Additional Systematic Review Focusing On Weight Maintenance
The most recent SR-MA focusing on weight maintenance that was included in the overview was published in 2014. Therefore, an additional search for original studies published between 2010 and July 2020 was performed . Inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized or non-randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of exercise training programs, participants were assigned to exercise training after an initial weight-loss phase with the aim to compare changes in body weight during the weight maintenance phase , participants were adults with overweight or obesity. Study quality was assessed with a 14-criteria form. Three of these criteria represented fatal flaws if answered No or Not reported or Cannot determine randomization, dropout rate < 20%, and intent-to-treat analysis. A global rating was determined based on the number of fatal flaws: good quality , fair quality , or poor quality .
Exercise Accounts For A Small Portion Of Daily Calorie Burn
One very underappreciated fact about exercise is that even when you work out, the extra calories you burn only account for a small part of your total energy expenditure.There are three main components to energy expenditure, obesity researcher Alexxai Kravitz explained: 1) basal metabolic rate, or the energy used for basic functioning when the body is at rest 2) the energy used to break down food and 3) the energy used in physical activity.
Whats important to absorb is the fact that we have very little control over our basal metabolic rate, but it’s actually our biggest energy hog. “It’s generally accepted that for most people, the basal metabolic rate accounts for 60 to 80 percent of total energy expenditure,” said Kravitz. Digesting food accounts for about 10 percent.
That leaves only 10 to 30 percent for physical activity, of which exercise is only a subset.
The implication here is that while your food intake accounts for 100 percent of the energy that goes into your body, exercise only burns off less than 10 to 30 percent of it. Thats a pretty big discrepancy, and definitely means that erasing all your dietary transgressions at the gym is a lot harder than the peddlers of gym memberships make it seem.
Incorporating Exercise Into Your Lifestyle
The total amount of exercise you engage in during a day matters more than whether or not you do it in a single session. Thats why small changes in your daily routine can make a big difference in your waistline.
Healthy lifestyle habits to consider include:
- walking or riding your bike to work or while running errands
- taking the stairs instead of the elevator
- parking farther away from destinations and walking the remaining distance
The average adult male who doesnt exercise requires approximately 2,200 calories a day to maintain his average weight. A female needs about 1,800 calories to maintain her weight.
The following list contains common activities and the approximate amount of calories burned per hour:
playing baseball, golf, or cleaning the house
240 to 300
brisk walking, biking, dancing, or gardening
370 to 460
playing football, jogging , or swimming
580 to 730
skiing, racquetball, or running
740 to 920
Talk to your doctor before you start a new exercise program, especially if you are planning on doing vigorous exercise. This is especially important if you have:
- heart disease
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Food And Physical Activity Both Affect Body Weight
It is difficult to believe that two accomplished researchers really do not understand the first law of thermodynamics or they are not aware of decades of exercise science showing the impact of physical activity on all components of energy balance and on every aspect of human physiology. This is not a literature review but rather a personal opinion stated with sweeping claims supported by a few selective references. For example, they failed to cite studies of bed rest showing that reductions in physical activity can lead to rapid metabolic changes favouring accumulation of body fat. They mention neural control of food intake but fail to cite many studies showing that exercise can have important effects on how the brain regulates energy balance. Many studies they cite for the lack of impact of physical activity actually demonstrated a positive impact. For example, they cite reference 24 in their paper as showing lack of weight change with supervised exercise. In fact this study is frequently cited to demonstrate the positive impact of exercise on weight. Exercising men lost weight as compared with non-exercising controls who did not change weight and exercising women failed to gain weight compared with non-exercising controls who did gain weight.
Physical Activity Plays An Important Role In Body Weight Regulation
1Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
3Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, QC, Canada
In the field of obesity research, physical exercise has been traditionally considered as a strategy to burn calories. However, physical exercise is much more than that. It is a stimulus that, when properly managed, contributes to a significant improvement in energy and macronutrient balance regulation and to global body functioning, that is, a precise regulation of body homeostasis . It thus seems appropriate to propose that an active lifestyle can influence energy balance and body fat to a much greater extent than what is generally perceived by health professionals. To reach this outcome, exercise should ideally be performed regularly and on a permanent basis.
2. Physical Exercise: More Than a Calorie-Burning Agent
3. Exercise-Induced Negative Energy Balance
4. Physical Exercise Improves the Accuracy by Which Energy Intake Is Matched with Energy Expenditure
5. Critical Role of Physical Activity in the Long-Term Weight Regulation
6. Contribution of Physical Exercise to Total Energy Expenditure
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How Does Activity Prevent Obesity
Researchers believe that physical activity prevents obesity in multiple ways:
- Physical activity increases peoples total energy expenditure, which can help them stay in energy balance or even lose weight, as long as they dont eat more to compensate for the extra calories they burn.
