Friday, January 27, 2023

Patients With Hiv Aids Are Protected By Quizlet

Preventing Transmission If Positive

Patient At Weill Cornell Medical Center Cured Of HIV Infection

Limit or eliminate activities that transmit HIV

  • Nurse needs to assess patients understanding of how to prevent transmitting sexually and with drug use. Educate based on the patients needs, the importance of getting partners or others tested if they have participated in these activities with them.

Pregnancy: HIV can be spread to the baby during pregnancy, birth, and in breastmilk.

  • Needs to start ART therapy during pregnancy to help decrease the transmission to baby. Breastfeeding should be avoided because breastmilk contains the virus.
  • According to HIV.gov: if HIV medications are taken as prescribed during pregnancy and childbirth and given to the baby for 4- 6 weeks after birth there is a 1% or less chance the baby will develop HIV.

So, with that said, identifying and educating the pregnant woman about this is crucial in protecting a baby from HIV.

Laws Protect People Living With Hiv And Aids

If you are living with HIV or AIDS, you are protected against discrimination on the basis of your HIV under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 . Under these laws, discrimination means that you are not allowed to participate in a service that is offered to others, or you are denied a benefit, because of your HIV disease.

For more information, see the Department of Justiceâs website.

For more information in the health care context, see the Office of Civil Rightsâ Civil Rights: HIV/AIDS.

Opportunistic Diseases Or Infections:

This is a quick review over the main types of OIs a patient can experience with AIDS. The types of OIs include:

Cancerous, Viral, Bacterial, Fungal or Protozoal

Cancerous:

Kaposis Sarcoma: This is seen mainly in people who have a decreased immune system. It causes the small blood vessels to grow abnormally. This form of cancer can grow in various places like: the lymph nodes, organs, mucous membranes . It presents as dark purplish brown lesions. Below you can see Kaposi Sarcoma in the mouth. This patient has AIDS and CD4 count of less than 200. Also note the white film on the lesion this is another opportunistic infection called candidiasis.

Viral:

CMV : Its a virus that when assessed with magnification it has what is called an owl eye appearance like this picture here.

This virus can cause multiple problems in the body and affect the lungs, brain, GI system, and eyes. For example, CMV can cause retinitis in patients with AIDS and lead to blindness. Here is an illustration of a lesion caused by CMV on the eye that would be similar to what is seen with a funduscopic.

Epstein-Barr virus : A hallmark finding in a late stage of HIV that signals the immune system is being taken over by the virus is called oral hairy leukoplakia. These are white hair like spots on the side of the tongue that cant be removed. The EBV can lead to this finding.

Bacterial:

Salmonella septicemia: occurs from eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water

Fungal:

Recommended Reading: Can You Get Hiv From Urine

Quick Statistics About Hiv/aids

How many have died for this infection and how many people are currently infected?

According to the World Health Organization :

Since the beginning of the epidemic, about 79.3 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and 36.3 million people have died from HIV.

Current number of people who have HIV? WHO estimates that: globally at the end of 2020, 37.7 million people were living with HIV.

How Is Hiv Transmitted What Increases Your Risk Of Getting It

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Transmission from someone with HIV depends on:

  • How much of the virus is present in the infected persons bloodthe viral load of the person
  • A high viral load can occur during the acute phase of HIV and if the person is not receiving medication therapy to help decrease the viral load.
  • How much of the virus was actually transmitted
  • Type of contact with the person who has HIV
  • Example: a needle stick has a lower chance of transmitting the virus compared to unprotected sex or sharing of needles during IV drug use
  • An interesting statistic about thisCDC says that: Healthcare workers who are exposed to HIV-infected blood via a needlestick have a 0.23% risk of becoming infected.
  • Immune system of the non-infected person
  • some people are actually resistant to HIV
  • Activities that could transmit HIV:

    • Unprotected sexual contact
    • Needle stick injury or unclean needle from a piercing or tattoo
    • During pregnancy

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    Important Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Ask your doctor to tell you what you should know about your HIV medicines.

    • What medicines am I taking to treat HIV?
    • When should I take each medicine?
    • Should I take my medicines with food?
    • Which prescription medicines, herbs , over-the-counter medicines , or vitamins can affect my HIV medicines? Can my HIV medicines affect any of the other medicines I take?
    • How should I store my HIV medicines? What about when I am away from home or go out of town?
    • What are the side effects of the medicines I am taking?
    • What should I do if I start having bad side effects?

    Should People With Hiv Get Vaccines

    Yes. Vaccines play an important role in keeping people healthy. They protect you against serious and sometimes deadly diseases.

    Vaccines are especially important for people with chronic health conditions like HIV, which can make it harder to fight off vaccine-preventable diseases like pneumococcal disease or the flu. HIV can also make it more likely that youâll have serious complications from those diseases, which is why getting recommended vaccines is an important part of your overall HIV medical care.

