Why Are Women In The Risk Of Hiv
HIV can disproportionately affect women and girls because of their unequal culture, social and economic status in the society. There are many intimate partner violence which has a lot of laws revolving around the practices which reinforces the unequal power dynamics between men and women, which has its own disadvantage.
HIV has a lot to do with women facing significant barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers can occur at the individual, interpersonal communities and societal levels. There are many barriers which can take many forms which includes things like denial, which can help one access the female sexuality to have a poor quality of service.
The procedures that are relating to the womens sexual health which can be performed without consent. They are generally subjected to a lot of forced sterilisation and virginity examinations and forced abortions. The healthcare providers also do not understand the laws around childbirth and HIV. This is one of the main reason when HIV positive women choose to have an abortion which can be the result of misinformed care.
In any setting, one can see that there are services which exist which can primarily married women with children and do not meet the specific needs of a young individual. More often than not, these health care provides are not well trained or skilled enough to do a youth-friendly service which will allow one to have an understanding of the age of consent.
The Chance Of Hiv Transmission Through Needles: With Blood Transfusion Needle Sharing And Needle Prick
This table shows the chance of contracting HIV by means other than sex. Please note the much higher likelihood of getting HIV through needle sharing.
|1 transmission per 500 exposures
|1 transmission per 160 exposures
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How Is Hiv Transmitted Through Needles
HIV isnt transmitted only through sexual contact. Sharing needles also puts a person at higher risk of contracting HIV.
When a needle is injected into a persons body, it breaks the skin barrier. If the needle has already been injected into another person, it can carry traces of their blood, along with any infections they have. The contaminated needle can introduce these infections into the second persons body.
Researchers dont know if having an undetectable viral load reduces the risk of HIV transmission through shared needles, but its reasonable to assume it may provide some risk reduction.
HIV can affect anyone. Whatever their age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or race, everyone should take steps to protect themselves. But due to socioeconomic factors, some demographic groups have higher HIV transmission rates and generally are more affected by HIV.
According to the CDC , the general demographic traits most affected by HIV are:
Transgender women are also highly impacted by HIV transmissions as a population, reports the CDC .
These groups are disproportionately affected by HIV, but they arent inherently at greater risk of contracting HIV. An individuals personal risk depends on their behaviors, not on their age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, race, or any other demographic factor.
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How Can To Help Stop The Spread Of Hiv
To lower the risk of getting HIV and other STIs:
- Those who are HIV-negative should consider PrEP. If a possible HIV exposure occurs, PEP may provide emergency protection.
- Use condoms during vaginal and anal sex.
- Get tested and treated for STIs and follow healthcare providers recommended screening schedule.
- Before having sex with someone, ask them to get tested for HIV and STIs.
- Those who inject drugs should get clean needles from a needle exchange.
- Avoid sharing needles for drugs and tattoos.
Talk to a healthcare provider about PrEP if a sexual partner has HIV with a detectable viral load or theres another known risk of contracting the virus. Heres a search tool for finding healthcare providers who prescribe PrEP.
Anyone who thinks they might have contracted HIV needs to get tested immediately. Early treatment can help manage the symptoms, lower the risk of complications, lower the risk of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner, and help people to live a long and healthy life.
Are The Symptoms Of Hiv Different By Gender
While women and men can present differently with diseases and infection, as with males, there is no way to know if a female has HIV besides getting tested. While there are symptoms of contracting HIV, not everyone has symptoms. Testing is the only way to know. Some of the symptoms are:
- Lack of energy or fatigue
- Weight loss
- Frequent low-grade fevers and night sweats
- Frequent yeast infections
- Skin rashes that are hard to heal
- Short-term memory loss
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The Chance Of Hiv Transmission Through One
This table shows the chance of contracting HIV through one-time unprotected rectal sex with a partner who is HIV-positive. As you can see, the chance of the âbottomâ person contracting the disease from an HIV-positive âtopâ is much greater than the other way around.
|1 transmission per 72 exposures
|1 transmission per 909 exposures
Does Spermicide Provide Additional Protection Against Hiv
You should not use additional or separate applications of spermicide for HIV prevention during vaginal or anal sex. Women who use spermicidal cream or jelly for pregnancy prevention should also use a condom to protect against HIV and to provide better protection against pregnancy than spermicide alone.
Spermicides contain the chemical nonoxynol-9 . Although N-9 kills HIV in test tubes, one study showed that N-9 inserted into the vagina may irritate the vagina and actually increase the risk of HIV infection during vaginal sex. N-9 may also irritate the lining of the rectum and should not be used for anal sex.