- Physical activity decreases fat around the waist and total body fat, slowing the development of abdominal obesity.
- Weight lifting, push-ups, and other muscle-strengthening activities build muscle mass, increasing the energy that the body burns throughout the day-even when its at rest-and making it easier to control weight.
- Physical activity reduces depression and anxiety, and this mood boost may motivate people to stick with their exercise regimens over time.
Thermogenic Effect Of Food
The thermogenic effect of food is another component of a person’s daily energy expenditure and refers to the amount of energy it takes the body to digest, absorb, and metabolize nutrients in the diet. The amount of energy expended while processing food differs by individual but on average it amounts to about 10% the number of calories consumed during a given time period. Processing proteins and carbohydrates has more of a thermogenic effect than does processing fats.
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How Much Activity Do People Need To Lose Weight
Exercise can help promote weight loss, but it seems to work best when combined with a lower calorie eating plan. If people dont curb their calories, however, they likely need to exercise for long periods of time-or at a high intensity-to lose weight.
In one study, for example, researchers randomly assigned 175 overweight, inactive adults to either a control group that did not receive any exercise instruction or to one of three exercise regimens-low intensity , medium intensity , or high intensity . All study volunteers were asked to stick to their usual diets. After six months, those assigned to the high-intensity regimen lost abdominal fat, whereas those assigned to the low- and medium-intensity exercise regimens had no change in abdominal fat.
More recently, researchers conducted a similar trial with 320 post-menopausal women, randomly assigning them to either 45 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity, five days a week, or to a control group. Most of the women were overweight or obese at the start of the study. After one year, the exercisers had significant decreases in body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat, compared to the non-exercisers.
Physical Activity Helps To Prevent Weight Regain When Previously Overweight
- University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
- The study showed successful weight-loss maintainers rely on physical activity to remain in energy balance to avoid weight regain. Successful weight-loss maintainers are individuals who maintain a reduced body weight of 30 pounds or more for over a year. The study, published in the March issue of Obesity, was selected as the Editor’s Choice article.
A new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Health and Wellness Center at the CU Anschutz Medical Campus revealed physical activity does more to maintain substantial weight loss than diet.
The study, published in the March issue of Obesity, was selected as the Editor’s Choice article.
“This study addresses the difficult question of why so many people struggle to keep weight off over a long period. By providing evidence that a group of successful weight-loss maintainers engages in high levels of physical activity to prevent weight regain — rather than chronically restricting their energy intake — is a step forward to clarifying the relationship between exercise and weight-loss maintenance,” said Danielle Ostendorf, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at the CU Anschutz Health and Wellness Center.
The findings reveal that successful weight-loss maintainers rely on physical activity to remain in energy balance to avoid weight regain. In the study, successful weight-loss maintainers are individuals who maintain a reduced body weight of 30 pounds or more for over a year.
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Benefits Of Exercise Vs Diet
Combining exercise with a healthy diet is a more effective way to lose weight than depending on calorie restriction alone. Exercise can prevent or even reverse the effects of certain diseases. Exercise lowers blood pressure and cholesterol, which may prevent a heart attack.
In addition, if you exercise, you lower your risk of developing certain types of cancers such as colon and breast cancer. Exercise is also known to help contribute to a sense of confidence and well-being, thus possibly lowering rates of anxiety and depression.
Exercise is helpful for weight loss and maintaining weight loss. Exercise can increase metabolism, or how many calories you burn in a day. It can also help you maintain and increase lean body mass, which also helps increase number of calories you burn each day.
What Are Physical Activity And Exercise
Physical activity is any activity that gets your body moving. It includes any activity that is part of your daily life from sweeping and cleaning to carrying groceries, gardening, walking, dancing, riding a bicycle, lifting weights at the gym, stocking shelves in a store, or tossing a ball around with friends.
Exercise is a type of physical activity. Exercise is activity that is planned and done on a regular basis for enjoyment or for improving any aspect of physical fitness strength, flexibility, or endurance. There are two main types of physical activity or exercise that the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends for adults: aerobic and muscle-strengthening .
Labeling something a physical activity or an exercise is not nearly as important as understanding that the human body was designed to move and stays healthier when doing physical activity. In other words, being active with your body whether it is through small amounts of activity throughout the day or scheduled blocks of time for more strenuous movement contributes to a longer, healthier life. Even small changes in your daily life can greatly enhance your activity level and your health: taking the stairs instead of the elevator, carrying instead of wheeling groceries through the store, walking a short distance instead of driving the car.
