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors .
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors .
  • Protease inhibitors .
  • Combination of HIV medicines.

Is There An Hiv Vaccine

Historically, the greatest successes in preventing viral illnesses have been the result of the development of preventative vaccines. Unfortunately, decades of research to develop an HIV vaccine has led to little hope for success. In 2007, a major setback in this area occurred when the STEP study investigating a promising vaccine candidate was prematurely stopped due to the lack of evidence that it produced any protection from HIV infection.

In contrast, a glimmer of hope did emerge with the report in 2009 of the results of the RV 144 Thai HIV vaccine trial, which demonstrated borderline effectiveness in the more than 16,000 recipients. While this vaccine demonstrated only limited evidence of protection, research is under way to further explore what can be learned for future vaccine development from this modest success.

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How Is Hiv Diagnosed

HIV is diagnosed with either a test of your blood or your spit . You can take a test at home, in a healthcare providers office or at a location that provides testing in your community.

If your test comes back negative, no further testing is required if:

  • You havent had a possible exposure in the previous three months before testing with any kind of test.
  • You havent had a possible exposure within the window period for a test done with a blood draw.

If you have had a possible exposure within three months of testing, you should consider retesting to confirm the negative result.

If your test comes back positive, the lab may do follow-up tests to confirm the result.

Can Mothers Pass Hiv To Their Babies

PSM 101 Modes of Transmission of Communicable Disease Infectious Infection How get transmitted

Infection can pass from HIV positive pregnant women to their babies in the womb and during birth. Taking anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy and childbirth dramatically lowers the risk of a baby becoming infected with HIV.

After birth, transmission can occur through breast milk of infected women. The highest risk may be in the early months after birth. It is recommended that HIV-positive new mothers bottle-feed their babies rather than breast-feed.

If you are an HIV-positive woman and intend to become pregnant, or you find out that you are HIV positive during your pregnancy, talk to your doctor immediately about ways to minimize the chances that your baby will become infected, too.

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Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids

The difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that weakens your immune system. AIDS is a condition that can happen as a result of an HIV infection when your immune system is severely weakened.

You cant get AIDS if you arent infected with HIV. Thanks to treatment that slows down the effects of the virus, not everyone with HIV progresses to AIDS. But without treatment, almost all people living with HIV will advance to AIDS.

Stage : Acute Hiv Infection

About after HIV enters the body, it can show up as symptoms that last for days or weeks.

During this period, people may experience:

  • swollen glands in the throat, groin, or armpits
  • sores or ulcers in the mouth or genitals
  • nausea, vomiting, or both

This is known as the seroconversion period. Seroconversion is when the body begins to produce antibodies against HIV. This is the bodys natural response to detecting an infection.

In this phase, there tends to be a large amount of HIV in the blood. It replicates rapidly, so the risk of transmitting the virus to others is high.

Not everyone develops symptoms at this stage. Others experience mild flu-like symptoms that largely go unnoticed. This means that people can contract HIV without knowing it, which makes testing very important.

If a person thinks they may have been exposed to HIV, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for advice and to ask them about a preventive medication called post-exposure prophylaxis .

Healthcare professionals can order tests to check for HIV. can detect the virus after 10 days, while others must be taken 90 days after exposure. People often need to take more than one test to get accurate results.

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Analysis : Partnership Concurrency And Partnership Duration Are Varied Simultaneously

In this case, we vary partnership concurrency from monogamy at one extreme to Poisson random partnerships in the previous analyses at the other extreme, while keeping the mean degree constant. Because the maximum mean degree is 1 in monogamy, we set the mean degree at 0.9. Figure 5 shows the distribution of number of partners per person at 4 levels of . If = 0, then there are only 2 groups: single persons and those with 1 partner. As is increased from 0 to 1, the fraction of men with concurrent partners increases. For this reason, partnership concurrency increases with increasing at a given mean degree. Note that, unlike varying mean degree in Analysis 2, varying does not alter the mean frequency of sex acts per partnership per day.

Degree distribution at 4 levels of . Mean degree n = 0.9.

As Figure 6A illustrates, the endemic prevalence at a given partnership duration is higher for higher while decreasing with increasing partnership duration. A similar phenomenon has previously been described.810 This pattern arises primarily because the number of persons connected in the network at any point in time is higher for higher . From the infectees point of view, increasing increases the chance that infectees transmit infection while being connected to their infector, whereas infectees can not transmit infection until they form new partnerships when = 0 .

What Tests Diagnose Hiv

HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through ...

There are three types of HIV tests: antigen/antibody tests, antibody tests and nucleic acid tests :

Antigen/antibody tests

Antigen tests look for markers on the surface of HIV called p24. Antibody tests look for chemicals your body makes when it reacts to those markers. HIV antigen/antibody tests look for both.