    Vaccines are very effective and they donât just protect individuals from disease. They also protect communities. When most people in a community get vaccinated and become immune to a disease, there is little chance of a disease outbreak. Eventually, the disease becomes rareâand sometimes, itâs wiped out altogether.

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    Hiv/aids Nclex Nursing Review

    HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    HIV is a virus that attacks the human bodys immune system, specifically the CD4 positive cells. This mainly includes helper t cells. However, macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes and other cells with CD4 receptors on their surface can also be attacked.

    Helper t cells are white blood cells that help the immune system fight infection. These cells are strategically attacked and killed overtime by HIV. When the number of helper t cells fall too low, the body loses its ability to fight infection.

    Therefore, if a person becomes infected with HIV and is not treated with medical therapy, HIV will turn into AIDS. HIV occurs in stages, and a person can have HIV for several years before it transitions into AIDS.

    There is no cure for HIV, as of today, but medical therapy has advanced so that people with HIV can now live longer healthier lives.

    Hiv Stages Sign/symptoms & Testing

    Immunology wars: The battle with HIV
    • Begins about a couple of weeks to a month after becoming infected
    • Can spread to others
    • Viral load very high in the blood
    • Signs and symptoms are flu-like that last for a few weeks :
    • Aches, joint pain, headache, fever, fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, GI upset, rash
  • Tests to assess infection:
  • No test available that can show immediate infection because there is a window period. The window period is the time when infected to when a test can deliver a positive result .
  • Window periods vary on the test .
  • A person can have the virus in the body because not enough time has passed for the test to pick it up . If a person suspects they may have HIV they need to abstain for sex and drug usage until confirmation. There are tests available that can show infection a couple of weeks to months after infection, but not immediately.
  • Combination test: tests for the antigen and antibodies of HIV
  • HIV antigen is p24
  • Antibody HIV test: some types can give rapid results and you can self-test with these types but cant detect as early as the combination test and test for the antibody
  • Nucleic acid test : assesses for the virus hence its RNA and measures the amount of virus in the blood
  • used for high risk exposure patients
  • the test that can detect the earliest
  • not commonly used unless high risk and showing symptoms due to costs of the test
  • CD4 count: not used to show if HIV positive but used to measure the helper t cells
  • < 200 cells/mm3 AIDS and opportunistic infection
  • Chronic Stage :

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    Risks And Side Effects

    HIV medicines can sometimes cause side effects. Some side effects happen for a short time. Other side effects can cause long term health problems. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effects you are having. Do not stop taking your medicine without first talking to your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider may tell you tips to help you cope with the side effects. Your healthcare provider may also tell you to take different medicines.

    • This page does not give the specific side effects and warnings for each HIV medicine.
    • Talk to your healthcare provider about the side effects and warnings for the medicines you take.
    • Check the FDA Web site to find more HIV medicine information.

    My Regimen

    It is important that you take your HIV medicines just as your healthcare provider tells you. Your medicines may not work if you skip a dose or do not stick to your schedule. Over time, you can get sick if you do not take your medicines as directed. Your HIV may become resistant to your medicines. This means your medicines could stop working and more HIV could build up in your body.

    Here are some tips to help you remember when to take your HIV medicines.

    • Use a schedule or planner.
    • Set the alarm on your watch or phone.
    • Use a pillbox to help you organize your pills.
    • Ask a friend or family member to help you.

    Chart to help you remember when to take your HIV medicine

    Time

    IMPORTANT TIP

    Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Brand Name
    abacavir sulfate

    * Cimduo, Combivir, Descovy, Epzicom, Temixys, Trizivir, and Truvada are combination medicines.

    For more information about the risks and side effects for each medicine, check Drugs@FDA

    This information does not give the specific side effects or warnings for each medicine. Check the medicine label and talk to your healthcare provider about the side effects and warnings for the combination HIV medicines you are taking.

    IMPORTANT TIPS

    • Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for HLA-B*5701 prior to taking abacavir or medicines containing abacavir.
    • These medicines may cause lactic acidosis .
    • These medicines may cause serious liver, pancreas, or kidney problems.
    • If you have kidney problems or liver problems, such as hepatitis, talk to your healthcare provider before taking these medicines.
    • These medications are taken by mouth. Retrovir can also be given as an intravenous infusion.

    WARNING SIGNS

    • Stomach pain with nausea and vomiting
    • Feeling very weak or tired
    • Problems breathing
    nevirapine

    For more information about the risks and side effects for each medicine, check Drugs@FDA

    This information does not give the specific side effects or warnings for each medicine. Check the medicine label and talk to your healthcare provider about the side effects and warnings for the combination HIV medicines you are taking.

    IMPORTANT TIPS

    WARNING SIGNS

    • Flu-like symptoms
    nelfinavir mesylate

    * Evotaz, Kaletra, and Prezcobix are combination medicines.