Some condoms are pre-lubricated with a lubricant containing N-9. These condoms still provide greater protection against HIV than not using a condom. However, a lubricated condom without N-9 may be the best for HIV prevention.
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For Latex Male Condoms:
- Put on the condom after the penis is hard. If the penis is not circumcised, pull back the foreskin before putting on the condom.
- Pinch the tip of the condom to leave a little space at the top to catch semen. Unroll the condom all the way down the penis. Add a little bit of water-based lubricant to the outside of the condom.
- After ejaculation, hold the rim of the condom and pull out the penis while it is still hard, so that no semen spills out.
- Use a new condom every time you have vaginal, anal or oral sex.
Ways To Control The Spread
Although, transmission rates for HIV are far less in female to male contact, you still carry a risk of contracting the infection with your every unprotected sexual encounter. Using a condom not only shields you from HIV infection, but also protects you against several other STDs. One can also use female condoms, however, male condoms are most effective as barriers. Also, avoid unprotected anal sex with any woman whose HIV status is not known. Considering the extent to which HIV/AIDS affects the life of people suffering from this disease, the precautions mentioned above are worth taking.
Although, it is a dreaded disease, which is spreading at an alarming rate, people should not worry themselves unnecessarily. An educated and conscious approach is required to curb the spread of the disease. If you take due care and precautions to prevent the spread of HIV, then you need not worry too much about contracting it. And, the simplest way of relieving yourself of all the stress and anxiety is having protected sexual intercourse!
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Do Birth Control Methods Other Than Condoms Reduce The Risk Of Stds Including Hiv
No. Only condoms reduce the risk of pregnancy, STDs and HIV. Birth control pills, the birth control patch, contraceptive injections such as Depo-Provera, intrauterine devices , diaphragms, and any birth control methods other than condoms do not provide protection against STDs and HIV. You should use a latex male condom or a female condom for STD and HIV prevention along with any other method you use to prevent pregnancy. Condoms can prevent the spread of other STDs, like HPV or genital herpes, only when the condom covers all of the infected area or sores.
Syphilis Transmission Through A Single Heterosexual Contact
Syphilis is usually sexually transmitted. The risk of contracting syphilis from a sexual partner depends on many factors, including the frequency of sex, type of sexual contact , the stage of syphilis in the infected patient, the susceptibility of the partner, and whether a condom is used.
Stoltey and Cohen reported in a 2015 review article that the probability of transmission of a syphilis infection to a heterosexual partner through a single sexual act is 51%â64%.
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What Cdc Is Doing
CDC is pursuing a high-impact HIV prevention approach to maximize the effectiveness of current HIV prevention interventions and strategies. Funding state, territorial, and local health departments and community-based organizations to develop and implement tailored programs is CDCs largest investment in HIV prevention. This includes longstanding successful programs and new efforts funded through the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. initiative. In addition to funding health departments and CBOs, CDC is also strengthening the HIV prevention workforce and developing HIV communication resources for consumers and health care providers.
a Adult and adolescent men aged 13 and older.b Based on sex at birth and includes transgender people.c HIV diagnoses refers to the number of people who received an HIV diagnosis during a given time period, not when the people got HIV infection.d Unless otherwise noted, the term United States includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 6 dependent areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.e The term male-to-male sexual contact is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality. This fact sheet uses the term gay and bisexual men.f Includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use .
Factors That Can Increase Hiv Transmission
Research on heterosexual transmission has shed some light on the factors that can increase transmission:
Years ago, studies from Africa demonstrated that the amount of virus in a persons blood is a major determinant of whether a persons partner gets infected, whether they are male or female. In general, women need more virus in the blood to infect a man than a man needs to infect a woman. However, if we reduce the amount of virus in the blood to undetectable levels , almost no transmission occurs!
Uncircumcised men are at increased risk of being infected by women. This has resulted in massive campaigns in many African countries to get men circumcised in communities where it is not commonly practiced.
In addition to this, the presence of an STD can increase infection by a couple of ways. First, the infection increases the production of HIV in semen or vaginal fluid, so the partner is exposed to more virus. Second, the infection damages the mucous membranes making it easier for HIV cross. Women may often have no symptoms of an STD and may not seek care in a timely manner.
Whats one factor that can help decrease HIV transmission? Sharing knowledge and helping to dispel these dangerous myths. Tell your coworkers the facts it may help save lives!