A healthcare provider will take a small sample of blood from your arm with a needle. The blood is sent to a lab and tested for p24 and antibodies to it. An antigen/antibody test is usually able to detect HIV in 18 to 45 days after exposure.

A rapid antigen/antibody test may also be done with a finger prick to draw blood. Youll need to wait at least 18 days after exposure for this type of test to be able to detect HIV. You may need to take the test up to 90 days after exposure for accurate results.

Antibody tests

These tests look for antibodies to HIV in your blood or saliva. This can be done with a blood draw from your arm, a finger prick or with a stick that you rub on your gums to collect saliva.

An antibody test can take 23 to 90 days after exposure to detect HIV. Antibody tests done with a blood draw can detect HIV sooner than those done with saliva or blood from a finger prick.

Nucleic acid tests

NATs look for the HIV virus in your blood. A healthcare provider will take a small sample of blood from your arm with a needle. The blood then is sent to a lab and tested for HIV.

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Diagnosis Of Hiv Infection

  • Tests to detect antibodies to the HIV virus in a sample of blood or saliva

  • Tests to detect HIV RNA in a sample of blood

Early diagnosis of HIV infection is important because it makes early treatment possible. Early treatment enables infected people to live longer, be healthier, and be less likely to transmit HIV to other people.

Doctors usually ask about risk factors for HIV infection Transmission of HIV Infection Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . HIV is transmitted… read more and about symptoms .

Doctors also do a complete physical examination to check for signs of opportunistic infections, such as swollen lymph nodes and white patches inside the mouth , and for signs of Kaposi sarcoma of the skin or mouth.

Through Needles Or Other Instruments

Health care workers who are accidentally pricked with an HIV-contaminated needle have about a 1 in 300 chance of contracting HIV unless they are treated as soon as possible after exposure. Such treatment reduces the chance of infection to less than 1 in 1,500. The risk increases if the needle penetrates deeply or if the needle is hollow and contains HIV-contaminated blood rather than simply being coated with blood .

Infected fluid splashing into the mouth or eyes has less than a 1 in 1,000 chance of causing infection.

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How Can I Know If I Have Hiv

You cant tell if someone has HIV just by looking at them, and you may not have any symptoms if youre infected by HIV. The only way to know if you have HIV is to take an HIV test.

Since nearly 1 out of 7 people with HIV dont know it, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention recommends screening people between the ages of 13 to 64 at least once as part of routine healthcare. This test is voluntary and confidential.

Analysis : Partnership Duration Varies At A Given Mean Degree

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

Figure 3A and B present results for a mean degree of 1.5 with a mean frequency of sex acts of 1/3 per partnership per day so that men engage in a sex act on average every other day. As seen in Figure 3A , endemic prevalence of HIV infection monotonically decreases with increasing partnership duration.

Simulation results when partnership duration is varied. The mean degree n = 1.5 and the mean frequency of sex acts per partnership per day c = 0.3333. SI and SP pairs denote a pair of a susceptible person and any infected person, and a pair of a susceptible person and a person infected with primary HIV infection, respectively. Each data point is the mean from 10 simulation runs, and error bars indicate one standard deviation. A, Endemic prevalence and the fraction of SI pairs out of all pairs across partnership duration. B, Fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection and the fraction of SP pairs out of all SI pairs across partnership duration.

Unlike the monotonic decrease in endemic prevalence, the fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection first falls and then rises . This pattern is associated with the fraction of discordant pairs where the infected individual has primary HIV infection .

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What Does Hiv Do To A Person

HIV infects white blood cells of your immune system called CD4 cells, or helper T cells. It destroys CD4 cells, causing your white blood cell count to drop. This leaves you with an immune system that cant fight off infections, even those that wouldnt normally make you sick.

HIV initially makes you feel sick with flu-like symptoms. Then it can hide in your body for a long time without causing noticeable symptoms. During that time, it slowly destroys your T-cells. When your T-cells get very low or you begin to get certain illnesses that people with healthy immune systems dont get, HIV has progressed to AIDS.

AIDS can cause rapid weight loss, extreme tiredness, mouth or genital ulcers, fevers, night sweats and skin discolorations. Other illnesses and cancers often happen in people living with AIDS and can cause additional symptoms.

Whats a retrovirus?

A retrovirus is a virus that works backward from the way human cells do. Human cells have instructions that send a message to make building blocks for your body .

Retroviruses have their instructions written on RNA. When a retrovirus invades your cells, it changes its RNA to look like your cells instructions . Then it cuts your cells DNA and inserts its instructions into them. Your cell then acts as though the virus instructions are its own.

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