Sunday, December 4, 2022

Nursing Education For Hiv Patients

Nursing On The Front Lines Of The Aids Crisis

HIV AIDS Nursing: Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Life Cycle, Treatment, ART NCLEX

Around the time Lewis was introducing terms like Kaposis sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia to her colleagues, recent City College of San Francisco nursing graduate Diane Jones was encountering very sick patients in her first job on one of San Francisco General Hospital s medical-surgery units.

It happened to be the primary destination for all the patients with AIDS, although we didnt know what it was, says Jones. As the number of patients grew, the San Francisco Department of Public Health partnered with UCSF to create the first outpatient clinic devoted to caring for people with AIDS: San Francisco General Hospitals Ward 86, which opened in January 1983. Six months later, the hospital started the first dedicated inpatient AIDS unit in the nation, known as Ward 5B. Cliff Morrison, clinical faculty member at the School, was tapped to create the unit. As a psychiatric nurse, he had concerns that went beyond the diseases physical toll.

To build the units staff, Morrison ended up asking for volunteers: volunteer janitors, a volunteer unit clerk, a volunteer social worker. The people who came to work there were people who had chosen to respond, says Jones.

On my first case they told me to go to St. Vincents Hospital and said, Youre going to take this patient in an ambulance home to his apartment, but do not mention AIDS or they wont take him, says Hicks today.

Hiv/aids Nurse Licensure And Certification

The NCLEX is the required licensure exam to be able to practice as a registered nurse. The number of continuing education hours required per year to maintain RN licensure is regulated by the board of nursing in each state or territory. Becoming a certified HIV nurse is not required for this role but may improve job prospects or salary potential.

The HANCB administers exams for both certification and recertification, and also provides helpful resources. Eligibility requirements for RNs include:

  • Current RN license in the United States or an international equivalent
  • Minimum two years of clinical experience, education, management, or research related to HIV/AIDS
  • Completed application with required fee: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care members pay $250 non-ANAC members pay $350

Complications Of Hiv Aids

  • Infection. AIDS patients have severely damaged immune system, making them highly vulnerable to a large number of infections. Common HIV/AIDS â related infections include candidiasis or thrush, pneumocystis pneumonia , and tuberculosis . Other infections may include herpes or cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcal meningitis, and toxoplasmosis.
  • Cancer. Some types of cancer may arise due to AIDS. These include lymphoma or cancer of the white blood cells, and Kaposiâs sarcoma, or cancer in the blood vessel walls.
  • Other complications. The kidneys, liver, and neurological system can be severely affected due to HIV/ AIDS. Significant weight loss or wasting syndrome is often seen in untreated HIV/ AIDS patients.
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    Nursing Care Plan For Hiv 2

    Nursing Diagnosis: Hyperthermia related to HIV/AIDS infection as evidenced by temperature of 38.5 degrees Celsius, rapid and shallow breathing, flushed skin, profuse sweating, and weak pulse.

    Desired Outcome: Within 4 hours of nursing interventions, the patient will have a stabilized temperature within the normal range.

    HIV Nursing Interventions Rationales
    Assess the patientâs vital signs at least every hour. Increase the intervals between vital signs taking as the patientâs vital signs become stable. To assist in creating an accurate diagnosis and monitor effectiveness of medical treatment, particularly the antibiotics and fever-reducing drugs administered.
    Remove excessive clothing, blankets and linens. Adjust the room temperature. To regulate the temperature of the environment and make it more comfortable for the patient.
    Administer the prescribed antivirals and anti-pyretic medications. Use the antiviral for immunocompromised patients with serious HIV/AIDS infection. Use the anti-pyretic medication to stimulate the hypothalamus and normalize the body temperature.
    Offer a tepid sponge bath. To facilitate the body in cooling down and to provide comfort.
    Elevate the head of the bed. Head elevation helps improve the expansion of the lungs, enabling the patient to breathe more effectively.

    The Average Patient Will Forget About 80% Of What They Learn In Their Doctor’s Office Soon After Leaving

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    Professional Nursing Education’s Response To The Hiv/aids Pandemic

    Nurse educators have a responsibility to ensure that nursing students learn to respond to the healthcare needs of society even if those needs are evolving as the student’s education is occurring. This paper examines the issues and challenges the HIV/AIDS epidemic presents to nurse educators. It then explores ways in which nursing education programs have responded to these challenges and develops a balanced discussion of these responses.

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    Health Promotion And Education For Hiv

    Info: 3691 words Nursing Essay 11th Feb 2020

    Introduction

    The prevalence of HIV infections has increased rapidly in recent years in the UK. In 2006, it was estimated that a total of 73,000 people were infected with HIV, with a further new 6,393 cases reported in 2007 . The epidemiology of HIV infection has changed over the years. In the mid-1980s, the three groups of people considered to be at the highest risk of HIV infection were men who have sex with men, injection drug users and those who have received blood products . However, since 1999, the majority of new infections have been reported among heterosexuals . The prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has improved over the past ten years. Although there is currently no vaccine and no cure for HIV, HAART has proven highly effective in delaying the onset of AIDS and lengthening the lifespan of infected individuals .The increased prevalence of HIV infections in the UK means that healthcare professionals in all settings are more likely to care for patients with HIV than in past years.