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How Is Hiv Transmitted
HIV is transmitted between humans through the exchange of certain types of bodily fluids. Bodily fluids that can transmit HIV include blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal fluids .
Not all body fluids can transmit HIV. The following cannot transmit HIV:
- Exchanging saliva, like through closed-mouth kissing or sharing drinks/utensils
- Coming in contact with an HIV positive personâs tears, sneezes, or sweat
- Ordinary physical contact, such as hugging, hand shaking, or touching shared objects like cutlery, cups, or toilet seats .
- Air or water
- Pets and insects cannot carry the virus and infect you, because transmission of HIV is only between humans .
While care needs to be taken in some situationsâlike when having sex or when open injuries are presentâthis certainly does not mean that it is unsafe to be around people with HIV. Think of how you interact with the vast majority of peopleâbodily fluids are not exchanged. Harboring discriminatory thoughts only perpetuates a fearful stigma against someone with HIV, which only hurts the person who has it.
HIV is often transmitted through sexual activity and drug use in adults in the United States . Maternal transmissionâfrom mother to childâis how the infection is spread to infants .
We Know That Men Who Have Sex With Men In Illinois Are At Higher Risk For Hiv What About Women Who Have Sex With Women
It is not a personâs gender, sexual orientation, race or class that puts them at risk for HIV. People are at risk for HIV when they practice risky behaviors. Women who identify as lesbian or gay can be at risk for HIV by practicing any of the behaviors that place women at risk. Lesbian women have become infected with HIV by using injection drugs or having unprotected sex with male or female partners who are already infected with HIV. Women who have sex with other women should follow guidelines in this fact sheet to protect themselves, and can call the Illinois AIDS/HIV/STD Hotline at 800-243-AIDS for specific information.
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How Is Hiv Diagnosed
An HIV antibody test, either from a blood sample or an oral sample , can tell whether you have been infected. A negative test result means no HIV antibodies were found. This usually means you are not infected. However, if you engaged in behavior that could spread the virus within three months of having the test, antibodies may not be detectable and you should be re-tested. A positive test result means antibodies to HIV were found. This means you are infected with the virus and can pass HIV to others even if you have no symptoms. You are infected for life. Even if you think you have a low risk for HIV infection, consider getting tested whenever you have a regular medical check-up.
What Is The Risk On Art
Another recent study, described in the April 9 online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases, looked in more depth at the risk of sexual transmission among heterosexual couples when the positive partner is on ART.
In their medical literature review, Virginie Supervie from Sorbonne Université in Paris and colleagues identified six relevant studies of transmission among serodiscordant heterosexual couples in which the infected partner was on treatment with regular viral load monitoring. They had sex an average of three to 12 times per month and reported using condoms about 80% of the time.
A total of four cases of genetically linked transmission were reported among 1,672 serodiscordant couples. Three of these occurred when the positive partner had been on ART for less than six months, while the remaining case occurred within the first year, but the data couldnt determine whether it happened before or after six months.
Over an estimated 113,480 sex actsof which 17% were not condom-protectedthere was at most one case of transmission when the positive partner had been on ART for more than six months. The estimated upper bound for the per-act risk of transmission was 8.7 per 100,000 sex acts if the indeterminate case occurred before six months on ART, rising to 13 per 100,000 if it occurred after six months.
What Are My Chances Of Contracting Hiv
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What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making an individual more vulnerable to serious illness. Untreated HIV can lead to AIDS, which occurs when the immune system is so weak it becomes susceptible to serious infections and some cancers.
Theres an epidemic of HIV in the United States and around the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , more than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and 1 in 7 of them arent aware of it. An estimated 39,782 people in the country were diagnosed with HIV in 2016 alone.
HIV transmission occurs in many different ways, including through condomless sex and by sharing needles. Risk of transmission varies depending on several factors including:
- sexual practices and the HIV status of sexual partners
- sharing needles for drug use or tattoos
- use of PrEP, PEP, condoms, or having an undetectable viral load
Its important to understand the risk level based on actual factors in preventing the transmission of HIV.
Do Male And Female Condoms Provide The Same Protection Against Hiv
Yes. Studies show that female condoms are as effective at protecting against HIV as male condoms. Female condoms are made of nitrile, which is an effective barrier to HIV. Male and female condoms should not be used at the same time. Female condoms, like latex male condoms, are available in some drug stores, community health centers, and AIDS service organizations.
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