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    Nurses Role And Treatments For Hiv/aids

    Our Goal: Screening patients for possible HIV infection, Educating , Monitoring labs, patients signs/symptoms for opportunistic diseases

    Whos at risk? Anyone who has or is participating in an activity that allows their blood system or mucous membranes to come into contact with body fluids that transmit HIV.

    As the nurse ask your patient questions about the following topics to help guide you in screening patients for HIV:

    • Sexual behavior
    • Blood transfusions especially before 1985

    If at risk, needs to be tested with HIV antibody testing. Its very important HIV is detected early so ART can be initiated, prevent transmission, etc.

    CDC recommends that high risk patients have yearly testing.

    And that everyoneages 13 to 64 should be tested for HIV regardless of risk factors at least once during a routine health visit. This is because some people have HIV, dont know it, and unknowingly spread it to others. If the patient is positive, they will need a lot of support and education.

    Hiv Confidentiality Laws By State: What To Know

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    HIV is a lifelong condition, but treatments and strategies can prevent the virus from transmitting and the infection from progressing into AIDS.

    This article discusses the different types of laws relating to HIV in the U.S. and outlines the many state-specific laws surrounding the virus.

    For more in-depth information and resources on HIV and AIDS, visit our dedicated hub.

    When the HIV epidemic began in the United States in the 80s, many states put in place laws designed to discourage behaviors that may expose another person to HIV. These laws could remove a persons right to privacy about their medical condition and even criminalize someone with HIV for engaging in behaviors that could put another person at risk for contracting the virus.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , many of the laws came into effect when the medical community knew very little about HIV , which some laws reflect. Laws may criminalize or punish acts that the medical community now understands do not cause transmission, such as spitting or biting a person.

    Some laws have also not changed accordingly since antiretroviral therapy became more prevalent. If ART can suppress the viral load sufficiently, a person has effectively no risk of transmitting HIV through sexual acts.

    While some states have adapted to new understanding and changed their laws based on new information, the CDC confirms that some states still have outdated laws based on the current understanding of HIV.

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    Are All Types Of Vaccines Safe For People Living With Hiv

    Vaccines are generally safe for people with HIV. However, some types of vaccines may not be recommended. For example, live attenuated vaccines âlike the chickenpox vaccineâcontain a weakened but live form of the germ that causes the disease. LAVs can potentially cause an infection for people with HIV. However, depending on age, health, previous vaccinations, or other factors, some LAVs may be recommended. Talk to your health care provider about what is recommended for you.

    Education On How To Prevent Ois

    Patients develop OIs because of a WEAKEN immune system.

    Weaken

    • Water consumed should be treated
    • Eat foods that are NOT raw or unpasteurized toxoplasmosis
    • Avoid risky sexual activities and drug activities
    • Keep vaccines up-to-date
    • Exposure to animal feces should be limited .. toxoplasmosis
    • Need to take ART therapy as prescribed to help maintain a healthy immune system

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    Which Vaccines Are Recommended For People With Hiv

    The following vaccines are recommended for people with HIV:

  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis . A single vaccine protects against the three diseases. Every 10 years, a repeat vaccine against tetanus and diphtheria is also recommended
  • Based on age or other circumstances, you provider may recommend other vaccines as well.

    Talk to your health care provider about which vaccines are recommended for you. For more details, read this information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination.

    Do Vaccines Cause Side Effects

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    Any vaccine can cause side effects. Side effects from vaccines are generally minor and go away within a few days.

    Severe reactions to vaccines are rare. Before getting a vaccine, talk to your health care provider about the benefits and risks of the vaccine and possible side effects. Learn about vaccine safety and possible side effects.

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    What About Travel And Vaccines

    You should be up to date on routine vaccines, no matter where you are going. If you are planning a trip outside the United States, you may need to get vaccinated against diseases that are present in other parts of the world, such as cholera or yellow fever.

    If you have HIV, talk to your health care provider about any vaccines you may need before you travel. He or she will know which ones are safe for you. Keep in mind: most travel vaccines can be given safely to people with HIV and others with weakened immune systems. However, they may be less effective than in people with strong immune systems, and may not provide full protection. Your doctor may recommend blood tests to confirm that a vaccine was effective, or recommend additional precautions to keep you safe.

    Some travel vaccines are LAVs and many people with weakened immune systems should not take them. However, depending on the circumstances, the benefits of protection may outweigh the risks. Talk to your health care provider about what is recommended for you.

    To learn more, see Traveling Outside the U.S.

    What Are Vaccines

    Vaccines protect your body from diseases and infections such as COVID-19, human papillomavirus , influenza , hepatitis B and polio. They are given by needle injection , by mouth, or sprayed into the nose.

    Vaccines help your immune system fight infections faster and more effectively. When you get a vaccine, it sparks an immune response, helping your body fight off and remember the germ so it can attack it if the germ ever invades again. And since vaccines are made of very small amounts of weak or dead germs, they wonât make you sick.

    Vaccines often provide long-lasting immunity to serious diseases without the risk of serious illness. Learn more about how vaccines work.

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