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Physical Activity In Obesity Treatment
The authors also argue that exercise makes very little difference in weight loss. We have previously argued that exercise produces exactly the effect it should dependent on how much negative energy balance it produces. Sure, adding 30 min of exercise to a calorie deficit of 1000 kcal/day is not going to show much additional benefit. Robert Ross and colleagues have clearly demonstrated that when the energy deficit is matched, food restriction and exercise produce the same amount of weight loss.
Finally, physical activity has been repeatedly shown by a number of investigators to be effective in reducing weight gain after weight loss. In the National Weight Control Registry, declines in physical activity over time predict weight regain.
Physical Activity Weight Loss And Weight Maintenance In The Diogenes Multicenter Trial
- 1Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Netherlands
- 2Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
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Does Exercise Help You Lose Weight
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As people continue to pursue New Year’s resolutions, often there are efforts to improve on lifestyle habits with a common goal of weight loss. For many people, the first instinct is to go to the gym three or four days per week, hopping on a treadmill for an hour or even just talking the family dog out for a few more walks each week. However many people realize, sometimes quickly, that their valiant and sweaty efforts haven’t led to as much weight loss as they had hoped.
So is exercise not effective for weight loss? Is it a waste of time and effort?
First, exercise provides many health-related benefits and is one of the most important countermeasures you can rely on to prevent chronic disease and reduce overall risk of mortality. However, sometimes the effectiveness of exercise for weight loss is oversold, and people may overestimate how effective it will be toward their goal of losing weight. Therefore, it’s important for people to understand how to incorporate exercise into their weight management plan in a way that doesn’t lead to one step forward and two steps back.
Overestimated caloric deficits
One of the reasons exercise may not meaningfully reduce body weight is because people often take part in other behaviors that offset this action when they’re not exercising, thus sabotaging their goal of weight loss.
So is exercise for weight loss pointless? No, absolutely not.
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Improve Your Ability To Do Daily Activities And Prevent Falls
Everyday activities include climbing stairs, grocery shopping, or playing with your grandchildren. Being unable to do everyday activities is called a functional limitation. Physically active middle-aged or older adults have a lower risk of functional limitations than people who are inactive.
For older adults, doing a variety of physical activity improves physical function and decreases the risk of falls or injury from a fall. Include physical activities such as aerobic, muscle strengthening, and balance training. Multicomponent physical activity can be done at home or in a community setting as part of a structured program.
Hip fracture is a serious health condition that can result from a fall. Breaking a hip have life-changing negative effects, especially if youre an older adult. Physically active people have a lower risk of hip fracture than inactive people.
What Kind Of Exercise Should I Do
You can do anything that makes your heart and lungs work harder, such as walking, biking, jogging, swimming, fitness classes, or cross-country skiing. Mowing your lawn, going out dancing, playing with your kids — it all counts, if it revs your heart.
If you donât exercise and youâre a man over 45, a woman over 55, or have a medical condition, ask your doctor if you should avoid any types of activities.
Start with something like walking or swimming thatâs easy on your body. Work at a slow, comfortable pace so you start to get fit without straining your body.
At least two or three times a week, do strength training. You can use resistance bands, weights, or your own body weight.
Stretch all your muscles at least twice a week after you exercise. That helps keep you flexible and prevent injury.
Calculating Your Target Heart Rate
To receive all of the health benefits of exercise, youll need to mix in some higher intensity exercises. To get an idea of how hard you are working, you can check your heart rate. The basic formula for determining your target heart rate is to subtract your age from 220 and then calculate 60 to 80 percent of that number.
Talk to a trainer or your healthcare team to help you determine your best intensity for each workout. Those with special health concerns such as an injury, diabetes, or a heart condition should consult a physician before beginning any fitness program.
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Benefits And Risks Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior
Regular physical activity, such as walking, cycling, wheeling, doing sports or active recreation, provides significant benefits for health. Some physical activity is better than doing none. By becoming more active throughout the day in relatively simple ways, people can easily achieve the recommended activity levels.
Regular physical activity can:
- improve muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness
- improve bone and functional health
- reduce the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, various types of cancer , and depression
- reduce the risk of falls as well as hip or vertebral fractures and
- help maintain a healthy body weight.
In children and adolescents, physical activity improves:
- physical fitness
- cardiometabolic health
- bone health
- all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer mortality
- incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer and type-2 diabetes.