    If you need assistance with writing your nursing essay, our professional nursing essay writing service is here to help!

    This paper discusses the development of an educational leaflet aimed at healthcare professionals, analyses the methodology used and evaluates the leaflet and the process of development.

    Leaflet development

  • Identification of the target group
  • Identification of the needs of the target group
  • Planning

    Methodology

    Aids Nursing Care Plans

    HIV and AIDS – Medical-Surgical (Med-Surg)- Immune System @Level Up RN

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a serious secondary immunodeficiency disorder caused by the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus . Both diseases are characterized by the progressive destruction of cell-mediated immunity with subsequent effects on humoral immunity because of the pivotal role of the CD4+helper T cells in immune reactions. Immunodeficiency makes the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections, unusual cancers, and other abnormalities.

    AIDS results from the infection of HIV which has two forms: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both forms have the same model of transmission and similar opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, but studies indicate that HIV-2 develops more slowly and presents with milder symptoms than HIV-1. Transmission occurs through contact with infected blood or body fluids and is associated with identifiable high-risk behaviors.

    Persons with HIV/AIDS have been found to fall into five general categories: homosexual or bisexual men, injection drug users, recipients of infected blood or blood products, heterosexual partners of a person with HIV infection, and children born to an infected mother. The rate of infection is most rapidly increasing among minority women and is increasingly a disease of persons of color.

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    Prevention Of Hiv Aids

  • Treatment as Prevention . HIV patients should be encouraged to use TasP or to take their medications religiously, as prescribed, with regular checkups to ensure that the viral load is undetectable and their partner is safe from contracting HIV.
  • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis . People who were exposed to HIV should go to the nearest emergency department or contact their doctor and take PEP within the first 72 hours of contact to reduce the risk of HIV infection. PEP medication is taken for a period of 28 days.
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis . People who are at high risk for HIV infection from sex may consider PrEP drugs.
  • Use of new condom every sexual encounter.
  • Male circumcision. Studies show that male circumcision lowers the risk of HIV infection.
  • Avoid needle sharing.
  • Inform past or current sexual partner/s if you have HIV.
  • Pregnant women with HIV must receive treatment immediately.
  • Anac Member Named Vanessa Von Wertheim Endowed Chair

    Sandra Gracia Jones, PhD, ARNP, ACRN, ACNS-BC, FAAN, was named Endowed Chair in Chronic Disease Prevention and Care at Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Heath Sciences, Florida International University. She is an active local and national ANAC member and has received the JANAC research article of the year award and the inaugural ANAC HIV Prevention Award.

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    What Are Hiv And Aids

    Since HIV was first identified almost 30 years ago, remarkable progress has been made in improving the quality and duration of life for people living with HIV disease.

    • HIV or human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic condition that requires daily medication.
    • HIV- 1 is a retrovirus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS.
    • HIV-2 is a retrovirus identified in 1986 in AIDS patients in West

    Patient Education For Hiv And Aids

    DUSON Researchers Address Several Facets of HIV, its Impact
  • 1. Patient Education for HIV and AIDS Nenette Dusal, RN
  • 2. Indicate that patient could be a source of infection to others and should take actions to prevent transmission no exchange of blood or body fluids Encourage patient to disclose HIV status to: sex partners needle-sharing partners
  • 3. Emphasize to HIV-positive woman that children should be tested for HIV Discuss family planning with HIV- positive woman the rate of transmission from mother to newborn is approximately 20% can be decreased to less than 2% when antiviral therapy is provided during pregnancy
  • 4. If she does not want more children, discuss birth control options Establish both a primary care and HIV provider for the patient and encourage regular follow-up care. For primary care: yearly Papanicolaou smears for women and routine dental and eye examinations.
  • 5. For HIV: follow-up visits every 3 months with laboratory assessment of CD4+, HIV RNA viral load, CBC with differential, and comprehensive metabolic panel. Teach patient to recognize and report important symptoms: Change in pattern or magnitude of temperature elevation
  • 6. Development of a new focal complaint: skin spots, sore mouth, and diarrhea Emphasize to injection drug users that continued use may expose them to additional infection, and such infections may accelerate disease progression. Assist them in finding drug treatment.
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    Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

    Nursing Diagnosis

    • Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

    May be related to

    • Inability or altered ability to ingest, digest and/or metabolize nutrients: nausea/vomiting, hyperactive gag reflex, intestinal disturbances, GI tract infections, fatigue
    • Increased metabolic rate/nutritional needs

    Possibly evidenced by

    • Weight loss, decreased subcutaneous fat/muscle mass
    • Lack of interest in food, aversion to eating, altered taste sensation
    • Abdominal cramping, hyperactive bowel sounds, diarrhea
    • Sore, inflamed buccal cavity
    • Abnormal laboratory results: vitamin/mineral and protein deficiencies, electrolyte imbalances

    Desired Outcomes

    • Maintain weight or display weight gain toward desired goal.
    • Demonstrate positive nitrogen balance, be free of signs of malnutrition, and display improved energy level.

    New Public Policy Agenda Announced By Anac Board Of Directors

    The ANAC board of directors unanimously approved the updated ANAC policy agenda, as developed and submitted by the ANAC policy committee. It serves as a roadmap for ANAC policy work and position. It reflects our commitment to person-centered evidenced based health care, social justice and human rights.

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    General Information About Hiv

    Human immunodeficiency virus is the virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome . HIV destroys blood cells called CD4+ T cells, which are crucial to helping the body fight disease. This results in a weakened immune system, making persons with HIV or AIDS at risk for many different types of infections. Transmission of HIV to patients while in healthcare settings is rare. However, proper sterilization and disinfection procedures are required to prevent infection risks. Most exposures do not result in infection.

    For more images of this bacterium, search the Public Health Image Library

    The Stages Of Hiv Infection

    Complications: TORCH Infections, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS – Maternity Nursing -@Level Up RN

    Currently, there is no cure for HIV infection.

    HIV infection has three distinct stages, as defined by the CDC : HIV Primary or Acute infection, HIV Chronic or Asymptomatic infection, and HIV as AIDS.

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the final stage of HIV infection. AIDS occurs when the bodys immune system has been so badly damaged that the individual is highly vulnerable to diseases, infections, and even infection-related cancers.

    Common problems of individuals with HIV infection are:

    • Consistently taking medication

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    Causes And Risk Factors Of Hiv Aids

    AIDS is caused by HIV infection. HIV is a virus that is able to destroy CD4 T-cells, which are immune cells that have a huge role in fighting disease. The virus can be spread through infected blood , sexual contact , and from the mother to her child during her pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.

    It is important to note that HIV antibodies are being strictly screened in hospitals and blood banks, which makes the risk for HIV from blood transfusions very small. Also, clinics and hospitals have a single-use needle/syringe policy to prevent possible HIV transmission.

    If HIV is left untreated, the immune system becomes weaker throughout the years, which may eventually lead to AIDS. Doctors diagnose AIDS when the CD4 T-cell count is lower than 200, or when the patient has a complication that strongly related to AIDS, such as cancer or serious/recurrent infection.

    The risk factors of HIV/AIDS include:

    • Unprotected sex
    • History of sexually transmitted infections
    • Sharing IV drug paraphernalia such as needles and syringes

    Etiology And Epidemiology Of Hiv/aids

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that spreads via certain body fluids and specifically attacks the CD4+ or T cells of the immune system. CD4+ T cells are also called helper T cells. They are the cornerstones of both inflammatory and regulatory responses of our immune system. T cells are lymphocytes that are predominantly produced in the thymus and play a key role in the immune systems defense of the body against infection. As time passes, the virus can destroy so many of these specialized cells that the immune system no longer is able to fight off infections and disease.

    HIV is unique among many other viruses because the body is unable to destroy the HIV completely, even with treatment. As a result, once a person is infected with the virus, the person will have it for the remainder of their life .

    A single T cell infected by numerous, spheroid-shaped HIV particles .

    After the initial infection and without treatment, the virus continues to multiply, and over a period of time , common opportunistic infections begin to take advantage of the bodys very weak immunity. Common OIs can be life-threatening and may include:

    • Cryptococcal meningitis
    • Esophageal candidiasis
    • Certain cancers, such as Kaposis sarcoma

    Once they have such an opportunistic infection, the person now is considered to have AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the most advanced stage of the HIV infection .

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    Research Turns To Quality Of Life

    Looking at these types of quality-of-life issues for people with HIV has long been a focus of nursing research. Over the course of Holzemers career, for example, he has authored numerous peer-reviewed papers, contributed to and edited book chapters and advised international organizations on issues affecting quality of life for people with HIV. He has also mentored clinicians and researchers like Portillo, Stringari-Murray and Dawson-Rose, who continue to look for ways to ensure that all the needs of the diverse population of people with HIV are met.

    Adam CarricoDawson-Rose looks at this approach as preventive care. Addressing peoples needs actually promotes prevention of transmission, she says. Weve never really dealt with the sexual health of women or men who are HIV-infected. Because of the stigma associated with HIV, its been hard for nurses and physicians to focus on the sexual health of people with HIV when sexual behavior is one of the conduits of transmission. Doctors and nurses have told them, You just have to have sex with condoms.

    Carrico notes that drug users have great difficulty accessing care, in part because of stigma. His research program examines ways to optimize health outcomes and reduce risk of onward HIV transmission by integrating behavioral and biomedical treatment approaches with HIV-positive stimulant users, particularly men who have sex with men.

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